Educational Research (EDUC RES-UK)

Publisher: National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales, Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

Journal description

As the leading forum for informed thinking on issues of contemporary concern in education, Educational Research draws upon projects in universities, colleges of education and other institutions in Britain and around the world. The journal publishes research findings in all areas of education, from policy-making to classroom teaching.

RG Journal Impact: 0.81 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2019Available summer 2020

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
RG Journal impact over timeGraph showing a linear path with a yearly representation of impact points of the journal

Additional details

Cited half-life0.00
Immediacy indexdata not available
Article influence0.34
Website descriptionEducational Research website
Other titlesEducational research
Material typePeriodical, Internet resource
Document typeJournal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

J. K. Backhouse (1976) and R. Wood (1978) discussed methods for determining grades on a common scale for 2 groups offering a common paper in an examination. The present paper reports a study that attempted to replicate Backhouse's work using data from a larger sample of students ( N = 675) who were candidates for an operational mathematics examination and to implement the alternative technique outlined by Wood. In a reassessment of the problem, the present authors reject the prescriptive use of statistical techniques to award grades in differentiated examinations and introduce some alternative suggestions (e.g., "benchmarking" and teacher estimates). (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the acculturation of 465 Asian students (aged 13–15 yrs) and compared the findings with those from a sample of 98 students (aged 14–25 yrs) used by P. A. Ghuman (1974) to construct and validate an acculturation scale. Analysis showed significant differences between the 2 samples; the reliability of the acculturation scale was found to be 0.83 and the Cronbach alpha was 0.78. These values are high for this type of instrument. The present sample scored higher than the 1974 sample, indicating a greater degree of acculturation. In the present sample, girls scored higher than boys, Hindus and Sikhs scored higher than Muslims, and Ss from nonmanual backgrounds scored higher than those from manual backgrounds. The acculturation scale is appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assigned 36 children (aged 9–10 yrs) to take part in a computer-language task 3 times: 1st while working alone, then as a member of a pair, and again while working alone. Pairs were boy–boy, boy–girl, or girl–girl pairs; half of the pairs were instructed to cooperate, and half were asked not to cooperate on the task. Performance measures and informal observations show that work on the computer task produced a disadvantage for gender-mixed pairs and a general improvement in performance for pairs instructed to cooperate. Instructions to cooperate had the least effect on the performance of the mixed pairs, and had a limited effect on pairs of girls. While girls tended to cooperate whether instructed to do so or not, mixed pairs showed little evidence of cooperative working. Pairs of boys showed the greatest gains on measures of keyboard activity and problem-solving effectiveness when organized in cooperative pairs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the effects of lined paper on the legibility of children's writing and on the creativity of their written work. Results show that lined paper aids legibility and does not interfere with creativity. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A review of a number of studies carried out over the past 20 yr. on the problem of school phobia. It is concluded that research is needed to establish which part of the school life is most difficult for the school phobic child to bear, and the extent of recovery from this problem of the various children who have been treated for school phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The standard of English of Hong Kong students is a matter of considerable debate. Academics, business people and others bemoan the deterioration of English-speaking skills and the declining quality of students. Explanations for this situation include the introduction of mass education, the lack of trained English teachers and an exam-centred curriculum. Yet, little research has been undertaken concerning student intellectual ability and English skills. This short report examines the English skills of 146 undergraduates using the ACER Word Knowledge Test - Form F , and their abstract reasoning ability using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. The results show that Hong Kong students, while low in English skills are superior in intelligence. Although exploratory and subject to qualification, the research has implications for the teaching and continued use of English in Hong Kong schools and universities.
This paper reconsiders three sources of evidence that have been presented to suggest that polarization of pupils both between and within schools is increasing, thus creating an increasingly divided system of 'winners' and 'losers'.The project from which this paper emerges has shown, in an analysis over ten years of all schools in England and Wales, that schools are becoming more mixed in terms of their social composition in many respects. Despite this reasonably comprehensive evidence, it has been argued by others that polarization is taking place below the level of the indicators used in our analysis (polarization by stealth), or thatwhile school compositions may be converging, school outcomes are definitely diverging, both within and between schools. The primary evidence presented for these three arguments is reviewed here, and it shows that none of the objections has any serious empirical foundation as yet. Of course, evidence may emerge in the future, and so the paper concludes by suggesting a few ways in which research in this area might proceed.
This research report describes the development of dance attitude scales which were 'grounded' in the opinions of groups of 11-16-year-old pupils in six schools throughout England. Factor analyses involving an initial sample of 368 male and female secondary school pupils produced four embryonic scales which were then tested with a sample of 1,668 adolescents. Satisfactory internal reliability coefficients were achieved and scale intercorrelations provided evidence of the scales as distinct measures. Further analyses undertaken to test validity employing data from the larger sample indicated that two of the proposed scales, Ballet and Male Dancers, may be valid measures of attitude, although less confidence can be placed in the third and fourth scales. Suggestions are made for the development and application of the inventory.
