Problems of economics (Probl Econ)
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Article: THERE IS NO NATION MORE OPEN ...
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A methodological approach is developed to analyze the well-being of family households among the rural population of Altai Krai, USSR. Well-being is defined in both material and nonmaterial terms, and various factors are assigned components to construct an integral typology of families. Implications for the development of social policy to improve the socioeconomic status of poor families are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some recent positive changes in demographic trends in the Soviet Union are described. These include an increase in life expectancy in 1986, particularly for males, and an increase in the birth rate, although fertility in European Russia is still below replacement level. The author then considers how social policy, including family policy, can be expected to influence demographic variables in accordance with the country's needs, particularly in light of major differences among regions in population dynamics. He concludes by considering the relationship between demographic factors and democracy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A more efficacious social policy, including state assistance to families in the material support and rearing of children, has become very urgent in connection with the necessity of accelerating economic and social development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the rapid and continuous increase in the size of the national economy's work force has been one of the main factors in the USSR's economic growth until recent times, this source has now dried up. The constantly growing level of employment of the able-bodied population in the national economy has reached its practical limit. The work force in the public sector together with full-time university and secondary school students of working age comprised 74% of all labor resources in 1950; 78% in 1960; 90% in 1970; and more than 91 % in 1975 (1); at the present time this figure is even higher. Mothers of small children and large families are for the most part the only people who are either not employed or attending school, i.e., who work in the home or on a personal household plot. The household and the personal household plot, which were the main source of labor power in the sixties, do not have any reserves at the present time (with the exception of individual regions, chiefly in Central Asia).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the various complex social processes upon which the formation and use of our society's principal wealthâits human potentialâdepends, an important place belongs to demographic processes. They realize one of the necessary functions of any society: the continuous renewal of generations of people and the reproduction of the population. The way in which the population is reproduced determines the growth or reduction of its size, the change in the composition of the population with respect to sex and age, and many other >i>quantitative>/i> features that comprise the "demographic measurement" of the human factor. At the same time, demographic processes also have a deep impact on many social >i>qualities>/i> of people, which also must be taken into account when we speak of man's growing role in the acceleration of society's development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key task in creating balanced employment in the Soviet Union at the present time involves reducing the number of jobs to a level that corresponds to the actual potential for filling them. Such a step will serve as the basis for a more systematic organization of all aspects of the socialist expanded reproduction of labor power and of general social and economic progress. In the future, however, the mass release of workers from material production as a result of the scientific-technological revolution may create a manpower surplus. The labor shortage should be eliminated by the year 2000, and the working age population will have expanded, requiring expanded employment opportunities. The socialist system of employment must guarantee the systematic employment of the able-bodied population at any qualitative level of social production. The experience of other European socialist countries suggests several guidelines for employment policy. Bringing payroll costs closer to the actual cost of reproduction of labor power can be an important factor in the saving and release of workers in conjunction with the technical and organizational improvement of production. A special system must be formed in advance for the retraining, material support, and redistribution of released workers. Finally, cadres must by psychologically prepared for a much higher level of labor mobility.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The June (1983) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee emphasized that the most important factors in the development of societyâsocial, national, and demographicâmust be thoroughly considered and reflected in the formulation of economic development plans. What is more, when we study the modern demographic situation, it is important to determine not only the size, sex, and age composition of the population as a whole and its able-bodied segment at a certain point in time, but also to forecast the future situation. Unlike many other factors that influence socioeconomic development, the demographic structure of the nation's able-bodied population is predetermined for a long time (15-20 years) in advance with a high degree of accuracy, since the death rate will change negligibly in the future, and the birth rate will make itself felt only after the forecast period.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The policy of restricting the growth of large cities in the USSR is not only basically substantiated in theory (which naturally does not mean that no further research is required in this area) but is also an integral part of the decisions of all the latest congresses of the CPSU. The practical scientific and applied aspects of this policy have received less attention. Nor is there total clarity on specifically what must be done to secure the more consistent and effective implementation of the indicated measures. In particular, the optimal combination of administrative measures and measures inherent in the economic mechanism proper is especially important here. At the same time, it is necessary to proceed from the fact that problems of large cities vividly reflect all major socioeconomic reforms and changes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent emphasis in the USSR on long-range economic and social planning, as well as the country's current demographic situation, necessitates the adoption of demographic policies to create the type of population reproduction which is in the longterm interest of the society. Socioeconomic policies may have bothnegative and positive effects on demographic processes, and these effects may be delayed for 25 years or more. In the past, when economic and social plans covered only 5-year periods, the impact of these plans on demographic factors could be ignored. In longterm planning these consequences cannot be ignored. Population policies must address the longterm consequences of socioeconomic development, the regional variations in population parameters, and the complexities of the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors. As socialist societies evolve they eventually reach a stage where it is necessary to develop a theory and a methodolgy for managing demographic processes. The development of appropriate demographic goals and policies will require the cooperation of not only demographers, but of medical professionals, sociologists, and economists. The initial tasks of a goal oriented population program should be to stabilize the birth rate, to prevent further declines in fertility rates, to increase life expectancy to its biological limits, to reduce death rates, to equalize regional living standards, to control immigration, and to improve resettlement programs. Eventually policymakers must address the problem of developing an optimal and uniform level of reproduction for the nation as a whole. An organization structure, both at the national and regional level for developing and implementing the population program must be specified. Regional programs must be coordinated at the national level and developed in accordance with national goals.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The "Basic Directions of Economic and Social Development of the USSR in 1981-85 and the Period up to 1990" adopted by the Twenty-sixth Congress of the CPSU call for the "consistent implementation of a policy of restricting the growth of large cities and for the development of small and medium-sized towns â¦" These measures are aimed at preventing the excessive growth of very large cities to the detriment of the development of smaller urban settlements. They are associated with the increased migration of the population to larger cities under the influence of the concentration of social production, which constitutes the basis of the rapid growth of the number of cities and the even more dynamic growth of their size.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major socioeconomic reforms that have been carried out in our country in the sixty years that have elapsed since the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and measures instituted by the party and the government for the purpose of raising the people's living standard have led to positive changes in population structure and trends. The result has been a dramatic lowering of infant mortality, longer life expectancy, the eradication of a number of diseases, the higher educational level of the population, the higher skill level of the work force, etc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extent to which long-term demographic trends can be accurately estimated is examined. The impact of factors such as migration, family structure, marriage and divorce patterns, and age distribution is discussed. Differences between the concepts of zero population growth and a stable population growth rate are noted. The focus is on the USSR, and comparisons with other developed countries are included.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present era demographic problems exert a growing influence both on the internal policies of individual countries and on international relations in general. They are attracting the ever greater attention of experts, politicians, and the broad public. This is attested to by the very fact that the Third World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974, unlike the first two (held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965), was run by the United Nations at the government level and culminated in the adoption of an action plan in this area. A conference scheduled for 1984 will evaluate the results of its fulfillment and the elaboration of future international programs designed to promote the improvement of the extremely acute demographic situation in the world.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The need for migration policy stems from objective processes in the development of socialist production and from its constant structural and territorial modifications, which are especially palpable under present conditions, at a time when vast new regions of our country are undergoing intensive development. The Twenty-sixth Congress of the CPSU called for the "accelerated growth of the economic potential of the eastern regions." (>u>1>/u>) This requires an influx of a large number of skilled workers and hence the corresponding migration of the population. Such migration on one scale or another is constantly required. In socialist society this necessitates planned migration policy and its equally planned improvement in close conjunction with the control of other socioeconomic processes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the effect of women's social roles on fertility and the possibilities of influencing fertility by means of demographic policies in the USSR. The most important influences on the birth rate are related to the changing social position of women and the functions of the family which have resulted from social, economic, and cultural transformations in the Soviet state since the revolution. The processes of industrialization, urbanization, higher labor productivity, and rising educational and cultural standards have removed the productive functions of the family and have also altered its consumer functions. The upbringing of children is increasingly labor intensive because of the need for more educated, higher quality workers. In 1970, 82% of women of working age were employed; their greater involvement in social production and reduced free time, combined with the prestige and economic and social independence gained from outside work, have encouraged a small family orientation. Comprehensive demographic policies including measures to help women combine work in social production with motherhood are needed to promote 2 or 3 child families. Along with measures aimed at the population as a whole, specific measures are needed that take into account the distinctive life styles and behavior of separate local population groups. A socialist society with a planned economy can utilize diverse methods of encouraging childbirth, including material assistance to families with children and sociopsychological measures to promote larger families.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A great deal of demographic research is currently being conducted in our country. Significantly, it is based not only on official statistics but in large measure also on special sociological-demographic surveys. Each such survey is specifically targeted, making possible more profound analyses of the socioeconomic and sociopsychological mechanisms of demographic processes. Especially valuable from the methodological point of view have been the studies by R. I. Sifman, V. A. Belova, L. A. Darskii, and A. I. Antonov carried out over the last few years.
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