Pharmacology (PHARMACOLOGY)

Publisher: Karger

Journal description

This journal communicates research in basic and clinical pharmacology and related fields. It covers biochemical pharmacology, molecular pharmacology, immunopharmacology, drug metabolism, pharmacogenetics, analytical toxicology, neuropsychopharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology. In addition to original papers and short communications of investigative findings and pharmacological profiles the journal contains reviews, comments and perspective notes. ëPharmacologyí is an international forum to present and discuss current perspectives in drug research.

Current impact factor: 1.67

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.672
2013 Impact Factor 1.581
2012 Impact Factor 1.603
2011 Impact Factor 1.788
2010 Impact Factor 1.802
2009 Impact Factor 1.833
2008 Impact Factor 1.894
2007 Impact Factor 1.195
2006 Impact Factor 1.24
2005 Impact Factor 1.375
2004 Impact Factor 1.132
2003 Impact Factor 0.976
2002 Impact Factor 1.599
2001 Impact Factor 1.563
2000 Impact Factor 0.893
1999 Impact Factor 1.019
1998 Impact Factor 0.768
1997 Impact Factor 1.148
1996 Impact Factor 0.968
1995 Impact Factor 0.969
1994 Impact Factor 1.019
1993 Impact Factor 1.119
1992 Impact Factor 0.994

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.63
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.27
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.43
Website Pharmacology website
Other titles Pharmacology (Online)
ISSN 0031-7012
OCLC 44918835
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in endothelium-intact and -denuded rat aorta. DMSO (0.1-3%) inhibited phenylephrine (PE, 1 μmol/l)-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. However, this relaxation was lower in the absence of the endothelium. Increase in DMSO-induced relaxation in the presence of the endothelium was attenuated by preincubation in L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μmol/l) and by the removal of the endothelium. In the aorta with endothelium, DMSO (3%) and CCh (3 μmol/l) increased cGMP contents, significantly and L-NAME (100 μmol/l) inhibited the DMSO-induced increases of cGMP. In fura 2-loaded endothelium-denuded aorta, cumulative application of DMSO (1-3%) inhibited PE-induced muscle tension; however, this application did not affect the [Ca2+]i level. In PE-precontracted endothelium-denuded aorta, relaxation responses to fasudil were significantly less in the presence of DMSO compared to the control. These results suggest that DMSO causes relaxation by increasing the cGMP content in correlation with the release of NO from endothelial cells and by decreasing the Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile elements partly via inhibiting Rho-kinase in rat aorta.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: This study was performed to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the effects of the selective α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, silodosin, on bladder function in a rat model of atherosclerosis-induced chronic bladder ischemia (CBI). Methods: The CBI model was prepared by balloon endothelial injury of the bilateral iliac arteries in male rats. Using an osmotic pump, the CBI rats received either silodosin or vehicle alone subcutaneously for 8 weeks. Rats received a 2% cholesterol diet throughout the experiment. Bladder blood flow (BBF) was measured. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the nerve distribution and nerve growth factor expression in the bladder. Bladders were used for muscle strip contraction analysis. The expression levels of muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors were measured. Results: Silodosin abrogated the decrease in BBF in CBI rats. Silodosin prevented the decrease in nerve distribution and increase in nerve growth factor expression in the CBI model. Bladder contractile response was reduced in the CBI group. Silodosin ameliorated the effect on the bladder contractile response. The level of muscarinic M3 receptor mRNA present in the bladder of CBI rats was increased by silodosin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that silodosin ameliorates the denervation of the bladder and effects on detrusor contractile function under ischemic conditions by restoring BBF.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Quinolinic acid (QA) is an excitotoxin that induces Huntington's-like symptoms in animals and humans. Curcumin (CMN) is a well-known antioxidant but the major problem is its bioavailability. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of CMN in the presence of piperine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death in rats. Material and methods: QA was administered intrastriatally at a dose of 200 nmol/2 µl saline, bilaterally. CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and combination of CMN (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and with piperine (2.5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered daily for the next 21 days. Body weight and behavioral parameters were observed on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day. On the 22nd day, animals were sacrificed and striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, nitrite and GSH), neuroinflammatory (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and neurochemical (dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, glutamate, 5-HT, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) estimation. Results: CMN treatment showed beneficial effect against QA-induced motor deficit, biochemical and neurochemical abnormalities in rats. Combination of piperine (2.5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) with CMN (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly enhanced its protective effect as compared to treatment with CMN alone. Conclusion: This study has revealed that the combination of CMN and piperine showed strong antioxidant and protective effect against QA-induced behavioral and neurological alteration in rats.