Journal of Immunological Methods (J IMMUNOL METHODS)

Publisher: Association of Medical Laboratory Immunologists, Elsevier

Journal description

The Journal of Immunological Methods is devoted to covering techniques for: (1) Quantitating and detecting antibodies and/or antigens and haptens based on antigen-antibody interactions. (2) Fractionating and purifying immunoglobulins, lymphokines and other molecules of the immune system. (3) Isolating antigens and other substances important in immunological processes. (4) Labelling antigens and antibodies with radioactive and other markers. (5) Localizing antigens and/or antibodies in tissues and cells, in vivo or in vitro. (6) Detecting, enumerating and fractionating immunocompetent cells. (7) Assaying for cellular immunity. (8) Detecting cell-surface antigens by cell-cell interactions. (9) Initiating immunity and unresponsiveness. (10) Transplanting tissues. (11) Studying items closely related to immunity such as complement, reticuloendothelial system and others. In addition the journal will publish articles on novel methods for analysing the organization, structure and expression of genes for immunologically important molecules such as immunoglobulins, T cell receptors and accessory molecules involved in antigen recognition, processing and presentation. Submitted full length manuscripts should describe new methods of broad applicability to immunology and not simply the application of an established method to a particular substance - although papers describing such applications may be considered for publication as a short Technical Note The Recombinant Technology section will contain articles relating to modification by recombinant techniques of molecules of immunological interest; isolation of novel binding proteins by phage display; gene therapy; transfection; and expression. Immunology Protocols is a section providing detailed, step-by-step descriptions of new and established techniques in immunology. Articles on the molecular biological analysis of immunologically relevant receptor binding sites are also invited.


RG Journal Impact: 1.64*

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2017 RG Journal impact Available summer 2018
2015 / 2016 RG Journal impact 1.64
2011 RG Journal impact 3.11
2010 RG Journal impact 2.68
2009 RG Journal impact 2.95
2008 RG Journal impact 2.98
2007 RG Journal impact 2.26
2006 RG Journal impact 2.82
2005 RG Journal impact 3.04
2004 RG Journal impact 2.92
2003 RG Journal impact 3.13
2002 RG Journal impact 3.09
2001 RG Journal impact 2.48
2000 RG Journal impact 2.11

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
Year

Additional details

Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.56
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.82
Website Journal of Immunological Methods website
Other titles Journal of immunological methods, Immunological methods, JIM
ISSN 0022-1759
OCLC 1783876
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

This journal may support self-archiving.
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Publications in this journal

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting plasma IgE by therapeutic mABs like Omalizumab (Xolair®) is current clinical practice for severe allergic conditions or other IgE related diseases like chronic urticaria. As an alternative to soluble IgE targeting, IgE supply can be lowered by targeting the Extracellular Membrane Proximal Domain (EMPD) of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR) present on IgE switched B cells. This ultimately leads to apoptosis of these cells upon IgE BCR crosslinking. Since tools to selectively assess the efficacy of IgE BCR crosslinking by IgE targeting antibodies are limited, a readily quantifiable cell model was developed that allows to specifically address IgE BCR crosslinking activity in vitro. The new cell model allowed for a direct quantitative comparison of anti-EMPD IgE therapeutic prototype antibody 47H4 with anti-IgE(Ce3) directed therapeutic antibody Omalizumab and with a newly selected anti-human EMPD IgE monoclonal antibody, designated mAB 15cl12. Furthermore, a complementing mouse model was developed that allows for in vivo validation of antibodies addressing human EMPD IgE. It carries a targetable humanized EMPD IgE sequence that has been introduced by seamless genomic replacement of the endogenous EMPD encoding sequence. The model allowed to directly compare IgE lowering activity of two anti-human EMPD IgE therapeutic antibodies in vivo. Our tools provide the means for quantitative assessment of IgE BCR crosslinking activity which is increasingly gaining attention with respect to forthcoming second generation anti-IgE clinical candidates such as Ligelizumab or other clinical candidates featuring additional effector functions such as IgE BCR crosslinking activity.