This paper is drawn from a study of 10-12 year-old children's stories, the specific purpose of which was to provide a means of investigating the influence of television and videos on children's imagination. Faced with the need to understand nearly 500 stories from their authors' points of view, that is interpreting the authors' meanings and intentions rather than constructing my own meaning as a reader, I found myself wondering how the 'reading' of these texts was to be undertaken. The paper describes the technique I devised for this task and what I found it could reveal about the subtlety, complexity and multiple meanings that can often be discovered in children's stories.The potential power of such an approach to reading children's writing raises issues about the assessment of school writing.
This paper draws upon a series of linked projects that focused on the induction of new teachers. Newly qualified teachers' (NQTs) experiences of induction are drawn upon to explore the potential implications of new regulations that are currently being implemented in England. It is argued that policy, as it has developed since the mid-1990s, has increasingly emphasized a discourse of 'performance management'. Attention is also drawn, however, to the way that NQTs and their mentors may be influenced by a discourse that emphasizes staff membership, 'belonging' and NQTs' capacity to contribute to development of their schools. It is suggested that the new regulations may be only one strand of induction that is woven into a complex pattern of relationships in which NQTs must locate themselves.
Socio-demographic and bibliometric techniques were used to investigate factors which are associated with the visibility of Mexican educational researchers accredited as national researchers by the National Researchers System (SNI). The SNI CD-Rom was used to analyse their socio-demographic data. We also searched major educational databases: British Education Index, Canadian Education Index, ERIC, Arts & Humanities Search and Social SCISearch in order to determine researchers' performance in terms of their visibility. The results showed not only the researchers' impact, but also the areas of educational research carried out in Mexico. Socio-demographic characteristics were identified.
This paper outlines the range of school improvement interventions and programmes currently in operation. It summarizes the main features of those school improvement programmes that have been shown to work in practice. It also highlights the limitations of contemporary school improvement programmes and argues that school improvement needs to be more rigorously conceptualized and evaluated. The paper concludes by suggesting that future school improvement work needs to be more carefully matched to the needs of different types of schools. It also suggests that future development in the field should be premissed upon what works in practice, rather than what fits in terms of political expediency.
National governments and employers have argued that it is important for all sectors of education to prepare individuals who are able to think well and for themselves. 'Good thinking' and 'thinking well' are commonly used terms bound up with what is called 'critical thinking' in the research literature. Evidence is presented in this paper, however, which suggests that not all students may be good at critical thinking; nor do some teachers appear to teach students 'good thinking' skills. A review of the research literature in this area was undertaken and the methods and conceptions of teaching likely to inhibit and enhance critical thinking are outlined, as well as what is required to improve students' thinking skills. Ways forward in teaching critical thinking, and in helping students to learn to think well and for themselves, are described and discussed.
This paper reports on data relating to management and leadership derived from a survey of all the female headteachers in England and Wales. The quantitative data presented here are complementary to previous research on gender in education which has tended to be qualitative. The use of the Gray paradigms in the research instrument has allowed an empirical redefinition of the 'feminine' style of management, but the research confirms that the majority of the female heads use a collaborative and 'people-oriented' style of management. In addition, the key values promoted by the headteachers are related to achievement and respect for all.The headteachers generally make themselves available to staff and spend a considerable proportion of their time in school outside their office. They tend to encourage staff development, often through individual consultation, but only a minority make special provision for the development of female teachers. Male resentment of female leadershipwas found to be relatively prevalent and the majority of the women felt they had to 'prove their worth' as a woman manager. Despite the difficulties encountered, once the women had achieved headship, they were aware that there were advantages in being a woman headteacher. They reported the ability to defuse 'macho' behaviour, the benefits of being unusual and therefore singled out and the fact that girls, mothers and female teachers found them approachable. The relative disproportion of female secondary headteachers raises issues of equity. However, in view of the effective management style of the majority, the question is also raised of the potential loss of leadership to our schools.