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Equol (7,4'-dihydroxy-isoflavan, or 4',7-isoflavandiol) is a chroman derivative produced by intestinal bacteria in response to soy isoflavone intake in some, but not in all, humans. Equol shows strong anti-oxidant, anti-estrogenic, anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidative capacity of equol has recently received considerable attention, and it has been used for preventing and treating several diseases. We investigated the effect of equol on human neutrophils, extra- and intracellular formation of oxidants, the phosphorylation of protein regulating NADPH oxidase and its effect on apoptosis. Neutrophils, isolated from blood from healthy subjects, were tested upon activation with various stimulants, proper for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and treated by equol. Equol has the ability to reduce the toxic action of neutrophils. With increasing concentrations, equol decreased the amount of oxidants produced by neutrophils both extra- and intracellularly. The phosphorylation of p40phox (a component of NADPH oxidase, responsible for the assembly of functional oxidase in intracellular membranes) was reduced in the presence of equol. The experiments showed that equol did not change the number of viable, apoptotic or dead neutrophils significantly in all concentrations used. These results indicate the promising effect of equol in the operation of ROS in different mechanisms in the model of inflammation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims Lipopolysaccharide induces acute lung injury via oxidative stress and inflammation. Naringenin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The possible protective effect of narigenin was investigated against acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats. Methods Rats received a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Naringenin was given for four consecutive days, at two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.), starting three days before lipopolysaccharide administration. Results Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased wet/dry lung weight ratio, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues. Naringenin, particularly the higher dose, significantly ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in the measured parameters. Also, naringenin markedly reduced the histopathological lung tissue injury resulted from lipopolysaccharide. Naringenin significantly decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, caspase-3, and significantly increased heat shock protein 70 expression in the lungs. Conclusion Naringenin significantly protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinitrosative, and antiapoptotic effects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this article was to assess the catalytic activities of 24 cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) variants found in the Chinese population toward atomoxetine in vitro as well as CYP2D6.1. Methods: In this study, the co-expression enzyme of human recombinant CYPOR, CYPb5, and CYP2D6.1 or other CYP2D6 variants with the baculovirus-mediated insect cells (Sf21) was used to study the catalytic activities of 24 CYP2D6 variants toward atomoxetine metabolism. The metabolite of atomoxetine (4-hydroxyatomoxetine) was detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Results: The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) values of most variants were significantly altered when compared with CYP2D6.1. CYP2D6.94, CYP2D6.D336N, CYP2D6.R440C exhibited marked increased values 172, 126, 121% respectively. CYP2D6.89 and CYP2D6.98 exhibited similar catalytic activity as the wild type, whereas 17 variants exhibited significantly decreased values (from 5 to 87%) due to increase Km and/or decrease Vmax values. However, CYP2D6.92 and CYP2D6.96 showed no or few activity because of producing nothing. Conclusions: Our results suggest that most of these newly found variants exhibit significantly changed catalytic activities compared with the wild type. And these findings provide valuable information for the growth and development of personalized medicine in China.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) fluorescence-immunohistochemistry is specifically well suited to mirror neuronal activity in the pain pathway at the cellular level. This study employed this method to visualize neuronal activity in 3 rat CNS nuclei following an acute noxious stimulation. The rat hind paw was stimulated either by heat or by a sequence of mustard oil and heat. Two min after the thermal stimulation or after the combined mustard oil and thermal stimulation, there was a significant increase in cells showing pERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and in the locus coeruleus (LC). Pretreatment with the opioid analgesic morphine or the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 markedly attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings support the concept that the SON, the DRN, and the LC are integrated into pain processing at the hypothalamic and brain stem level.