Biological Bulletin (BIOL BULL-US)

Publisher: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.), Marine Biological Laboratory

Journal description

The Biological Bulletin publishes outstanding experimental research on the full range of biological topics and organisms, from the fields of Neurobiology, Behavior, Physiology, Ecology, Evolution, Development and Reproduction, Cell Biology, Biomechanics, Symbiosis, and Systematics. Published since 1897 by the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, The Biological Bulletin is one of America's oldest, peer-reviewed scientific journals. The journal is aimed at a general readership, and especially invites articles about those novel phenomena and contexts characteristic of intersecting fields.

Current impact factor: 1.64

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.638
2013 Impact Factor 1.567
2012 Impact Factor 1.234
2011 Impact Factor 1.698
2010 Impact Factor 2.475
2009 Impact Factor 1.942
2008 Impact Factor 1.949
2007 Impact Factor 1.71
2006 Impact Factor 1.649
2005 Impact Factor 1.321
2004 Impact Factor 0.995
2003 Impact Factor 1.15
2002 Impact Factor 1.243
2001 Impact Factor 1.071
2000 Impact Factor 0.895
1999 Impact Factor 0.925
1998 Impact Factor 0.766
1997 Impact Factor 0.945

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.97
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.49
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.62
Website The Biological Bulletin website
Other titles The Biological bulletin
ISSN 0006-3185
OCLC 1536426
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Marine Biological Laboratory