Background When an exam question is read, a mental representation of the task is formed in each student's mind. This processing can be affected by features such as visual resources (e.g. pictures, diagrams, photographs, tables), which can come to dominate the mental representation due to their salience. Purpose The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of visual resources in exam questions and, in particular, to investigate how and when students use images and whether subtle changes to these salient physical features can affect whether a question is understood and answered in the way intended by the question-setters. Sample The participants were 525 16-year-old students, with a range of ability, in four secondaryschools. Design and methods Experimental test papers were constructed including six questions based on past examination questions and involving graphical elements. For five of the six questions, two versions were designed in order to investigate the effects of changes to visual resources on processing and responses. A sample of the students were interviewed afterwards. Results Where two versions of a question were trialled in parallel, the differences in the visual resources significantly affected marks for one question and had smaller effects on marks and the nature of answers with some of the others. There were mixed views from students over whether a visual resource that is not strictly necessary should be used. Some considered it reassuring, whilst others deemed it unnecessary. Evidence in the literature suggests that caution may be needed since there is a risk that some students may pay too much attention to the image. Findings from one question (question 6) indicated that visuals can increase the likelihood of students making unhelpful interpretations of a question. Students were seen to have sensible expectations regarding when to use information from a visual resource and what is important in an illustration. In addition, more use tended to be made of a technical diagram (in question 12) in comparison to pictures or sketches, and it was found that if an image provides a clue to an answer, this may be used in preference to information in the text. Evidence regarding the use that students made of a table (question 1) indicated that the data in the table cells were given more attention than some of the preceding text and text in a header. This might apply similarly to other resources like graphs and charts. Conclusions It is important to ensure that the inclusion of a visual resource is carefully considered and appropriately designed. If a visual resource is not strictly needed in a question, the writer will need to balance the advantages and disadvantages. Authors should also consider whether and how students are likely to use or be affected by the particular visual resource chosen. The findings and suggested implications of this study are most applicable to high-stakes testing but may also be useful to those preparing school textbooks and to teachers in their preparation of classroom materials.
The current global movement in the reform of education seems to focus on a number of issues that include standards, quality and teacher preparation. With regard to the latter, while teacher education curricula in most parts of the world attempt to strike a balance between content and professional training, the emerging scenario is that of training expert teachers. Three types of knowledge identified as necessary for expert teaching are content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. For Hong Kong to embark on a satisfactory and effective public education reform, it is essential that its most valuable human resource (i.e. teachers) must be comprehensively and adequately developed. Attention must be paid to both pre-service and in-service to raise an excellent quality-oriented teaching force. Teacher educators and researchers make important and well-informed decisions about what should be included in pre-service and in-service teacher development programmes. However, it is also important to take into account the teachers' own perceptions about the areas in which they feel confident and knowledgeable and those inwhich they do not. One practical avenue of sourcing such information is the teacher in training who is learning to acquire and display expertise. This paper reports on an investigation using a sample of 183 science and mathematics trainee teachers. A 60-item instrument, the Science and Mathematics Expert Teacher Preparation Survey (SMETPS),was developed to gather data on trainee teachers' perceptions of their current knowledge and what they think they need to know to become expert teachers. The data, analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, indicated some of the areas in which trainee teachers identified the need for future professional development that would contribute towards expert training. Several issues which emerged from the results are discussed, with reference to implications for current efforts in expert teacher training.
This paper aims to explore the complex relationship between self-image and community membership. It draws on an in-depth case study,which was originally part of a larger study examining the factors which contribute to pupils’ quiet, withdrawn and non-participatory behaviour in school. Based on observations and interviews collected during her last two years in primary school, this paper explains Rasheeda’s habitual non-participation in school in terms of her limited and unchanging self-image and her failure to perceive herself, and be perceived as, a member of a learning community.
As part of an extended study into school assessment practices the use of verbal reasoning tests and their possible contribution to measuring pupil progress is being investigated. One phase of the study has involved testing the stability of individual verbal reasoning scores over time. The findings of this phase are presented here and located within the broader context of intelligence testing. The discussion concludes with a number of questions relating to the use of pupils’ academic achievements as appropriate measures of school success. The ongoing work considers how pupil success could be measured fairly, taking into account individual pupil differences, including both genetic and socio-economic factors. The work being developed has potential for both formative and summative assessment procedures and also as a tool for reporting the achievements of individual pupils and educational establishments. The full work will be published in due course.
Reports the prevalence of persistent absence from schools in Sheffield over a three-year period. The schools studied were all in relatively disadvantaged areas and absence increased sharply in the students' final year. While persistent absentees are high risk for delinquency, most were not known to the police as offenders. (JOW)
Incl. bibl., abstract. The paper considers the relationship between social deprivation and special educational needs in the context of wider issues of social deprivation and achievement. Data were obtained from a large-scale survey of almost 300 key stage 2 teachers in 46 primary schools in England. The results show a very strong negative relationship between poverty in the population served by schools and overall levels of achievement in the school. They also show a clear, although less strong, positive relationship between poverty and the levels of special educational needs in schools.The analysis suggests that, to some extent, teachers are judging special educational needs with reference to achievement levels in their school. It also shows that the impact of poverty on special needs is largely mediated through the influence of poverty on achievement generally.The exception to this pattern is in the area of discipline problems which correlate very highly with poverty levels and where the correlation is additional to the association with achievement.The paper suggests that the register of special ducational needs is not a good basis for resourcing special needs, and that resource allocation for special educational needs need not, for the most part, be treated separately from resourcing to address inequalities in achievement more generally.
