The Psychological record (PSYCHOL REC)

Publisher: Denison University, Springer Verlag

Current impact factor: 0.96

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2009 Impact Factor 0.652

Additional details

5-year impact 0.80
Cited half-life 9.70
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.21
Website Psychological Record website
Other titles The Psychological record
ISSN 0033-2933
OCLC 1353882
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recently developed Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST) represents an effort to assess the relative strength of stimulus relations by traditional behavior-analytic means (i.e., acquisition curves). The current study was the first application of the FAST to the assessment of natural, pre-experimentally established stimulus relations. Specifically, this experiment assessed the sensitivity of the FAST to pervasive gender stereotypes of men as stereotypically “masculine” (e.g., dominant or competitive) and women as stereotypically “feminine” (e.g., nurturing or gentle). Thirty participants completed a FAST procedure consisting of two testing blocks. In one block, functional response classes were established between classes of stimuli assumed to be stereotype-consistent (i.e., men-masculine and women-feminine), and in the other, between classes of stimuli assumed to be stereotype-inconsistent (i.e., men-feminine and women-masculine). Differences in the rate of class acquisition across the two blocks were quantified using cumulative record-type scoring procedures plotting correct responses as a function of time. Acquisition rates were significantly faster (i.e., displayed steeper learning curves) for the stereotype-consistent relative to the stereotype-inconsistent block. Corroborating stereotypes were observed on an Implicit Association Test containing identical stimuli.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: Ten human participants worked on a computer-based discrete-trials signal detection task in which stimulus disparity and the ratio of reinforcers for correct responses were manipulated. During each trial, a 12 × 12 stimulus array consisting of an unequal number of randomly arranged circles and squares was presented. Participants responded by indicating whether the stimulus contained more circles or more squares. Two levels of stimulus disparity, high and low, were arranged by changing the numbers of circles and squares in the stimulus. At both levels of disparity, the ratio of reinforcers for correct circle and square responses was varied across 5 different levels ranging from 1:9 to 9:1. Reinforcers were assigned using a controlled reinforcer procedure that held obtained reinforcer ratios close to the programmed ratios. For all participants, discriminability was higher when the stimulus disparity was high but was not affected by changes in the reinforcer ratio. Response bias varied as a function of the reinforcer ratio. Estimates of the sensitivity of bias to changes in the reinforcer ratio varied with changes in disparity; however, the variations were typically small and their direction differed across participants. These findings are consistent with previous human research (Gallagher & Alsop, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 75(2), 183–203, 2001; Johnstone & Alsop, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 73, 275–290, 2000; Lie & Alsop, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 93(2), 185-201, 2010) showing that when a controlled reinforcer procedure is used, bias and sensitivity are independent of discriminability.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: Human participants can readily learn to demonstrate absolute or relational stimulus control, but little is known about human’s tendencies toward one form of control or another in situations that allow either form of control to be expressed. To examine these tendencies, we combined elements of the procedures used to study peak shift and stimulus transposition. In Experiment 1, half of the 40 participants received successive discrimination training and the other half received simultaneous discrimination training with line-length stimuli. All participants then received both a generalization test and a transposition test. Absolute stimulus control predominated except under the combination of simultaneous discrimination training and a transposition test. In Experiment 2, 40 additional participants were trained with 2 pairs of training stimuli instead of 1 in what was otherwise an identical procedure. The results suggested a shift toward relational control. A novel form of relational control was observed in some participants (chiefly those who received successive discrimination training) that involved selective stimulus transposition. Specifically, participants selected the stimulus that matched the relation of S+ to S-, but only when both test lines were similar to the S + s.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: Family can be an important educational agent if it has the tools to teach its members. This study investigated the effectiveness of a computerized reading and writing teaching program applied with students with intellectual disabilities in their own residences, having their family members as monitors. The program included positive teaching techniques, such as ongoing feedback and gradual progression according to the student’s performance. The teaching tasks included matching dictated with printed words and pictures and also constructing printed words from constituent letters and syllables. All students began the program with less than 20 % correct responses in naming words on pretest trials. The posttest results showed an average of 89.3 % of correct responses for teaching words and 52 % correct responses for generalization words. These results indicate that in-home implementation of this program by families can be a promising teaching approach for students with intellectual disabilities.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: Many adults diagnosed with gambling disorder have demonstrated the near-miss effect: the belief that an outcome that is “close” to a win means a win is coming. Whether children discriminate such outcomes in pregambling games has not yet been investigated. The current study examined the presence of a near miss with 20 children, ages 5 to 10 years, by having them rate the outcomes of a roulette-style arcade game on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (loss) to 5 (win). A one-way repeated measures ANOVA found a significant difference among ratings of losses, near-misses, and wins. Post hoc analyses revealed significant differences between participants’ ratings of wins and losses, wins and near misses, and near misses and losses thus demonstrating the presence of a near miss, as children rated “close” outcomes higher than complete losses but less than wins. Implications for early childhood research and gambling prevention are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: Eight rats were exposed to two different stimuli (lights), each stimulus being correlated with the delivery or non-delivery of water. The schedule consisted of a 60-s T cycle with successive 30-s tD and t∆ subcycles; tD was correlated with a probability of water delivery of 1.0 for the first response to occur, while t∆ was correlated with a probability of 0.0. A green light was correlated with tD, and went off with the occurrence of the first response. A red light was correlated with t∆, but it was presented only for 6 s in three different positions: at the beginning, middle and end of the subcycle in different experimental phases. Group 1 and Group 2 differed only with regard to the initial exposure to the forward or backward sequence of allocation of the stimulus in successive phases, each involving 30 1-h sessions. Rats in both groups obtained most of the scheduled reinforcers. Responding was negligible in the absence of both stimuli, but the presentation of the S∆ in some allocation sequences induced response despite the fact that the stimulus was correlated with non-reinforcement. Responding to the S∆ was higher when the stimulus was present at the end of the subcycle. The results are difficult to account for in terms of temporal discrimination or conditioned reinforcement. Probing behavior during the non-reinforcement period and the relative proximity of stimulus locations are proposed as an alternative explanation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Psychological record