    Full-text available · Article · Jun 2017 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within EuroFlow, we recently developed screening tubes for hematological malignancies and immune deficiencies. Pipetting of antibodies for such 8-color 12-marker tubes however is time-consuming and prone to operational mistakes. We therefore evaluated dried formats of the lymphocytosis screening tube (LST) and of the primary immune deficiency orientation tube (PIDOT). Both tubes were evaluated on normal and/or on patient samples, comparing the mean fluorescence intensity of specific lymphocyte populations. Our data show that the dried tubes and liquid counterparts give highly comparable staining results, particularly when analyzed in multidimensional plots. In addition, the use of dried tubes may result in a reduced staining variability between different samples and thereby contributes to the generation of more robust data. Therefore, by using ready-to-use reagents in a dried single test tube format, the laboratory efficiency and quality will be improved.
    Full-text available · Article · Mar 2017 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammasomes are protein complexes induced by diverse inflammatory stimuli that activate caspase-1, resulting in the processing and release of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, an immunogenic form of cell death. To provide a homogeneous method for detecting caspase-1 activity, we developed a bioluminescent, plate-based assay that combines a substrate, Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin, with a thermostable luciferase in an optimized lytic reagent added directly to cultured cells. Assay specificity for caspase-1 is conferred by inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the lytic reagent and by use of a caspase-1 inhibitor to confirm activity. This approach enables a specific and rapid determination of caspase-1 activation. Caspase-1 activity is stable in the reagent thereby providing assay convenience and flexibility. Using this assay system, caspase-1 activation has been determined in THP-1 cells following treatment with α-hemolysin, LPS, nigericin, gramicidin, MSU, R848, Pam3CSK4, and flagellin. Caspase-1 activation has also been demonstrated in treated J774A.1 mouse macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice, as well as in human primary monocytes. Caspase-1 activity was not detected in treated BMDMs derived from Casp1−/− mice, further confirming the specificity of the assay. Caspase-1 activity can be measured directly in cultured cells using the lytic reagent, or caspase-1 activity released into medium can be monitored by assay of transferred supernatant. The caspase-1 assay can be multiplexed with other assays to monitor additional parameters from the same cells, such as IL-1β release or cell death. The caspase-1 assay in combination with a sensitive real-time monitor of cell death allows one to accurately establish pyroptosis. This assay system provides a rapid, convenient, and flexible method to specifically and quantitatively monitor caspase-1 activation in cells in a plate-based format. This will allow a more efficient and effective assessment of inflammasome activation as well as enable high-throughput screening for inflammasome modulators.
    Full-text available · Article · Mar 2017 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies are widely considered to be a frequent primary and often mechanistic correlate of protection of approved vaccines; thus evaluating the antibody response is of critical importance in attempting to understand and predict the efficacy of novel vaccine candidates. Historically, antibody responses have been analyzed by determining the titer of the humoral response using measurements such as an ELISA, neutralization, or agglutination assays. In the simplest case, sufficiently high titers of antibody against vaccine antigen(s) are sufficient to predict protection. However, antibody titer provides only a partial measure of antibody function, which is dependent on both the variable region (Fv) to bind the antigen target, and the constant region (Fc) to elicit an effector response from the innate arm of the immune system. In the case of some diseases, such as HIV, for which an effective vaccine has proven elusive, antibody effector function has been shown to be an important driver of monoclonal antibody therapy outcomes, of viral control in infected patients, and of vaccine-mediated protection in preclinical and clinical studies. We sought to establish a platform for the evaluation of the Fc domain characteristics of antigen-specific antibodies present in polyclonal samples in order to better develop insights into Fc receptor-mediated antibody effector activity, more fully understand how antibody responses may differ in association with disease progression and between subject groups, and differentiate protective from non-protective responses. To this end we have developed a high throughput biophysical platform capable of simultaneously evaluating many dimensions of the antibody effector response.
    Article · Feb 2017 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mepolizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks native homodimeric interleukin-5 (IL-5) from binding to the IL-5 receptor, has recently been approved for treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Our initial immunogenicity assay method for phase I and II studies utilized a bridging electrochemiluminescence format with biotin and ruthenium-labelled mepolizumab linked by anti-drug antibodies (ADA). We discovered that IL-5 significantly increased in dosed subjects from a phase II study and that the increased IL-5 was in the form of a drug-bound complex. We demonstrated that the elevated drug-bound IL-5 produced false-positive response in the in vitro ADA assay, in which drug-bound IL-5 dissociated and then bridged mepolizumab conjugates to yield positive signal. To eliminate the IL-5 interference, we compared two strategies: a solid-phase immunodepletion of IL-5 and an in-solution IL-5 immunocompetition. We identified the best competitive antibody for each purpose. We found both methods demonstrated similar effectiveness in reducing the false positive signal in IL-5 spiked samples; however, the in-solution immunocompetition for IL-5 had fewer false positives in study samples. Additionally, the in-solution immunocompetition method was experimentally simpler to execute. We modified the ADA assay by adding a pre-treatment step with a mepolizumab competitive anti-IL-5 antibody. Using this new method, we retested clinical samples from two phase II studies (MEA112997 and MEA114092). The confirmed ADA positive incidence was reduced from 29% and 61% to 1% and 8% with the modified in-solution immune inhibition method. Target interference is a fairly common problem facing immunogenicity testing, and target-induced false positive cannot be distinguished from true ADA response by the commonly used drug competitive confirmation assay. The approach and method used here for resolving target interference in ADA detection will be useful for differentiating between a true ADA response and target induced false positive as well as similar challenges in other programs. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
    Article · Feb 2017 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single domain antibody fragments from two species, a camel VHH (PM1) and a shark VNAR (A6), were derived from inclusion bodies of E. coli and refolded in vitro following three refolding recipes for comparing refolding efficiencies: three-step cold dialysis refolding (TCDR), one-step hot dialysis refolding (OHDR), and one-step cold dialysis refolding (OCDR), as these fragments were expressed as ‘a soluble form’ either in cytoplasm or periplasm, but the amount were much less than those expressed as ‘an insoluble form (inclusion body)’ in cytoplasm and periplasm. In order to verify the refolding efficiencies from inclusion bodies correctly, proteins purified from periplasmic soluble fractions were used as reference samples. These samples showed far-UV spectra of a typical β-sheet-dominant structure in circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and so did the refolded samples as well. As the maximal magnitude of ellipticity in millidegrees (θmax) observed at a given wave length was proportional to the concentrations of the respective reference samples, we could draw linear regression lines for the magnitudes vs. sample concentrations. By using these lines, we measured the concentrations for the refolded PM1 and A6 samples purified from solubilized cytoplasmic insoluble fractions. The refolding efficiency of PM1 was almost 50% following TCDR and 40% and 30% following OHDR and OCDR, respectively, whereas the value of A6 was around 30% following TCDR, and out of bound for quantitation following the other two recipes. The ELISA curves, which were derived from the refolded samples, coincided better with those obtained from the reference samples after converting the values from the protein-concentrations at recovery to the ones of refolded proteins using recovery ratios, indicating that such a correction gives better results for the accurate measure of the ELISA curves than those without correction. Our method require constructing a dual expression system, expressed both in periplasm as a soluble form and cytoplasm as an insoluble form; application of the different refolding recipes due to sequence-by-sequence-difference could be precisely monitored using CD spectra with the concomitant soluble samples as a reference.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mepolizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks native homodimeric interleukin-5 (IL-5) from binding to the IL-5 receptor, has recently been approved for treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Our initial immunogenicity assay method for phase I and II studies utilized a bridging electrochemiluminescence format with biotin and ruthenium-labelled mepolizumab linked by anti-drug antibodies (ADA). We discovered that IL-5 significantly increased in dosed subjects from a phase II study and that the increased IL-5 was in the form of a drug-bound complex. We demonstrated that the elevated drug-bound IL-5 produced false-positive response in the in vitro ADA assay, in which drug-bound IL-5 dissociated and then bridged mepolizumab conjugates to yield positive signal. To eliminate the IL-5 interference, we compared two strategies: a solid-phase immunodepletion of IL-5 and an in-solution IL-5 immunocompetition. We identified the best competitive antibody for each purpose. We found both methods demonstrated similar effectiveness in reducing the false positive signal in IL-5 spiked samples; however, the in-solution immunocompetition for IL-5 had fewer false positives in study samples. Additionally, the in-solution immunocompetition method was experimentally simpler to execute. We modified the ADA assay by adding a pre-treatment step with a mepolizumab competitive anti- IL-5 antibody. Using this new method, we retested clinical samples from two phase II studies (MEA112997 and MEA114092). The confirmed ADA positive incidence was reduced from 29% and 61% to 1% and 8% with the modified in-solution immune inhibition method. Target interference is a fairly common problem facing immunogenicity testing, and target-induced false positive cannot be distinguished from true ADA response by the commonly used drug competitive confirmation assay. The approach and method used here for resolving target interference in ADA detection will be useful for differentiating between a true ADA response and target induced false positive as well as similar challenges in other programs.
    Full-text available · Article · Nov 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjuvants are used to enhance the immune response against specific antigens for the production of antibodies, with the choice of adjuvant most critical for poorly immunogenic and self-antigens. This study quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated CoVaccine HT(TM) and Freund's adjuvants for eliciting therapeutic ovine polyclonal antibodies targeting the endogenous alarmin, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Sheep were immunised with HMGB1 protein in CoVaccine HT(TM) or Freund's adjuvants, with injection site reactions and antibody titres periodically assessed. The binding affinity of antibodies for HMGB1 and their neutralisation activity was determined in-vitro, with in vivo activity confirmed using a murine model of endotoxemia. Results indicated that CoVaccine HT(TM) elicited significantly higher antibody tires with stronger affinity and more functional potency than antibodies induced with Freund's adjuvants. These studies provide evidence that CoVaccine HT(TM) is superior to Freund's adjuvants for the production of antibodies to antigens with low immunogenicity and supports the use of this alternative adjuvant for clinical and experimental use antibodies.
    Article · Sep 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibody and recombinant protein production benefits greatly from bovine serum as an additive. The caveat is that bovine serum IgG, co-purifies with mAbs and IgG Fc-containing fusion proteins and it presents a contaminant in the end products. In order to analytically validate the products, species specific reagents are needed that react with bovine IgG exclusively. Our attempts to find such commercially available reagents failed. Here, we report the production of species specific mAbs which recognize bovine IgG even in the presence of excess amount of mouse IgG. We present five mAbs: Bsi4028, Bsi4032, Bsi4033, Bsi4034 and Bsi4035 suitable to determine the presence of bovine IgG contamination via ELISA or immunoblotting in bioreactor derived mouse mAb preparations. To quantitate bovine IgG content we developed sensitive sandwich ELISAs capable to detect bovine IgG contaminant in the ng/ml (~ 10− 11 M/l) range. Finally, we show that bovine IgG is efficiently removed from bioreactor produced mouse mAb preparation via affinity depletion columns prepared with Bsi4028, Bsi4032, Bsi4033, Bsi4034, Bsi4035 mAbs.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive cross-platform and cross-assay evaluation using nine technology platforms and four cytokine immunoassays (IL-6, TNF-a, IL-17a, IL-2) was performed by comparing assay precision, sensitivity, parallelism and data correlation between platforms. The precision was acceptable for most evaluated assays. In addition to comparing the analytical assay sensitivity using a spiked recombinant analyte in buffer, forty serum samples from both normal controls and multiple sclerosis patients were used to measure the frequency of endogenous analyte detection (FEAD) as a parameter of each assay's ability to detect the endogenous analyte. The highest FEAD measurements were observed on the Simoa™, Erenna®, Milliplex® and Imperacer® platforms. However, only Simoa and Erenna results showed a high correlation across all evaluated cytokine assays, followed by a more moderate correlation of results across platforms for the V-plex™, high sensitivity ELISA and the Ella™ IL-6 and TNFα assays. In contrast, results from the evaluated cytokine assays on the Milliplex, AMMP™ ViBE® and Imperacer platforms did not correlate to each other nor to other evaluated assays. Acceptable parallelism was observed for the Simoa, Erenna, V-plex and Ella assays but not for the Milliplex, AMMP ViBE and Imperacer assays. In conclusion, the Simoa , Erenna,V-plex and Ella platforms performed well in one or more evaluated cytokine assays. Among those, the Simoa and Erenna assays had the highest sensitivity for detection of cytokines present at sub-pg/mL levels in human serum. In addition, the cross-platform and cross-assay comparisons demonstrated that different immunoassays may yield different results, which underscores the importance of performing such comparative evaluations, especially in the absence of reliable reference standards for the quantitative assessments of biomarkers in immunoassays.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoflow cytometry is increasingly being used as a tool for the discovery of biomarkers used in the treatment and monitoring of disease and therapy. The ability to measure numerous phospho-protein targets simultaneously at a single cell level accurately and rapidly provides significant advantages over other methods. We here discuss important considerations required to successfully implement these methods. Three different blood collection tubes (lithium-heparin tubes, CPT with sodium citrate and CPT with sodium heparin) were evaluated, with PBMC isolated through lithium-heparin tubes/lymphoprep displaying reduced basal and increased stimulation induced phosphorylation compared to the other two methods. Further, we provide a protocol outlining an 8 color assay developed for the study of intracellular signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The assay allows for the quantitative measurement of the phospho-proteins ERK1/2, NF-κB p65, Stat1 (Y701), Stat1 (S727), Stat3 (Y705), Stat3 (S727), Stat4 (Y693), p38 and Stat5 (Y694), as well as the identification of T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and monocytes. The assay additionally incorporates fluorescent cell barcoding, reducing assay costs and increasing throughput while increasing data robustness. Inter-assay precision was assessed over a month long period for all experimental variables (phospho-protein measured, cell type and stimulant). Coefficient of variations (CVs) calculated from process triplicates of normalized median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the phospho-proteins displayed median CVs under 10% when grouped according to cell type, stimulation agent and phospho-protein measured, while the CV for each triplicate did not exceed 20%.
    Full-text available · Article · Jun 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • Article · May 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Studies evaluating circulating dendritic cells (DCs) and natural and induced regulatory T cells (nTregs, iTregs) are often obtained at a single time point and difficult to interpret without understanding their intrinsic day-to-day biologic variability. Methods: We investigated the day-to-day variability in quantifying DCs, nTregs (FoxP3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+)) and cytokine production by iTregs (granzyme B-GZB, Th1/2 cytokines following CD3 plus CD46 in vitro activation) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS) collected on three consecutive days in healthy adults. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to evaluate intra-individual variability. Results: In 10 healthy adults, the %PBMCs of plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC1 and mDC2) were 0.27 +/- 0.12, 0.22 +/- 0.10, and 0.02 +/- 0.02, with ICC 0.91, 0.90, and 0.17 respectively. Natural Tregs (3.27 +/- 1.27% CD4(+) cells) had an ICC of 0.86. Inducible Tregs (GZB-positive, 35.3 +/- 17.7% CD4(+) cells) had an ICC of 0.77. The ICCs for IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 production by iTregs were 0.49, 0.63, 0.68, 0.74, and 0.82, respectively. There were no significant changes in ICC (<0.1) after adjusting for age, gender and atopy except for IL-4. Substantial variability for iTregs was determined for the control condition (PBS with IL-2). Conclusions: No meaningful day-to-day biologic variability was observed for the quantification of nTregs, pDC and mDC1 in normal adults; however, there was substantial variability in measuring mDC2 proportions and iTreg production of IL-10. These results suggest obtaining an average of several measurements over time to determine the most representative value of these biologic measures.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severely immunodeficient mice such as the NOD/SCID/IL2rγ(null) (NSG) strain can be engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resulting in chimeric mice containing many components of the human immune system (Human Immune System mice or HIS mice). HIS mice can both support the replication of and recapitulate much of the immunological response to a variety of pathogens, including ones with strict human tropism, such as HIV-1. In an effort to develop a better mouse model for human infectious pathogen infection and possible immune resolution, we compared the human immune system reconstitution of NSG mice following injection with human CD34+ HSCs purified from either fetal liver (FL) or umbilical cord blood (UCB). We analyzed reconstitution in standard NSG mice as well as a derivative of these mice containing an HLA.A2 encoding transgene (NSG.A2). HSCs from both sources effectively reconstituted hematopoietic lineages when injected into NSG mice. In marked contrast, total CD45(+) human hematopoietic cells in NSG.A2 mice were well reconstituted by HSCs from UCB but very poorly by HSCs purified from FL. Moreover, the reconstitution of T cell lineages in NSG.A2 mice by HSCs from UCB was inferior to that obtained using NSG mice. We also found that FL CD34(+) HSCs contain a much higher percentage of cells with a phenotype consistent with primitive progenitors than UCB HSCs. We discuss possible explanations for the influence of the HLA.A2 transgene on hematopoietic reconstitution using the two sources of HSCs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rabbit monoclonal antibody (Abcam ab124797), with high affinity for a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal region of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), specifically recognizes a 37 kDa protein by immunoblotting, in good agreement with the molecular mass of RANKL. However, our mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that the protein recognized by the antibody is the α-subunit of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), a key Krebs cycle enzyme in mitochondria. Consistently, immunocytochemical staining with the antibody revealed a network organization characteristic of mitochondria, which overlapped with staining by MitoTracker and was lost after the siRNA-mediated downregulation of ICDH. The C-terminal peptide of ICDH contains similar chemical characteristics to that of the RANKL peptide and interacts with the antibody, although the affinity is a hundred times weaker. The present study provides an example of the preferential recognition of a surrogate protein by a rabbit monoclonal antibody. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severely immunodeficient mice such as the NOD/SCID/IL2rγ(null) (NSG) strain can be engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resulting in chimeric mice containing many components of the human immune system (Human Immune System mice or HIS mice). HIS mice can both support the replication of and recapitulate much of the immunological response to a variety of pathogens, including ones with strict human tropism, such as HIV-1. In an effort to develop a better mouse model for human infectious pathogen infection and possible immune resolution, we compared the human immune system reconstitution of NSG mice following injection with human CD34+ HSCs purified from either fetal liver (FL) or umbilical cord blood (UCB). We analyzed reconstitution in standard NSG mice as well as a derivative of these mice containing an HLA.A2 encoding transgene (NSG.A2). HSCs from both sources effectively reconstituted hematopoietic lineages when injected into NSG mice. In marked contrast, total CD45(+) human hematopoietic cells in NSG.A2 mice were well reconstituted by HSCs from UCB but very poorly by HSCs purified from FL. Moreover, the reconstitution of T cell lineages in NSG.A2 mice by HSCs from UCB was inferior to that obtained using NSG mice. We also found that FL CD34(+) HSCs contain a much higher percentage of cells with a phenotype consistent with primitive progenitors than UCB HSCs. We discuss possible explanations for the influence of the HLA.A2 transgene on hematopoietic reconstitution using the two sources of HSCs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rabbit monoclonal antibody (Abcam ab124797), with high affinity for a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal region of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), specifically recognizes a 37 kDa protein by immunoblotting, in good agreement with the molecular mass of RANKL. However, our mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that the protein recognized by the antibody is the α-subunit of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), a key Krebs cycle enzyme in mitochondria. Consistently, immunocytochemical staining with the antibody revealed a network organization characteristic of mitochondria, which overlapped with staining by MitoTracker and was lost after the siRNA-mediated downregulation of ICDH. The C-terminal peptide of ICDH contains similar chemical characteristics to that of the RANKL peptide and interacts with the antibody, although the affinity is a hundred times weaker. The present study provides an example of the preferential recognition of a surrogate protein by a rabbit monoclonal antibody. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to evaluate cell surface mobilisation of CD107a as a general activation marker on chicken cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Experiments comprised establishment of an in vitro model for activation induced CD107a mobilisation and design of a marker panel for detection of CD107a mobilisation on chicken CTL isolated from different tissues. Moreover, CD107a mobilisation was analysed on CTL isolated from airways of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infected birds direct ex vivo and upon in vitro stimulation. Results showed that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in combination with ionomycin was a consistent inducer of CD107a cell surface mobilisation on chicken CTL in a 4h cell culture model. In chickens experimentally infected with IBV, a higher frequency of CTL isolated from respiratory tissues were positive for CD107a on the cell surface compared to those from uninfected control chickens indicating in vivo activation. Moreover, upon in vitro PMA+ionomycin stimulation higher proportions of CTL isolated from the airways of IBV infected chickens showed CD107a mobilisation compared to those from uninfected control chickens. Monitoring of CD107a cell surface mobilisation may thus be a useful tool for studies of chicken CTL cytolytic potential both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioanalytical data from early human studies conducted in normal volunteers are often used for building pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models that can predict outcomes of future studies in diseased patients. Thus, it's important to develop and validate reliable and accurate bioanalytical assays that instill confidence that the intended therapeutic species (total or free) are being measured. Assays quantifying the free therapeutic species, the partially bound (for multivalent therapeutics) and unbound species, require much more characterization than assays that quantify the total therapeutic species. We have developed an immunoassay to measure free BMS-962476, an Adnectin protein therapeutic against soluble proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin (PCSK)-9, and performed an in-depth characterization of the accuracy of this assay with the assistance of modeling. The experimental data correlates with modeled data within 15% at all clinically relevant levels of PCSK9 in normal and diseased populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Immunological Methods