Education and training of the mentally retarded (Educ Train Ment Retard)
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|Other titles||Education and training in developmental disabilities|
|Document type||Journal / Magazine / Newspaper|
Publications in this journal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated general education classrooms in one elementary school to determine impact of grade and disability on interactions among students, teachers, and the environment (i.e., instructional context). Twelve students were randomly selected from four strata (mild disabilities/grades 1-2; mild disabilities/grades 3-5; severe disabilities/grades 1-2; severe disabilities/grades 3-5) and observed during academic general education classes. An interval recording procedure was used to collect data on seven variables. Data suggest that differences in the instructional context were present for grade and/or disability level in the areas of curriculum, instructional format, and partner. No differences were found for type of activity, location, or student response. Preliminary findings include: 1) students with severe disabilities, particularly in grades 3-5, spent less time in general education classrooms than students with mild disabilities and were more likely to receive special education support from a paraprofessional than a special education teacher; 2) curriculum adaptations were almost non-existent for students with mild disabilities yet they were used regularly with students with severe disabilities; and 3) number of students with severe disabilities receiving individual instruction varied by grade level, raising questions about how decisions regarding instructional format were made. Implications for evaluating and improving inclusive schools are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since passage of Public Law 94-142 in 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, much debate has occurred regarding how to address curriculum in terms of meeting needs of students within various special education categories. Recently, more discussion has emerged regarding transition and curriculum geared towards assisting with this process, particularly as researchers discover dismal outcomes for special education students post high school. However, discussions and even passing further laws, such as IDEA of 1990 and its amendments in 1997, do not guarantee that these ideas and practices are implemented in the curriculum. This paper reviews research on curriculum for students with mild mental retardation, or impairment. Implications including exploration of functional curriculum in secondary settings and abandoning remedial curriculum are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty students with Asperger syndrome were compared to 20 typically developing peers to determine their relative effectiveness in interpreting social intentions of others and to examine whether with a given interpretation of social intention there were differences in the social interaction strategies chosen by these two groups of students. An independent samples t-test indicates that the typically developing group performed significantly better on encoding conflicts and benign intention cues. Mixed ANOVAs reveal significant differences between groups for rating of a peer as "not mean" based on cue type, and that the group with Asperger syndrome was more likely to cite use of aggressive strategies. Recommendations focus on methods of teaching social perception and strategy generation for students with Asperger syndrome.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study assessed mastery behaviors in toddlers with physical impairment during object and social play interaction with their parents. Poor mastery motivation in object play of children with physical impairments has been attributed to difficulty in independently structuring tasks, limited experience in play effectiveness, and frequent failure with tasks. Samples of free object and social play between 25 parents and toddlers with physical impairments were analyzed to compare mastery behaviors during social and object play, and the relationship of these mastery behaviors to other developmental skills. Children attended to task more and were more persistent during object play than during social play. Social interchange, referencing, and displays of affect were more frequent during social play. Both cognitive and receptive language scores were positively correlated with exploration and persistence. However, children's motor skills were positively correlated with exploration and persistence, which suggests that persistence measures alone are insufficient as metrics of mastery motivation in children with physical impairments without considering other social and contextual metrics.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Published literature pertaining to the simultaneous prompting teaching procedure is reviewed. Purposes of this review are to (a) present an initial analysis of effectiveness of this emerging response prompting procedure, (b) discuss work that has been conducted to date, and (c) provide directions for future research. Data from all published investigations (18 articles) in which effectiveness of this procedure was reported are included in this review. Demographic, procedural, and outcome variables are summarized and examined. Simultaneous prompting was reported to be an effective teaching procedure in each investigation. Individuals with and without disabilities have been taught discrete and chained tasks with the procedure. Participants in investigations have included preschool, elementary, middle school, and high school students, as well as adults. High rates of procedural and dependent variable reliability data were reported across investigations. Additionally, positive measures of maintenance and generalization were reported in most investigations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results from a qualitative inquiry investigating conceptualization of family quality of life are provided. Focus groups and individual interviews were comprised of 187 individuals that included family members (e.g., parents, siblings) of children with a disability, eight individuals with a disability, family members of children without a disability, service providers, and administrators. Data were collected in urban and rural settings to elicit participants' understanding of domains of family quality of life. Themes of spirituality and religion in the context of family quality of life for families of children with disabilities are explored in this article. Families described the importance of spirituality in their lives and their participation in religious communities. Discussion and implications include strategies to enhance family spiritual well being, to provide spiritually sensitive supports, and to promote inclusive religious communities for children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) and their families.