A study of a sample from the Youth Cohort Study of England and Wales compared socioeconomic background and achievements in fifth-year examinations of Afro-Caribbean, Asian, and White adolescents. In addition to differences between groups, considerable within-group differences associated with gender and socioeconomic status were found, perhaps even more influential than ethnic differences. (SK)
Incl. tables, graph, abstract and bib. This is a study of the educational achievements of graduates of an experimental school in comparison to those of a regular school. The experimental school aims to enhance school effectiveness in coping with individual differences and to mediate between private and public knowledge. A quasi-experimental method was used. The results show an advantage for all graduates of the experimental school (i.e. the excellent, average and slow) in most of the variables measured: test results, skills, self-efficacy and motivation. We suggest that the overall systemic framework of the experimental school contributed to its increased effectiveness.
Consciousness of the distance between scientific research traditions in education and classroom practice has now become a presupposition of educational action research. The reasons for this distance are located in, and explained by, the reflexivity of knowledge, which draws attention to the hitherto unacknowledged personal element in knowledge claims: they reflect value‐preferences, hidden agendas and hidden assumptions. Therefore an emphasis has been placed by many recent action researchers on the self of the investigator as an influence not simply on the outcomes, but also the language and techniques of the research. Many see the self as becoming, rightly, the main focus of the action research project, and indeed the main focus of valid educational research as a whole.
The purpose of this paper is to address methodological issues arising out of the conceptual problems associated with the study of job satisfaction. It does not aim to present research findings, but refers to those findings which elucidate the conceptual and methodological issues raised. The paper identifies the ambiguity of the meaning of job satisfaction, emanating from the distinction between the meanings of 'satisfactory' and of 'satisfying'. It is suggested that neglect of this ambiguity, along with a more general prevalent conceptual vagueness, has led to problems of construct validity in much research in this field. The importance of this ambiguity issue in relation to construct validity is demonstrated by examples from the author's own, and from other, qualitative research. Addressing the problems identified, a reconceptualization of job satisfaction is suggested, focusing upon a bifurcation into two constituents: job fulfilment and job comfort. Finally, ways in which the research process may be improved to reduce threats to construct validity are discussed.
The truism that boys are better than girls in mathematics has been challenged in recent years. In this review, evidence for discrepancies in performance is examined. Arguments suggesting that spatial ability is a primary genetic factor in mathematical achievement are considered, as are arguments based on social conditioning. It is concluded that, although spatial ability may affect performance, girls' diminishing achievement can largely be accounted for in social terms. Attitudes, rooted in the cultural milieu and reinforced by society, are probably the determining factor in whether or not girls succeed in mathematics.
Background: This article considers the impact of pupils studying for entry-level qualifications on their intentions of remaining in education. Such qualifications are intended to re-engage young people who are performing below expected levels and give them the opportunity to learn at a pace that suits them.Purpose: This article specifically attempts to estimate the impact of entry-level qualifications on a group of 14–16-year-olds approaching the end of compulsory schooling in England. The central research questions addressed in this article were; how do the aspirations and post-16 destinations of young people who have taken such qualifications compare with other similar young people who have taken more traditional qualifications, and is there any evidence of such qualifications being beneficial to those young people with lower levels of prior attainment?Sample: Roughly 10,000 students surveyed longitudinally within the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE).Design and methods: Initial data regarding the aspirations of young people was collected from the young people at age 13 or 14 in 2004. Details of the qualifications studied and achieved over the next two years were then collected from the National Pupil Database (NPD). At the end of two years, information regarding their aspirations was collected again. Data collections in subsequent years detailed whether young people had actually continued in education after the end of compulsory schooling at age 16. Multilevel modelling was used to examine the relationship between the qualifications studied by young people and their subsequent aspirations and destinations.Results: Overall, there were no differences between the outcomes of young people taking entry-level qualifications and similar young people who did not. However, the models revealed a statistically significant interaction between taking entry-level qualifications and prior attainment, suggesting a positive association between such qualifications and outcomes for those with low levels of prior attainment.Conclusions: There is some evidence that entry-level qualifications may be useful in re-engaging low-achieving young people in education.
The ORACLE project is one of the most extensive pieces of classroom observation research in Britain. In this article one part of this research, the analysis of teachers' questions, is examined in detail. We argue that the rules ORACLE use for identifying different types of question involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten the reliability and validity of the study's major findings. We also examine the implications of some of the sampling decisions made by the ORACLE team. Our conclusion is that serious methodological problems remain unresolved in ORACLE, but that these are shared with most other research in the field. There is an urgent need for these problems to be tackled directly and systematically.
