Education and training of the mentally retarded (Educ Train Ment Retard)

Publisher: Council for Exceptional Children. Division on Developmental Disabilities

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Other titles Education and training in developmental disabilities
ISSN 0013-1237
OCLC 51822274
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated general education classrooms in one elementary school to determine impact of grade and disability on interactions among students, teachers, and the environment (i.e., instructional context). Twelve students were randomly selected from four strata (mild disabilities/grades 1-2; mild disabilities/grades 3-5; severe disabilities/grades 1-2; severe disabilities/grades 3-5) and observed during academic general education classes. An interval recording procedure was used to collect data on seven variables. Data suggest that differences in the instructional context were present for grade and/or disability level in the areas of curriculum, instructional format, and partner. No differences were found for type of activity, location, or student response. Preliminary findings include: 1) students with severe disabilities, particularly in grades 3-5, spent less time in general education classrooms than students with mild disabilities and were more likely to receive special education support from a paraprofessional than a special education teacher; 2) curriculum adaptations were almost non-existent for students with mild disabilities yet they were used regularly with students with severe disabilities; and 3) number of students with severe disabilities receiving individual instruction varied by grade level, raising questions about how decisions regarding instructional format were made. Implications for evaluating and improving inclusive schools are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: The present study assessed mastery behaviors in toddlers with physical impairment during object and social play interaction with their parents. Poor mastery motivation in object play of children with physical impairments has been attributed to difficulty in independently structuring tasks, limited experience in play effectiveness, and frequent failure with tasks. Samples of free object and social play between 25 parents and toddlers with physical impairments were analyzed to compare mastery behaviors during social and object play, and the relationship of these mastery behaviors to other developmental skills. Children attended to task more and were more persistent during object play than during social play. Social interchange, referencing, and displays of affect were more frequent during social play. Both cognitive and receptive language scores were positively correlated with exploration and persistence. However, children's motor skills were positively correlated with exploration and persistence, which suggests that persistence measures alone are insufficient as metrics of mastery motivation in children with physical impairments without considering other social and contextual metrics.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty students with Asperger syndrome were compared to 20 typically developing peers to determine their relative effectiveness in interpreting social intentions of others and to examine whether with a given interpretation of social intention there were differences in the social interaction strategies chosen by these two groups of students. An independent samples t-test indicates that the typically developing group performed significantly better on encoding conflicts and benign intention cues. Mixed ANOVAs reveal significant differences between groups for rating of a peer as "not mean" based on cue type, and that the group with Asperger syndrome was more likely to cite use of aggressive strategies. Recommendations focus on methods of teaching social perception and strategy generation for students with Asperger syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Parents of pupils who were attending elementary schools in a typical medium-size city of Japan were surveyed. Respondents who had a close friend who has a person with intellectual disability (ID) as a family member or who had experience of voluntary work or job-related contact showed clear favorable attitudes. However, they differed greatly from respondents who have a person with ID in the family in their ideas of independent life of people with ID. Respondents who have a relative with ID did not show as favorable attitudes as expected, and showed only a small degree of concern for ID problems. Question-items were examined individually to determine external validity for an attitude test, using the criterion of the family variable results.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Published literature pertaining to the simultaneous prompting teaching procedure is reviewed. Purposes of this review are to (a) present an initial analysis of effectiveness of this emerging response prompting procedure, (b) discuss work that has been conducted to date, and (c) provide directions for future research. Data from all published investigations (18 articles) in which effectiveness of this procedure was reported are included in this review. Demographic, procedural, and outcome variables are summarized and examined. Simultaneous prompting was reported to be an effective teaching procedure in each investigation. Individuals with and without disabilities have been taught discrete and chained tasks with the procedure. Participants in investigations have included preschool, elementary, middle school, and high school students, as well as adults. High rates of procedural and dependent variable reliability data were reported across investigations. Additionally, positive measures of maintenance and generalization were reported in most investigations.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates use of magic tricks to increase self-esteem and self-confidence of children with disabilities. Twentysix children with various disabilities at both elementary and secondary levels volunteeredfor the study. Participants were taught various magic tricks and were given weeks of practice time to perfect their presentation prior to performingfor others. Pre- and post-test measures of self-esteem and self-confidence were determined using the Self-Image domain from the Self-Confidence dimension on the Student Self-Concept Scale. Overall results indicate that astatistical increase in self-esteem and self-confidencewas notedfortthe entiregroup at the end of the study. Significance of results and their implications are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: A survey assessed attitudes of 1636 Zambian and Finnish teachers towards inclusive education and consequently the perceptions of appropriate educational environment for children with different disabilities. On the whole, attitudes varied but were quite critical. Structure of the attitudes was similar in both countries; factor analyses extracted four attitude dimensions: 1) social justice, 2) meeting special needs of students with severe disabilities, 3) teachers' competence, and 4) quality of education for non-disabled students. On inclusion in general, the Finnish ordinary teachers were the most critical group and the Finnish special education teachers the most optimistic. Most respondents felt that inclusive education enhances social justice. However, pursuit of inclusion in practice, especially the guarantee of good and effective education for all, was seen as problematic. Compared to Finnish respondents, the Zambian respondents preferred a more segregated educational environment for children with different disabilities. Type and severity of disability affected the preferred educational setting and there were clear differences in this regard between respondents from the two countries. Findings support the idea that teachers' attitudes towards inclusion are important in developing inclusive school systems and that inclusive education is best understood as a multi-dimensional concept, which, at the practical level, is highly context-dependent.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Under IDEA, when youths reach the age of majority they become responsible for their educational program, unless they are determined to be incompetent. When considering student competence, the issue of guardianship is often raised. Guardianship is inconsistent with the recent emphasis on self-determination. This study examined guardianship practices as they relate to young adults who have developmental disabilities. Review of 221 court files found that (a) disability label, limited ability to make decisions, and youth reaching the age of majority were main reasons why petitions were filed; (b) evidence used to "prove" incompetence was unclear; (c) ward's "conditions" remained constant following the guardian appointment; and (d) guardianship did not necessarily resolve the areas of concern. Guardianship is a complex issue in need of further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: While numerous approaches exist to gather information from families having cultural and linguistically diverse backgrounds and who have children with developmental disabilities, the use of assistive technology (AT) focus groups holds great promise for professionals. This article provides an overview of a process that can be implemented in school settings by professionals who desire to understand the unique AT needs of families with cultural and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Specifically, a four-phase strategy is presented for collecting information from families regarding their perceptions of school professionals, appropriateness of their child's interventions, and other important attitudes that families might have toward various AT-related activities in which their child is a participant. Emphasis is placed on the right person asking the right questions in the right way to the right persons at the right time and place.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a selective review, based mainly on publications from the past 10 years, of potential uses of computer technology in clinical psychology services for people with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities. The review is organized according to three general stages of a scientist-practitioner working model: assessment, formulation, and intervention. Examples of technologies that can facilitate the work of practitioners at each of these stages are given. In conclusion, we identify a number of practical difficulties with the uptake of computer technologies, and issues for future research. We also emphasize the potential for using computers to assist in staff training activities in mental retardation services, and supporting the advocacy activities of people with mental retardation and their carers.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Facial plastic surgery has been advocated as a way to improve the physical functioning, appearance and social acceptance of children with Down syndrome. However, there are also those opposed to this surgery due to concerns about its effectiveness, and potential physical and psychological risks. This qualitative study examined comments of 250 parents of children with Down syndrome and categorized their responses into positive and negative themes.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Most states recently implemented procedures for alternate assessment for students who cannot participate in state and district-wide assessment programs. The purpose of large-scale assessments is to provide data for evaluation of students' achievement of state or local standards. Promoting achievement for students who participate in alternate assessment requires both understanding the parameters of the alternate assessment selected by the state or LEA. and considering variables related to the student's individual education. This article describes the variables that may influence alternate assessment outcomes and offers recommendations for how the school team can enhance student achievement.