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: Shepherd Ivory Franz (American) and Otto Kalischer (German) each claimed to have been the first to combine animal training and brain extirpation to study brain function, a methodological approach that historians assert fundamentally changed subsequent neuropsychological research. Each defended his claim in 1907 in back-to-back commentaries in the journal Zentralblatt für Physiologie. Before considering details of the Franz versus Kalischer dispute, it was deemed useful to consider priority disputes in general and to revisit the priority claims for who discovered the “conditioned reflex” and whether Pierre Flourens was the “father” of brain extirpation as examples of this type of research. Consideration of the Franz–Kalischer dispute began with a brief history of the study of brain function to provide background and context for the Franz–Kalischer dispute. For additional context, biographic sketches of Franz and Kalischer are presented. Then, details of the dispute are presented and discussed followed by conclusions that include that Franz (The American Journal of Physiology, 8, 1–22, 1902) preceded Kalischer (1907a) and that it is highly unlikely that anyone before Franz had used his combination of innovative methods. Finally, the perceived importance of being first to combine animal training with brain extirpation is represented by quotations from several authors of history or psychology textbooks and one author of a history of neuroscience textbook.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Psychological record
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the occurrence of the blocking effect when participants had unlimited and limited time to respond to a causal learning task. In contrast to the dominant views in human causal learning, the underlying assumption is that blocking can be sufficiently explained by the same principles that describe conditioning outcomes in animals, but only when logical reasoning about the experimental task is impeded. Experiment 1 compares responses to blocking tests by participants in timed and untimed groups. As expected, most cases of blocking were observed for participants in the timed group. Experiment 2 explores an alternative procedure in which all information about stimulus-outcome associations was simultaneously present. Based on this information, participants sorted target and control stimuli according to their predicted of outcomes. Very limited evidence of blocking was observed with this procedure. Findings are discussed in terms of the interference of rule generation processes with direct contingency control.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Psychological record