Incl. abstract, tabl. Background From 2002 onwards, initiatives and first steps for the project International Comparative Analysis of Learning and Teaching (ICALT) have been taken by the inspectorates of education in England, Flanders (Belgium), Lower Saxony (Germany) and The Netherlands. The inspectorates of education in these European countries reviewed the results of research on the basic characteristics of good and effective teaching and selected standards and indicators for an observation instrument that could be used to evaluate the quality of teaching. The inspectorates from these countries jointly developed an instrument to observe and analyse the quality of learning and teaching in primary schools. Purpose The observation instrument was piloted for reliability and inter-rater reliability, and for validity, in the four countries. Sample Mathematics lessons in England, Flanders (Belgium), Lower Saxony (Germany) and The Netherlands were observed in 854 classrooms, with children who were about 9 years old when they started the school year. Design and methods Inspectors in the four countries were trained in the proper use of the observation instrument, and used the instrument during their own inspections or evaluations. Results This study shows that the quality of teaching in the four countries can be compared in a reliable and valid way as regards five aspects: 'efficient classroom management', 'safe and stimulating learning climate', 'clear instruction', 'adaptation of teaching' and 'teaching-learning strategies'. Conclusions It is found that only a few percentage points of difference between teachers are due to differences existing in the four countries. Furthermore, it may be concluded that the five aspects of quality of teaching are positively and significantly correlated with pupil involvement, attitude, behaviour and attainment.
The five papers in this collection consider a range of important issues in relation to the English national curriculum assessment system (NCA). In responding to these articles, Jannette Elwood considers some of the issues the authors have raised generally in relation to a revised English NCA, but also more specifically she considers them from a Northern Ireland perspective in relation to a new revised curriculum and assessment programme that is being rolled out into schools since September 2007. (Contains 5 notes.)
Incl. tables, abstract, bib. Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in the UK over time. Multilevel modelling is used to examine variation between different social groups in attainment in mathematics and reading and to examine educational progress during secondary education; the results of these analyses are compared for the two different cohorts. In both cohorts, the main source of variation in achievement is due to differences in social background; differences between regions and local education authorities are found to be negligible. Changes in the mathematics and reading attainment of the different social groups between the cohorts reflect recognized trends in educational attainment and highlight some trends not previously reported.
The present study examined possible changes in the computer experience and attitudes of 11-12-year-old and 15-16-year-old students following a period in which ICT has become much more widely used in the school curriculum. In comparison with findings from a similar study undertaken in the early 1990s, there was some evidence of a reduced gender gap, particularly in the use of computers for applications such as word-processing, graphics, programming and maths. In addition, more recently introduced applications such as e-mail, accessing the internet and using CD-ROMs showed no overall gender difference in frequency of use. However, some gender differences remained, particularly in attitudes. Boys still liked computers more, were more self-confident in their use and, unlike previously, sex-typed them less than girls. They also used computers more frequently out of school, particularly for playing games. There was some evidence that, as found previously, older girls held the least positive attitudes, and it is suggested that their approach to computers may be influenced by the cultural pressures of gender stereotyping. More general age differences in use and attitudes were also found, and these may result from the different computing applications used by Year 7 and Year 11 pupils at school. In summary, although we found evidence of some change since the early 1990s, increased exposure to computes has not closed the gender gap.
Background: Teachers of sexuality education can often be uncertain about what theoretical basis and pedagogical strategies to use in their teaching. Sexuality educational programmes designed by teachers can often show few evident theoretical principles that have been applied in its construction. Thus, there seems to be a dearth of evidence of ways in which teachers can use appropriate theoretical foundations in their planning and teaching in sexuality education. Purpose: This paper aims to suggest a way of providing such an appropriate theoretical framework for sexuality education teachers of young people aged 7–15 years of age. Analysis: Age-appropriate primary and middle school pedagogies based on two integrated educational theories, namely Anderson and Krathwohl's theoretical framework of learning and teaching, with Verbal Linguistic Intelligence from Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, were analysed and evaluated. Key considerations were the earlier maturing of girls and boys, findings from relevant literature about children and young people's cognitive capacities, as well as the relevance of curriculum content for upper primary and middle school students, and the concomitant need for better and earlier sexuality education. Conclusion: This approach, integrating Anderson and Krathwohl's theoretical framework of learning and teaching, with Gardner's Multiple Verbal Linguistic Intelligence, may be useful to assist health and sexuality education teachers in identifying and anchoring pedagogies in a more theoretically structured manner, thereby enhancing the quality of their sexuality education planning and teaching. Yes Yes