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Conditions
    • NIH authors may post final revised version of their manuscript in PubMed Central after publication
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyembryony, or the production of multiple offspring from a single zygote, is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Various types of polyembryony have been described in arthropods, bryozoans, chordates, cnidarians, echinoderms, and platyhelminthes. We describe the induction of polyembryony in embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma and the pencil urchin Eucidaris tribuloides in response to elevated temperature and reduced salinity. Data on the environmental variation in temperature and salinity that normally occurs during the spawning season, combined with the range of laboratory conditions over which polyembryony was induced, suggest that polyembryony may occur frequently in these species under natural conditions. We tested an additional two species of echinoids for similar responses, but found little evidence for polyembryony in the green urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis or the variegated urchin Lytechinus variegatus, suggesting that polyembryony is not a universal response of echinoids to fluctuations in temperature and salinity. The unexpected developmental changes that we observed in response to present-day fluctuations in temperature and salinity suggest that ongoing and future environmental shifts may drive substantial changes in marine invertebrate developmental patterns, and that these changes will be different across taxa.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biological Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyembryony, or the production of multiple offspring from a single zygote, is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Various types of polyembryony have been described in arthropods, bryozoans, chordates, cnidarians, echinoderms, and platyhelminthes. We describe the induction of polyembryony in embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma and the pencil urchin Eucidaris tribuloides in response to elevated temperature and reduced salinity. Data on the environmental variation in temperature and salinity that normally occurs during the spawning season, combined with the range of laboratory conditions over which polyembryony was induced, suggest that polyembryony may occur frequently in these species under natural conditions. We tested an additional two species of echinoids for similar responses, but found little evidence for polyembryony in the green urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis or the variegated urchin Lytechinus variegatus, suggesting that polyembryony is not a universal response of echinoids to fluctuations in temperature and salinity. The unexpected developmental changes that we observed in response to present-day fluctuations in temperature and salinity suggest that ongoing and future environmental shifts may drive substantial changes in marine invertebrate developmental patterns, and that these changes will be different across taxa.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biological Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the quality of recently spawned eggs and of juveniles over five and six consecutive spawns, respectively, in a caridean shrimp Neocaridina davidi with direct development. The potential energetic antagonism between reproduction and somatic growth was also evaluated. The number of eggs per spawn per female was highest in the first spawn, while the number of recently hatched juveniles per spawn per female declined in the sixth spawn. Lower lipid concentration and energy content were detected in eggs of the fourth and fifth spawns, which may indicate for the first time a decrease in maternal provisioning as a result of multiple spawning in a decapod with direct development. This result had no effect on the size of eggs or of recently hatched juveniles, nor on the growth performance of juveniles during a 30-day period following hatching. Lipids were the most abundant biochemical component of eggs, followed by proteins and glycogen; the relative proportion of each component was probably related to embryonic development type. Egg volume was unsuitable as an indicator of nutrient content, as no correlation was found between these variables. The physiological costs of reproduction were evident from the lower energy content of females that reproduced versus females that remained virgin. The lower body weight of the reproductive females at the end of the experiment showed that allocation of resources to reproduction occurred at the expense of somatic growth. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical demonstration of a decapod with direct development.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biological Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The protandrous marine snail Crepidula fornicata has been a theoretical and empirical model for studies of sex change for many decades. We investigated the social conditions under which sex change occurs in this species by manipulating physical and chemical contact with conspecifics. Male snails were either in physical and chemical contact with females or in chemical contact with, but physically isolated from, females. Males were tested both with living females and with empty, sterilized shells. Males that were physically touching a living female were less likely to change sex than the isolated controls, while males in chemical (but not physical) contact with females changed sex no slower than the isolated controls. These results provide experimental evidence that the factor controlling sex change in C. fornicata is due to a contact-borne inhibitor associated with female conspecifics. These findings serve as a basis for future studies of sex change in this model system.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biological Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coral reefs in the Florida Keys have become highly degraded in recent decades, prompting efforts to reestablish populations of vital reef-accreting corals to restore reef structure and ecological function. However, predation on these corals by the corallivorous gastropod Coralliophila abbreviata has been a substantial and chronic impediment to these restoration efforts. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine whether Thais deltoidea, a carnivorous gastropod that commonly occurs with C. abbreviata, is a predator of C. abbreviata. We demonstrated that T. deltoidea readily preys upon C. abbreviata and preferentially targets smaller individuals, a foraging behavior that may optimize the energy gained due to reduced handling and consumption times. If this trophic relationship proves ecologically relevant, understanding the predator-prey dynamics between these species could ultimately aid in the development of a comprehensive coral reef restoration strategy for Florida.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most animals rely on circulating hemocytes as cellular effectors of immunity. These cells traditionally have been characterized by morphology, function, and cellular contents. Morphological descriptions use granule differences and cell shapes; functional descriptions rely on phagocytic ability and oxygen transport; and cellular con- tent descriptions include cytochemical features and key enzymes. Key enzymes used to identify phagocytes in tissues include hydrolytic enzymes, peroxidase, and––in invertebrates––phenoloxidase. Cnidaria such as Swiftia exserta lack a circulatory system, thereby complicating the identification of immune effector cells. As a first step in identifying immunocytes, this study focused on basic enzymes used during phagocytosis and encapsulation; both processes have been reported in octocorals such as S. exserta. Earlier work suggested that there are two populations of phagocytic cells: a constitutive population and an induced population following a trauma-associated challenge. To identify the constitutive immune effector cells in S. exserta in a nonactivated state, we used cryosections of unstimulated animals and the following enzymes to serve as identifying proxies due to their roles in phagocytosis and encapsulation: (1) acid phosphatase, (2) alkaline phosphatase, (3) non-specific esterase, (4) beta-glucuronidase, (5) peroxidase, and (6) phenoloxidase. Our results indicate that in unstimulated animals, two distinct cell populations could function as immunocytes. These cell types were differentiated by their enzyme reactivity and their location within the mesoglea of S. exserta, and have been described as either “oblong granular cells” or “granular amoebocytes.”
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological Bulletin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 25003000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 µm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and or reproductive competitions.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Ctenophores, or comb jellies, are geotactic with a statocyst that controls the activity of the eight ciliary comb rows. If a ctenophore is tilted or displaced from a position of vertical balance, it rights itself by asymmetric frequencies of beating on the uppermost and lowermost comb rows, turning to swim up or down depending on its mood. I recently discovered that the statocyst of ctenophores has an asymmetric architecture related to the sagittal and tentacular planes along the oral-aboral axis. The four groups of pacemaker balancer cilia are arranged in a rectangle along the tentacular plane, and support a superellipsoidal statolith elongated in the tentacular plane. By controlled tilting of immobilized ctenophores in either body plane with video recording of activated comb rows, I found that higher beat frequencies occurred in the sagittal than in the tentacular plane at orthogonal orientations. Similar tilting experiments on isolated statocyst slices showed that statolith displacement due to gravity and the resulting deflection of the mechanoresponsive balancers are greater in the sagittal plane. Finally, tilting experiments on a mechanical model gave results similar to those of real statocysts, indicating that the geometric asymmetries of statolith design are sufficient to account for my findings. The asymmetric architecture of the ctenophore statocyst thus has functional consequences, but a possible adaptive value is not known.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: There are unique ecosystems in the ocean that are driven by chemosynthesis. Whale-fall communities are one of these reducing habitats, and many unknowns are left to be resolved to understand their uniqueness. A new species of the genus Protodrilus was discovered on the exposed bones of sperm whale carcasses found in the waters off Cape Nomamisaki in the northwest Pacific. Protodrilus puniceus sp. nov. was the most abundant annelid to be found on the 2.5-y-old carcasses; the exposed bone surfaces appeared bright red due to the coloration of the innumerable worms covering them. Closer inspection revealed that this species was found in the small pores of both the internal and external surfaces of the bones. P. puniceus shows simple morphology; it has paired palps and pygidial lobes, but no eyespots, nuchal organs, statocysts, or ciliary rings dorso-anteriorly—an exceptional finding in this group. A ventral ciliary band was conspicuous, extending over each segment of the animal. The male of the species possessed paired, separated lateral organs on segments 6-11; salivary glands were inconspicuous. From morphological, biological, and ecological characteristics, P. puniceus showed differences from the already known Protodrilus group of shallow interstitial inhabitants. P. puniceus is thought to be a unique deposit feeder, acquiring nutrients by adhering to organic substances from whale carcasses. This is the first description of this group to be found in the organically enriched whale-fall environments of the deep sea below 200 m and from Japanese waters. Information on a nuclear, 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence is included.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Making inferences about the evolution of larval nutritional mode and feeding mechanisms in annelids requires data on the form and function of the larvae, but such data are lacking for many taxa. Though some capitellid annelids are known or suspected to have planktotrophic larvae, these larvae have not previously been described in sufficient detail to understand how they feed. Here we describe embryos and larvae of the capitellid Notomastus cf. tenuis from San Juan Island, Washington State. Fertilized oocytes average about 58 μm in equivalent spherical diameter. Early embryos undergo spiral cleavage and develop into larvae that feed for about 5 weeks before metamorphosis. Larvae of N. cf. tenuis capture food particles between prototrochal and metatrochal ciliary bands and transport them to the mouth in an intermediate food groove; this arrangement is typical of "opposed band" larval feeding systems. Surprisingly, however, larvae of N. cf. tenuis appeared to have only simple cilia in the prototrochal ciliary band; among planktotrophic larvae of annelids, simple cilia in the prototroch were previously known only from members of Oweniidae. The anteriormost tier of prototrochal cilia in N. cf. tenuis appears to be non-motile; its role in swimming or particle capture is unclear. Like some planktotrophic larvae in the closely related Echiuridae and Opheliidae, larvae of N. cf. tenuis can capture relatively large particles (up to at least 45 μm in diameter), suggesting that they may use an alternative particle capture mechanism in addition to opposed bands of cilia. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Biological Bulletin