The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

Publisher: American Society of Extra-Corporeal Technology

Current impact factor: 0.00

Impact Factor Rankings

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology website
Other titles The Journal of extra-corporeal technology, Journal of extracorporeal technology
ISSN 0022-1058
OCLC 3497615
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Goal-directed therapy is a patient care strategy that has been implemented to improve patient outcomes. The strategy includes aggressive patient management and monitoring during a period of critical care. Goal-directed therapy has been adapted to perfusion and has been designated goal-directed perfusion (GDP). Since this is a new concept in perfusion, the purpose of this study is to review goal-directed therapy research in other areas of critical care management and compare that process to improving patient outcomes following cardiopulmonary bypass. Various areas of goaldirected therapy literature were reviewed, including fluid administration, neurologic injury, tissue perfusion, oxygenation, and inflammatory response. Data from these studies was compiled to document improvements in patient outcomes. Goal-directed therapy has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes when performed within the optimal time frame resulting in decreased complications, reduction in hospital stay, and a decrease in morbidity. Based on the successes in other critical care areas, GDP during cardiopulmonary bypass would be expected to improve outcomes following cardiac surgery.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or short-term centrifugal ventricular assist devices (VADs) are at risk for potential elevation of plasma-free hemoglobin (pfHb) during treatment. The use of pfHb testing allows detection of subclinical events with avoidance of propagating injury. Among 146 patients undergoing ECMO and VAD from 2009 to 2014, five patients experienced rapid increases in pfHb levels over 100 mg/dL. These patients were supported with CardioHelp, Centrimag, or Pedimag centrifugal pumps. Revolutions per minute of the pump head and flow in the circuit in three of the patients did not change, to maintain patient flow during the period that pfHb level spiked. Two patients had unusual vibrations originating from the pump head during the pfHb spike. Four patients had pump head replacement. Following intervention, trending pfHb levels demonstrated a rapid decline over the next 12 hours, returning to baseline within 48 hours. Two of the three patients who survived to discharge also experienced acute kidney injury, which was attributed to pfHb elevations. The kidney injury resolved over time. The architecture of centrifugal pumps may have indirectly contributed to red blood cell damage due to thrombus, originally from the venous line or venous cannula, being snared in the pump fins or pump head.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Asporto Heart Preservation Device is a system providing perfusion of cardioplegia to the donor heart using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump in a thermoelectrically cooled and insulated container. In 1998, a user interface was developed at the University of Minnesota consisting of a touch screen and battery-backed microcontroller. Power was supplied by a 120 VAC to 12 VDC converter. An upgrade to the insulated cooler and microcontroller occurred in 2002, which was followed by proof of concept experimental pre-clinical transplants and tests demonstrating the efficacy of the device with isolated donor hearts. During the period between 2002 and 2006, a variety of donor organ containers were developed, modified, and tested to provide an optimal sterile environment and fluid path. Parallel development paths encompass formalized design specifications for final prototypes of the touch screen/microcontroller, organ container, and thermoelectric cooler.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The inability to adequately support a patient on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to impaired drainage is not an uncommon occurrence during support. Typically, the causes include hypovolemia, kinks in the circuit, cannula malposition, or inadequate cannula size. In this report we present an uncommon etiology of this problem. A 3-year-old female presented to our hospital in status asthmaticus and pulseless electrical activity (PEA). This was a result of dynamic hyperinflation of the lungs causing physical obstruction of venous return to the heart. Upon initiating venoarterial (VA) ECMO, we experienced inadequate drainage that did not improve despite multiple interventions. This resolved with the addition of an inhaled anesthetic gas to treat this patient's severe bronchospasm. This case illustrates the importance of considering a patient's physiology or disease state and how that may affect the mechanics of ECMO support.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p < .001), placement of the sternal retractor (p < .001), and initiation (p < .001) as well as termination of CPB (p < .001). Placement (p < .001) and removal of the aortic cross-clamp (p = .026 for left hemisphere, p = .048 for right hemisphere) led to changes in cerebral tissue saturation. In addition, when placing the aortic crossclamp, hematocrit (p < .001) as well as arterial (p = .007) and venous (p < .001) partial oxygen pressures changed. Cerebral tissue oximetry effectively identifies changes related to surgical events or vulnerable periods during cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The "systemic inflammatory response" has never been defined from a cardiothoracic surgery perspective, but borrowed its definition from the critical care field at a landmark 1992 definition conference on sepsis. It is unclear why the diagnostic criteria for the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) were adopted in isolation, ignoring other potentially more useful definitions for Severe Septic Shock or Secondary Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. The 1992 SIRS definition for sepsis has since been updated at a conference in 2001 advocating PIRO (Predisposition, Infection, host Response, Organ dysfunction) as a hypothetical model to better link sepsis with clinical outcome. PIRO is readily adaptable to cardiothoracic surgery and provides the precedent and road map for how to update a definition. The need is obvious since the current definition of SIRS is widely disregarded in heart surgery: a dwindling proportion (14%) of articles on the systemic inflammatory response even mention SIRS and 0% monitored SIRS criteria in the past decade in an evidence-based review of anti-inflammatory interventions. The