Background: Some authors consider the ultimate purpose of Assessment for Learning to be the promotion of pupils’ autonomy. But the concept of autonomy is problematic and teachers’ attempts to promote autonomy in the classroom can seem both vague and impractical.Purpose: In this paper, following Ecclestone (20027. Ecclestone, K. 2002. Learning Autonomy in Post-16 Education. London: Routledge Falmer.View all references), I suggest that a full definition of autonomy includes children’s independence, proactivity and critical inquiry in the classroom – which by their nature centre around the individual’s capacity for self-directed learning and meta-learning in their lives. I illustrate how one teacher promoted all three aspects of autonomy through her classroom feedback. Feedback is conceptualised as all the comments made by the teacher as a reaction to any activity or behaviour by pupils.Design and methods: These examples draw on research data collected in 2009–11 in which nine ‘profile’ Year 5 (aged 9–10) children and their teacher were observed and interviewed about teacher feedback and ways in which it might promote autonomy. Five lessons across six months during 2010, which were video-taped, audio-recorded, observed and followed up by interviews with individuals, pairs or threes from among the nine profile children, have been analysed in detail.Findings: Findings from this detailed analysis of lesson and interview transcripts suggested that the teacher employed a range of skilfully crafted autonomy-promoting feedback. Categories for this feedback consisted of the teacher feedback during the five lessons encouraging the pupil’s: independence, usually in the sense of the child cultivating a view that might stand out from the general view (23 instances observed); proactivity in learning, manifested through that child’s unsolicited engagement with a topic (80 occasions noted); metasocial critical inquiry, which was subdivided into: firstly, metasocial critical inquiry into rules about life including assessment (60 instances); and secondly, metasocial critical inquiry into relationships, including social relationships occurring during learning collaboration (27 occasions); and finally, most frequently, critical inquiry into learning processes (94 examples noted).Conclusions: I conclude by noting that the teacher’s feedback – whether intentionally or not – had the potential to inspire children’s immediate and longer-term developments in independent learning, proactivity and critical inquiry.
This is a record of an experiment I conducted with my own daughter from birth to the age of four and a half, to determine whether or not it is possible for a child to grow up speaking two languages when both parents are English and living in an English-speaking environment, if exposed to both languages from birth. I wanted to see if I could create an artificially bilingual situation in our home. The only foreign language I had at my disposal was French, but neither myself, my husband, nor anyone in our immediate environment spoke French as their mother tongue. Most of our friends and family spoke no French at all. The record traces her development in both English and French.
The number of women who achieve senior posts in educational management is disproportionate to the number of women employed. This is particularly true for women in secondary education, where only about 20 per cent of headships are held by women. All the female headteachers of one English shire county were interviewed about their own experiences and views on barriers to women's progress. The interview schedule was based on the author's classification of the theories of Shakeshaft and Schmuck. The data are analysed under the headings of: overt and covert discrimination; constraints experienced within the work situation; and constraints experienced through roles outside the work situation and early career influences. The headteachers had experienced both overt discrimination and more subtle sexism and tended to meet both with pragmatism, rather than confrontation. They had avoided gender‐stereotyped roles within the work situation, and were generally free of the major responsibility for domestic affairs. As children, they had been aware of high educational expectations held of them by their parents. Supportive partnerships and minimal career breaks had been important in their progress.
Background: The paper plots some shifts in educational policy between 1988 and 2009 in England that launched the rhetoric of a ‘gender gap’ as a key political and social concern. The rhetoric was fuelled by a rise in the importance of quantification in technologies of accountability and global comparisons of achievement. A focus on boys and attainment emerged, along with new requirements for measuring educational achievement in the context of debates about standards and the growing marketisation of education following the 1988 Educational Reform Act (ERA) in England and Wales.Purpose: Theoretically, the paper explores the effect of ‘gender gap’ rhetoric on pedagogy. The arguments about pedagogy presented here are based on the premise that sex-group is different from gender. Sex-group is a form of labelling and categorising persons as either male or female with reference to a biological classification that focuses on genitalia and reproductive organs. The emergence of ‘gender gap’ rhetoric is investigated within a temporal perspective, through an overview of guidance to teachers about pedagogy published between 1932 and 2007. This temporal lens becomes a heuristic for presenting the main point of the paper, which is that technologies of measurement construct reified representations of the learner. This is used to demonstrate how gender, as a sociocultural and political phenomenon, morphed into sex-group, a biological categorisation, and how this has had unintended effects of pedagogy.Sources of evidence: Analysis of three landmark educational documents focuses on changes in representations of society, the learner and pedagogy. The documents are the Hadow Report (1931), the Plowden Report (1967) and a guidance document for teachers called ‘Confident, Capable and Creative: supporting boys’ achievements’ (Department for Children, Schools and Families 200714. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2007. Confident, Capable and Creative (CCC): Supporting Boys’ Achievements. (accessed 19 January 2014).View all references, argument: Analysis demonstrates the way that technologies of measurement construct reified or ‘ideal’ representations of the learner and how technologies used for measuring sex-group difference have changed across time. Shifts in representations of the learner, from the ‘bone child’ to the ‘gene child’ and eventually to the ‘masculine child’ were detected. These shifts represent a gradual decline in the emphasis on pedagogy as nurture, towards a heightened focus on the supposedly innate characteristics of individuals, in line with neoliberalism.Conclusions: The discussion points to some of the unintended effects on pedagogy and practice that take place when gender becomes sex. If teachers are constantly presented with the message that boys and girls learn differently due to innate genetic make-up, they may assume that whatever pedagogic strategies they employ, these will be ineffective in the face of what some educational consultants tell them are boys’ and girls’ innate genetic features. In effect, teachers are being told that biology controls learning and that social and cultural contexts, and thus their own classroom environments, cannot counter the forces of nature. Some methodological implications of studying gender as opposed to sex-group are discussed. The conclusion advocates a shift back to the study of gender as a historical, sociocultural phenomenon.