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: The celebration of life-cycle events that transcend everyday living are one of the experiences that engender spirituality. In the Jewish religion a bar or bat mitzvah ceremony is the rite of passage from childhood towards adulthood. Twenty-one youngsters with moderate and severe disabilities who attend two special education schools in Israel participated in group bar/bat mitzvah ceremonies. Children were observed during the six-month learning process and at the ceremony itself. Parents and school staff were interviewed as well. This study describes spiritual dimensions of the bar/bat mitzvah experience that were identified and shows that the youngsters could both express their own spirituality and impact the spirituality of others.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify transition service needs by students with disabilities and availability of services in Taiwan. The survey was conducted with 202 students. As a result of the study, eight service categories were identified: medical service, adult living service, working/living environment adaptation, professional guidance, psychological guidance, personal affairs, community learning, and continuing education. Results indicate that (a) the overall need for services is far greater than services received and (b) significant correlations exist among service needs, among the services received, and between service needs and services received.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: The extent of reported information can significantly influence meta-analytic face validity and subsequent conclusions for theory and practice. I reviewed 26 meta-analyses in mental retardation across six domains of information necessary for securing face validity. Results indicate a wide variation in the amount of reported data similar to other analyses of meta-analytical literature in special education.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Friendship is a very important component in human lives, but it is difficult for children with disabilities to make friends with their typical peers. This study investigated quality of play behaviors in friendships between children with and without disabilities and analyzed how typical peers perceive friendships with children with disabilities. Fifteen pairs of children with and without disabilities who chose each other as friends were selected in elementary regular classrooms. Fifteen pairs of children without disabilities and their normal friends were also selected. Each pair's play behaviors were observed twice for 30 minutes. Then children without disabilities were interviewed about their perception of friendship with their friends with disabilities. Results showed that play role and positive/neutral affect of dyads without and with disabilities was different from dyads of normal peers. Children without disabilities perceived children with disabilities as playing mates, but they noted that limitations in communication, as well as behavior problems made it difficult to maintain friendship. Future research directions were discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of student behavior states and contextual variables has emerged as a promising area for research and practice in the education of individuals with profound and multiple disabilities. This paper presents findings of an observational study of ten school-aged students in this population, with particular attention being paid to social and communicative variables operating in educational settings. Comparisons are made with other published studies of behavior state assessment and socio-communicative processes observed in special education programs. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to extant literature and avenues for further investigation in this field.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: A new preschool screening battery, consisting of five brief cognitive tasks, was presented to a sample of four- and five-year-old children with, and without mild learning problems. The sample included 177 normally achieving children and 21 children classified as either learning disabled (n= 7) or developmentaliy delayed (n = 14). Cross-sample test validation was demonstrated when 81 % of both educational groups were correctly classified. The White/nonHispanic group achieved significantly higher screening scores than an omnibus minority group even when controlling for testing language. However, Hispanic children tested in English had a significantly higher screening score than Hispanic children tested in Spanish or both English and Spanish, and this impacted the race/ethnicity comparisons. Using percentage of exact matches, the interrater agreement was 80% or greater for all but one of the tasks. It was greater than 90% for all five tasks when the criterion for an agreement between raters was achieving scores within 1 point of each other.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared efficacy and efficiency of constant time delay and interspersal of known items to teach sight words to students with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities. Procedures were counterbalanced across time of day and instructional groups in a parallel treatments design. For students with mild mental retardation, constant time delay was more effective and efficient based on words learned, percentage of errors, instructional time, and sessions through criterion. For students with learning disabilities, procedures were equally effective, but constant time delay was more efficient across most measures. Results support effectiveness of constant time delay and suggest that interspersal of known items may be more effective for students with learning disabilities than students with mild mental retardation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Education and training of the mentally retarded