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parents of pupils who were attending elementary schools in a typical medium-size city of Japan were surveyed. Respondents who had a close friend who has a person with intellectual disability (ID) as a family member or who had experience of voluntary work or job-related contact showed clear favorable attitudes. However, they differed greatly from respondents who have a person with ID in the family in their ideas of independent life of people with ID. Respondents who have a relative with ID did not show as favorable attitudes as expected, and showed only a small degree of concern for ID problems. Question-items were examined individually to determine external validity for an attitude test, using the criterion of the family variable results.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey assessed attitudes of 1636 Zambian and Finnish teachers towards inclusive education and consequently the perceptions of appropriate educational environment for children with different disabilities. On the whole, attitudes varied but were quite critical. Structure of the attitudes was similar in both countries; factor analyses extracted four attitude dimensions: 1) social justice, 2) meeting special needs of students with severe disabilities, 3) teachers' competence, and 4) quality of education for non-disabled students. On inclusion in general, the Finnish ordinary teachers were the most critical group and the Finnish special education teachers the most optimistic. Most respondents felt that inclusive education enhances social justice. However, pursuit of inclusion in practice, especially the guarantee of good and effective education for all, was seen as problematic. Compared to Finnish respondents, the Zambian respondents preferred a more segregated educational environment for children with different disabilities. Type and severity of disability affected the preferred educational setting and there were clear differences in this regard between respondents from the two countries. Findings support the idea that teachers' attitudes towards inclusion are important in developing inclusive school systems and that inclusive education is best understood as a multi-dimensional concept, which, at the practical level, is highly context-dependent.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates use of magic tricks to increase self-esteem and self-confidence of children with disabilities. Twentysix children with various disabilities at both elementary and secondary levels volunteeredfor the study. Participants were taught various magic tricks and were given weeks of practice time to perfect their presentation prior to performingfor others. Pre- and post-test measures of self-esteem and self-confidence were determined using the Self-Image domain from the Self-Confidence dimension on the Student Self-Concept Scale. Overall results indicate that astatistical increase in self-esteem and self-confidencewas notedfortthe entiregroup at the end of the study. Significance of results and their implications are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accountability is perhaps the most significant issue facing educators today. How can school professionals document that their work results in significant positive outcomes. This issue is especially critical to the many special and general educators moving into collaborative partnerships, given the dramatic shifts in their professional wies inherent in this move. A 2 × 2 "Collaboration Evaluation Matrix" outlines two basic types of information (objective and subjective) and two basic dimensions of any program (processes and outcomes) that might be considered in evaluation of collaboration. Multiple data sources enhance validity and utility of these evaluation efforts.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under IDEA, when youths reach the age of majority they become responsible for their educational program, unless they are determined to be incompetent. When considering student competence, the issue of guardianship is often raised. Guardianship is inconsistent with the recent emphasis on self-determination. This study examined guardianship practices as they relate to young adults who have developmental disabilities. Review of 221 court files found that (a) disability label, limited ability to make decisions, and youth reaching the age of majority were main reasons why petitions were filed; (b) evidence used to "prove" incompetence was unclear; (c) ward's "conditions" remained constant following the guardian appointment; and (d) guardianship did not necessarily resolve the areas of concern. Guardianship is a complex issue in need of further investigation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While numerous approaches exist to gather information from families having cultural and linguistically diverse backgrounds and who have children with developmental disabilities, the use of assistive technology (AT) focus groups holds great promise for professionals. This article provides an overview of a process that can be implemented in school settings by professionals who desire to understand the unique AT needs of families with cultural and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Specifically, a four-phase strategy is presented for collecting information from families regarding their perceptions of school professionals, appropriateness of their child's interventions, and other important attitudes that families might have toward various AT-related activities in which their child is a participant. Emphasis is placed on the right person asking the right questions in the right way to the right persons at the right time and place.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Facial plastic surgery has been advocated as a way to improve the physical functioning, appearance and social acceptance of children with Down syndrome. However, there are also those opposed to this surgery due to concerns about its effectiveness, and potential physical and psychological risks. This qualitative study examined comments of 250 parents of children with Down syndrome and categorized their responses into positive and negative themes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of a training package on appropriate and inappropriate behaviors of residents with mental retardation with internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and the responses of staff to these behavior problems. The training procedure included resident training with video feedback and self-management procedures and staff training with video and graphic feedback. A multiple baseline design across residents was used. Results show increased appropriate social behavior for residents with internalizing behavior problems and decreased inappropriate social behavior for residents with externalizing behavior problems. The provision of video and graphic feedback also successfully improved performance of direct-care staff members. Recommendations are made for further investigation of variables related to behavior change of staff and residents.
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