Incl. bibl., abstract. Experiences of behaviours associated with bullying were compared between English and Zambian primary and secondary school pupils. Findings showed different patterns in the incidence of various types of behaviour for English and Zambian pupils overall and across age, school level and gender. English pupils generally reported experiencing proportionally more incidents of bullying-related behaviour than Zambian pupils. Proportionally more boys than girls reported such behaviours in both countries but these differences were only significant among English pupils. These findings are discussed as indicating possible differences in the salience of various types of behaviour, which are a function of age and gender in the two countries studied. Cultural and/or national differences in educational structures that may account for the differences are explored.
One hundred and ninety one children, aged ten and eleven, kept records for a period of six weeks of the fiction books which they selected from their school libraries. These records indicated whether books were completely or partly read (i.e. rejected) before they were returned to the libraries. When factors related to the children and their environment were examined, the results showed social class and the provision of school library books to be linked significantly with this type of book rejection. An examination of a sample of the books selected revealed a significant relationship between rejection and the number of words and proportion of illustration which a book contained.
Several programmes have been developed to help support victims of bullying, but few have been formally evaluated. On the basis of previous research and from a review of existing programmes, a Social Skills Training (SST) Programme was developed for victims of bullying, and the effectiveness of this intervention was evaluated. Twenty-eight children (aged nine to 11 years) took part in the SST Programme-15 in the experimental group and 13 in the waiting-list control group. A Peer Nomination Inventory was used to assess social skills problems, peer victimization and friendship/peer acceptance. In addition, a number of psychosocial adjustment variables (i.e. depression, anxiety, self-esteem) were assessed, using self-report. The measures were completed at three time points over the course of an academic year. It was found that there was an increase in 'global self-worth' (i.e. self-esteem) for the experimental group (compared to the control group). However, there were no other significant improvements, e. g. in terms of social skills problems or victim status. These findings have important implications for interventions to tackle the negative effects associated with bullying in schools.
The study employed the Inventory of Learning Processes (Schmeck, Ribich and Ramaniah, 1977) in the measurement of the learning styles of Grade 9 students (47 boys and 67 girls) in two different ability groups, A and B, in the high schools of a selected Caribbean territory. Results indicated a better performance of students in ability group A in Deep processing, Fact retention and Methodical study when compared with their counterparts in ability group B. The sex differences which emerged pointed to female superiority over males on behaviours reflective of Methodical study.
Neville Bennett's Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress has attracted widespread attention for its major conclusion that formal teaching styles foster greater pupil progress than more informal ones. The present paper examines the adequacy of the research on which this claim is based. It concludes that, at best, no valid conclusions can be reached on the basis of the published evidence. It questions the presentation and interpretation of the results and their ‘educational significance’, the manner in which the teaching styles were originally established and a sample selected for intensive study, as well as the statistical procedures by which the data were analysed. In addition the controls for external influences, such as the eleven‐plus, are shown to be inadequate by Bennett's own account. In this latter respect the effects of formal teaching and the eleven‐plus appear to be inextricably confounded. Given a research design that is so seriously flawed it is doubtful whether any meaningful conclusions can be drawn from the study.