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of orally administered evodiamine on the pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine and its active metabolite desmethyl dapoxetine in rats. Twelve healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (received oral 10 mg/kg dapoxetine alone) and the combination group (10 mg/kg dapoxetine orally co-administered with 100 mg/kg evodiamine). The plasma concentration of dapoxetine and desmethyl dapoxetine were estimated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and different pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the Drug and Statistics 2.0 software. Compared to the control group, the pharmacokinetic parameter of t1/2, AUC(0-∞) and Tmax of dapoxetine in combination group was significantly increased by 63.3% (p 1/2 and AUC(0-∞) of desmethyl dapoxetine. This study demonstrated that evodiamine inhibits the metabolism of dapoxetine. Henceforth, the pharmacodynamic influence of this interaction should be taken into consideration while prescribing dapoxetine to the patients already taking evodiamine.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity reactions to tramadol are rare and the drug is commonly considered safe. Here, we report the first case of anaphylaxis to tramadol in a child. We point out the difficulty in reaching a confident diagnosis when testing opioid alkaloid drugs with histamine-releasing properties. Additionally, we showed the importance of a well-performed allergy work-up, especially when testing drugs with low experience and when standardized concentrations have not been tested. Moreover, this case provides insight into the possibility of severe reactions, and even anaphylaxis, to tramadol.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: INH2BP (5-iodo-6-amino-1,2-benzopyrone), a poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor, has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-viral, and anti-inflammation properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of INH2BP against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. While the treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) caused a loss of cell viability and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, INH2BP significantly protected the cells against H2O2-induced cell death without any cytotoxicity. Our data also shows that INH2BP significantly scavenged intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and markedly enhanced the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as Mn-SOD (superoxide) and Cu/Zn-SOD, and heme oxygenase-1, which was accompanied by the concomitant activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in H9c2 cells. The effects of INH2BP on ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were abrogated by PD98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. In addition, inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK by these inhibitors significantly attenuated INH2BP-mediated H9c2 viability as well as cleaved caspases-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 activation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that INH2BP prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells by reducing the production of intracellular ROS, regulating apoptotic-related proteins, and the activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate whether the renoprotective effects of fenofibrate are mediated via attenuation of endothelial dysfunction and modulating the mRNA expression of adenosine monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream kinase; LKB1 in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg kg-1). Fenofibrate (100 mg kg-1, p.o) was given to diabetic rats daily for twelve weeks. Treatment with fenofibrate significantly improved the renal function as revealed by the significant reductions in the urinary albumin excretion, serum levels of creatinine and urea, in addition to the significant increase in creatinine clearance compared with diabetic control group. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage was ameliorated by treatment with fenofibrate as indicated by the significantly increased levels of glutathione and catalase together with the significant decrease of lipid peroxidation. Administration of fenofibrate caused significant increases in renal NO production and mRNA expression of eNOS, AMPK and LKB1 reflecting improvement of endothelial function. Our results give further insights into the mechanisms underlying the protective role of fenofibrate in DN via modulation of AMPK, LKB1 and eNOS mRNA expression.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG) E2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). E-type prostanoid (EP) receptor 4 is known to confer inhibitory signals to eosinophils and monocytes, amongst others. In this study, we investigated whether the responsiveness of eosinophils and monocytes to PGE2 and EP4 receptor activation is altered in AERD patients. While the expression of the EP4 receptor in eosinophils was unaltered in AERD patients, inhibition of eosinophil chemotaxis by PGE2 or the EP4 agonist CAY10598 was less pronounced in AERD patients as compared to healthy control subjects. In monocytes, we found no changes in basal or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PGE2 synthesis, but the response to EP4 receptor activation with respect to inhibition of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α release was reduced in AERD patients, especially in the presence of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). Our data point towards a decreased sensitivity of inhibitory EP4 receptor that may play a role in AERD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The compound MH-78 ((+/-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-3-{4-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-piperazin-1-yl}propan-2-ol dihydrochloride) contains structural elements that are typical for α1- and β-blockers. This study aimed to investigate the hypotensive activity as well as the in vitro and in vivo cardiovascular effects of a novel α1- and β-adrenoceptor antagonist (MH-78) and compare it with carvedilol and urapidil. The procedures were performed on aortic rings of normotensive anesthetized rats. MH-78 decreased the blood pressure and heart rate after intravenous and oral administration. MH-78 possesses both α1- and β-adrenoceptor blocking activity, which was confirmed in the in vivo study. In biofunctional assays, MH-78 displayed vasorelaxant activity due to α1-adrenoceptor antagonism and calcium channel blocking properties. Moreover, in endothelium-intact aortic rings, pretreatment with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced the MH-78-induced vasorelaxation to a level that is characteristic for MH-78 affinity to α1-adrenoceptors. Our results demonstrated that MH-78 possesses α1- and β-adrenoceptor blocking properties and induces potent hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects. Moreover, it relaxes vascular smooth muscle not only due to α1-adrenoceptor blocking activity, but also via the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signalling pathway. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies have suggested that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) affect the postoperative analgesic efficacy of opioids and their side effects. In this study, we assessed the association between SNPs in the OPRM1 gene and intraoperative remifentanil consumption as well as perioperative side effects during gynecological hysteroscopic surgery in women from Northern China. Methods: We analyzed 178 women undergoing gynecological hysteroscopic surgery. SNP genotyping was performed using the SNaPshot method. The state anxiety index (SAI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of all patients were assessed preoperatively. Monitored anesthesia care was maintained by the intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Intraoperative remifentanil usage and perioperative side effects were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: Patients carrying one or two copies of the minor allele (G allele) of rs558025 required significantly more intraoperative remifentanil than patients without the minor allele (p = 0.001, corrected p = 0.006). There were no significant associations between the six SNPs and various clinical characteristics. No significant associations between the six SNPs and PPT or SAI were found in our study. Conclusions: SNP rs558025 in the OPRM1 gene was associated with intraoperative remifentanil consumption during gynecological hysteroscopic surgery in our subjects.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticatabolic properties and to be protective in animal models of OA. This study was aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone on AGE-induced chondrocyte damage. Methods: Cultured chondrocytes were stimulated with AGEs in the presence or absence of an antibody against the receptor for AGEs (anti-RAGE), an inhibitor of NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) and pioglitazone. The RNA expression levels of TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and PPARγ were detected by RT-PCR. The expression of nuclear p65 was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: Upregulation of TNF-α and MMP-13 as well as downregulation of PPARγ were induced by AGEs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The maximum effect was induced by 100 μg/ml AGEs. This effect can be inhibited by anti-RAGE. Pioglitazone dose-dependently inhibited the expression of TNF-α and MMP-13 induced by AGEs, which was combined with the inhibition of nuclear p65 expression. Conclusion: The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone modulates TNF-α and MMP-13 expression in cultured rabbit chondrocytes via NF-κB signaling. It indicates that pioglitazone may have therapeutic potential in OA.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Chemerin is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with cardiovascular diseases and glucose homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of chemerin on insulin resistance in rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Rat cardiomyocytes were treated with high concentrations of glucose and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and chemerin and chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) were measured by Western blot analysis. Then, the cardiomyocytes were treated with chemerin and insulin. Glucose uptake was evaluated using a fluorescence microplate reader. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the phosphorylation of Akt, insulin receptor substrate-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Results: Chemerin and CMKLR1 were found to be expressed in rat cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with chemerin caused decreases in glucose uptake and phosphorylation of Akt in insulin-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, chemerin activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in insulin-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of ERK partially rescued chemerin-induced insulin resistance. Conclusion: Chemerin is a novel adipokine that induces insulin resistance in rat cardiomyocytes in part through the ERK1/2 pathway.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Pharmacology