name "inflammatory response" is also problematic; it is too narrow and might be replaced with host response (the R in PIRO) to better convey the wide spectrum of host defensive pathways activated during heart surgery (i.e., complement, coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinins, cytokines, proteases, hemolysis, oxidative stiess). A variant on PIRO could allow these elements of the host Response (R) to be anchored within the context of Premorbid conditions (P) and the inevitable Insult (I) from surgery, to better link risk exposures to Organ dysfunction (O) in heart surgery. The precedent of PIRO suggests the following steps will be required to redefine the systemic inflammatory response: 1) buy-in from the leading societies for cardiothoracic surgery, anesthesia, and perfusion on the need for a re-definition conference, 2) assigning relative risk scores to different premorbid exposures, operative insults, and host response factors on clinical outcome, 3) validation of the risk model in a prospective cohort, and 4) development of algorithms or "apps" to facilitate rapid diagnosis and staging of care at bedside.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As many as 25% of our cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients have a diminished heparin response and fail to reach a therapeutic activated clotting time (ACT). We treat a majority of these patients with antithrombin III (ATryn®, recombinant antithrombin III [rhAT], rEVO Biologics). Our current CPB circuit uses Medtronic Carmeda® coating. We observed less post-operative bleeding in a number of patients treated with rhAT. We theorized that adding rhAT would allow patients with diminished heparin response to safely achieve a therapeutic ACT. On the basis of our postoperative bleeding observations, we wondered if using rhAT with a heparin-bonded CPB circuit enhanced its biocompatibility and perhaps improved patient outcomes. Data were collected on 15 patients undergoing CPB who received antithrombin III (AT) replacement therapy for diminished heparin response. We used patient data from 2012, prior to rhAT usage for comparison. All patients achieved therapeutic ACT after rhAT administration. We also observed decreased postoperative atrial fibrillation rates, improved platelet preservation, decreased intensive care unit and ventilator times in patients receiving rhAT compared to rates commonly observed at our center. Heparin-resistant patients can be treated with rhAT to achieve therapeutic ACTs. Our observations suggest that the use of rhAT in conjunction with Carmeda® heparin-bonded circuits may also have a positive benefit on some of the well-established negative clinical consequences of CPB and improve patient outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In femoral-femoral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), the outflow of oxygenated blood from the circuit enters the aorta in retrograde fashion. As a result, variability in end-organ oxygenation (e.g., cerebral vs. splanchnic) may arise-particularly, when the heart is unable to contribute forward flow. We present the case of a 74-year-old man supported by femoral-femoral VA-ECMO in whom aortography was used to visualize the retrograde distribution of arterial ECMO flow that can produce such differences in end-organ perfusion. We do this by describing a series of still images captured during the aortography; we then discuss the importance of monitoring end-organ oxygenation in this setting and outline several interventions that can ameliorate this flow phenomenon.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: From the time an association was perceived between cardiac surgery and post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), there has been interest in arterial microemboli as one explanation. A succession of studies in the mid-1990s reported a correlation between microemboli exposure and POCD and there followed a focus on microemboli reduction (along with other strategies) in pursuit of peri-operative neuroprotection. There is some evidence that the initiatives developed during this period were successful in reducing neurologic morbidity in cardiac surgery. More recently, however, there is increasing awareness of similar rates of POCD following on and off pump cardiac operations, and following many other types of surgery in elderly patients. This has led some to suggest that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and microemboli exposure by implication are non-contributory. Although the risk factors for POCD may be more patient-centered and multifactorial than previously appreciated, it would be unwise to assume that CPB and exposure to microemboli are unimportant. Improvements in CPB safety (including emboli reduction) achieved over the last 20 years may be partly responsible for difficulty demonstrating higher rates of POCD after cardiac surgery involving CPB in contemporary comparisons with other operations. Moreover, microemboli (including bubbles) have been proven harmful in experimental and clinical situations uncontaminated by other confounding factors. It remains important to continue to minimize patient exposure to microemboli as far as is practicable.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vent vacuum relief valves (VRVs) are used to limit the negative pressure at the ventricular vent catheter tip as well as prevent reversal of blood flow and prevention of air embolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercially available ventricular vent valves. The negative pressure at which the vent valve opened was measured at the valve inlet using high-fidelity pressure transducers. Also, the flow rate at which air entrainment occurred due to valve opening was recorded. Using a 51.5 cm column of saline, the resistance for each valve was calculated. The mean ± SD opening negative pressures were -231.3 ± 35.2 mmHg for the Quest Medical valve, -219.8 mmHg ± 17.2 for the Sorin valve, and -329.6 · 38.0 mmHg for the Terumo valve. The red Quest Medical valve opened at a lower flow (1.44 ± .03 L/min) than the dark blue Sorin valve (2.93 ± .01 L/min) and light blue LH130 Terumo valve (2.36 ± .02 L/min). The Sorin valve had the least resistance of 34.1 dyn-s/cm, followed by the Terumo LH130 valve resistance of 58.1 dyn·s/cm5, and the Quest Medical VRV-II valve with a resistance of 66.5 dyn·s/cm. We found that the valves are significantly different in the negative pressure generated. Understanding the limitations of these devices is important to reduce the occurrence of adverse events associated with venting and to select the best device for a specific clinical application.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of extra-corporeal technology