Background: Some children with severe learning difficulties fail to begin word recognition. For these children there is a need for an effective and appropriate pedagogy. However, conflicting advice can be found regarding this derived from teaching approaches that are not based on a shared understanding of how reading develops or the skills that the non-reader needs to master. Purpose: In this research, three techniques for teaching word recognition in this context are described and compared: (1) the handle technique, (2) morphing method and (3) word alone. It also discusses whether it is appropriate for such small-scale research to influence pedagogy. Programme description: The handle technique uses an abstract mnemonic cue used to teach word recognition, and previous research indicates it is more successful than the presentation of words alone. The morphing method transforms a word into a photographic picture and a previous study suggested that it might also be more effective that presenting words alone. Sample: Six children between 11 and 13 years of age were selected. The criterion for selection was being unable to recognise any words from the British Ability Scales Reading Test. All the children attended a school for children with severe learning difficulties. Design and methods: A three-condition related design was used. The order in which the conditions were presented was counterbalanced and each child was taught 12 words, four words in each experimental condition. The children encountered each of the three methods and overall each word was taught via each method. Within conditions (teaching methods), the presentation of words was randomised. The number of words that the children could read (without cues) before each session was recorded, following the presentation of the uncued words in a random order. The difference in the number of words recognised between the three conditions was considered using a non-parametric statistical analysis. Results: The results suggest that the handle approach might be a more effective method of teaching word recognition. Conclusion: Research in this area is necessarily small in scale. However, it is ongoing and cumulative, and can give insights into potentially beneficial changes in classroom practice.
Imprecise concepts and vagueness in the field of moral development of children should be counterbalanced by future research by educationalists and psychologists. From a review of the scanty research available in moral development it can be concluded that (1) moral development is more complex than heretofore conceived; (2) individual differences in moral development must be recognized, not ignored; (3) education must present children with worthwhile ideal persons to emulate; (4) bright children grasp complex moral issues and appreciate the motive behind an action, and help must be given to duller students; (5) careful use of terms (for example, character, honesty, and conscience) is acutely necessary in research; and (6) no one theory of moral development seems adequate to explain this many-faceted area. (DO)
In the class session following feedback regarding their scores on multiple-choice exams, undergraduate students in a large human development course rated the strength of possible contributors to their exam performance. Students rated items related to their personal effort in preparing for the exam (identified as student effort in the paper), their ability to perform well on the exams (identified as student ability), and teacher input that might have affected their exam performance. Students rated most student effort items higher than teacher input and student ability items. Notwithstanding, across all exams, ratings of student ability and teacher input correlated more strongly with exam performance than did student effort ratings. High and low performers on the exams differed significantly on ratings of student ability and teacher input, but were more similar on ratings of student effort.
Incl. bibl., abstract. This study draws on information derived from the Census and from pupil records to explore the relationships between the backgrounds and GCSE performance of the 1998/99 GCSE cohort of pupils in an Inner London borough. It provides evidence of substantial differences between the backgrounds of pupils attending different schools and of a strong relationship between these differences and differences in the GCSE performance of schools. This is followed by discussion of the methodological implications of the use of Census data for further research.
The main aims of the study were to obtain data on the relationship of age and sex to children's ability to judge historical narratives with a moral content. Subsidiary aims were to ascertain whether environmental studies facilitated the development of moral judgement, and whether performance in history was related to the level of moral judgement made by pupils.Three hundred and thirty‐four 11‐year‐old and 13‐year‐old comprehensive school pupils were given a historical morality test. The performance of the older pupils was significantly superior to that of the younger pupils and there was a significant association in Band A (higher stream) pupils between history grade and moral level score, although not in Band B. No significant difference occurred between the sexes and environmental studies did not seem to facilitate the development of moral judgement.
Background: the belief that women and science, including mathematics and medicine, are incompatible has had a long and complex history and still often works to exclude women from and/or marginalise them in science.Purpose: this article will seek to explore gender and educational achievement through investigating how such gendered presumptions have persisted at various levels of science, despite perceptions of science itself changing over time and scientific studies expanding, differentiating and becoming professionalized. In particular, after a brief discussion of the historical debates on the provenance and lasting recurrence of gendered assumptions in science, it will try to discover how these prejudices affected the education of girls and women in England from c.1910 to c. 1939 and then, to widen the picture, make some comparison with the USA in the same period, although, necessarily in an article of this length, this analysis will be somewhat cursory. It will then bring the history up-to-date by examining the situation in England today.Sources of evidence: the article will proceed by using extensive local sources in case study research on Birmingham, by then the second largest English city. The comparisons with the situation in the USA in the same period and the examination of the present situation will be based largely on secondary sources.Main argument: factors of location, family background, supportive networks and greater educational, political and employment rights will be shown to have allowed some women to break through the barriers that hindered many from accessing or rising in science. Thus, it will be seen through the Birmingham example that there was a growing yet limited field of scientific practice for women, ordered by a gendered philosophy which routed them into specific areas. This picture was further permeated by class, wealth, identity, contacts, networks and location albeit this was modified by the scholarship system. Comparisons with the USA show that similar factors were present there, albeit in a different context. Twenty-first century sources indicate that on the one hand there is still gendered access and progress for females in science in England yet, on the other hand, there have been, and are at present, a number of initiatives seeking to overcome this.Conclusion: Even today, therefore, whatever sciences females do is affected by underlying gendered assumptions and structural power relationships which need to be understood.

Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed.