American Journal of Veterinary Research (AM J VET RES)

Publisher: American Veterinary Medical Association, American Veterinary Medical Association

Journal description

The mission of the American Journal of Veterinary Research is to publish, in a timely manner, peer-reviewed reports of the highest quality research that has the clear potential to enhance the health, welfare, and performance of animals. The journal will maintain the highest ethical standards of scientific journalism and promote such standards among its contributors. In addition, the journal will foster global interdisciplinary cooperation in veterinary medical research.

Current impact factor: 1.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.335
2013 Impact Factor 1.214
2012 Impact Factor 1.348
2011 Impact Factor 1.269
2010 Impact Factor 1.413
2009 Impact Factor 1.528
2008 Impact Factor 1.28
2007 Impact Factor 1.221
2006 Impact Factor 1.241
2005 Impact Factor 1.222
2004 Impact Factor 1.125
2003 Impact Factor 1.182
2002 Impact Factor 1.148
2001 Impact Factor 1.04
2000 Impact Factor 1.088
1999 Impact Factor 1.103
1998 Impact Factor 1.194
1997 Impact Factor 1.148

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.54
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.25
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.47
Website AJVR: American Journal of Veterinary Research website
Other titles American journal of veterinary research, AJVR
ISSN 0002-9645
OCLC 1480202
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). ANIMALS 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. RESULTS Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To compare effects of training on conventional and underwater treadmills on fiber properties and metabolic responses of the superficial digital flexor (SDF) and gluteal muscles to high-speed exercise in horses. SAMPLE 6 unconditioned Quarter Horse-type horses. PROCEDURES 6 horses were walked on underwater and conventional treadmills for 5 d/wk (maximum, 40 min/d) for 8 weeks in a randomized crossover design (60-day detraining period). Horses underwent a standardized exercise test (SET) at high speed before and after training. Analyte concentrations and fiber characteristics were measured in muscle biopsy specimens obtained from horses before and after each SET. RESULTS Lactate concentration increased 2- to 3-fold in SDF and gluteal muscle after SETs. No training effect was identified on muscle fiber type composition, type II fiber diameter, muscle analyte concentrations, blood lactate concentration, or heart rate responses. Maximum diameters of type I fibers decreased significantly in gluteal muscle with conventional treadmill training and decreased in SDF muscle with both types of training, with maximum diameters greater for horses after underwater versus conventional treadmill training. No change was identified in minimum fiber diameters. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE SETs involving near-maximal exertion resulted in an anaerobic response in SDF and gluteal muscles of horses. Eight weeks of conventional or underwater treadmill training resulted in minor changes in type I muscle fiber sizes, with no effect on muscle metabolic or heart rate responses to SETs. After rehabilitation involving underwater treadmills, training at progressing speeds is recommended for horses to develop the required fitness for speed work.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine whether high doses of enalapril and benazepril would be more effective than standard doses of these drugs in suppressing the furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES 2 experiments were conducted; each lasted 10 days, separated by a 2-week washout period. In experiment 1, all dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and enalapril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days (days 0 through 7). In experiment 2, dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and benazepril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days. Effects on the RAAS were determined by assessing serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity on days -1, 3, and 7; serum aldosterone concentration on days -2, -1, 1, 3, and 7; and the urinary aldosterone-creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) in urine collected in the morning and evening of days -2, -1, 1, 3, and 7. RESULTS High doses of enalapril and benazepril caused significant reductions in serum ACE activity on all days but were not more effective than standard doses used in other studies. Mean UAldo:C remained significantly higher on days 2 through 7, compared with baseline values. Serum aldosterone concentration also increased after drug administration, which mirrored changes in the UAldo:C. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, administration of high doses of enalapril and benazepril significantly inhibited ACE activity, yet did not prevent increases in mean urine and serum aldosterone concentrations resulting from furosemide activation of RAAS. This suggested that aldosterone breakthrough from ACE inhibition was a dose-independent effect of ACE inhibitors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered via osmotic pumps in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a method for analgesic administration to avian species. ANIMALS 14 healthy adult male common peafowl. PROCEDURES A preliminary experiment was conducted with 2 birds to establish time point and concentration requirements. Then, the remaining 12 birds were anesthetized, and 2 osmotic pumps containing butorphanol (volume, 2 mL; mean dosage, 247 μg/kg/h) were implanted subcutaneously in each bird for 7 days prior to removal. Blood samples were collected before pump implantation (time 0); 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after pump implantation; and 3 and 6 hours after pump removal. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS Plasma concentrations peaked (mean, 106.4 μg/L; range, 61.8 to 133.0 μg/L) at a mean of 39.0 hours, with no evidence of sedation in any bird. After pump removal, butorphanol was rapidly eliminated (half-life, 1.45 hours; range, 1.31 to 1.64 hours; n = 5). Mean clearance per fraction of dose absorbed was 2.89 L/kg/h (range, 2.00 to 5.55 L/kg/h). Mean amount of time the plasma butorphanol concentration was ≥ 60 μg/L was 85.6 hours (range, 3.5 to 155.3 hours). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma concentrations of butorphanol in common peafowl were maintained at or above reported efficacious analgesic concentrations. This study established a method for administering analgesics to avian patients without the need for frequent handling or injections. Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To analytically validate a gas concentration of chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for measurement of 6 amino acids in canine serum samples and to assess the stability of each amino acid after sample storage. SAMPLES Surplus serum from 80 canine samples submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University and serum samples from 12 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES GC-MS was validated to determine precision, reproducibility, limit of detection, and percentage recovery of known added concentrations of 6 amino acids in surplus serum samples. Amino acid concentrations in serum samples from healthy dogs were measured before (baseline) and after storage in various conditions. RESULTS Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (10 replicates involving 12 pooled serum samples) were 13.4% and 16.6% for glycine, 9.3% and 12.4% for glutamic acid, 5.1% and 6.3% for methionine, 14.0% and 15.1% for tryptophan, 6.2% and 11.0% for tyrosine, and 7.4% and 12.4% for lysine, respectively. Observed-to-expected concentration ratios in dilutional parallelism tests (6 replicates involving 6 pooled serum samples) were 79.5% to 111.5% for glycine, 80.9% to 123.0% for glutamic acid, 77.8% to 111.0% for methionine, 85.2% to 98.0% for tryptophan, 79.4% to 115.0% for tyrosine, and 79.4% to 110.0% for lysine. No amino acid concentration changed significantly from baseline after serum sample storage at -80°C for ≤ 7 days. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE GC-MS measurement of concentration of 6 amino acids in canine serum samples yielded precise, accurate, and reproducible results. Sample storage at -80°C for 1 week had no effect on GC-MS results.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibod- ies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle. ANIMALS 49 Holstein dairy cattle. PROCEDURES 25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition. RESULTS 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respec- tively, in controls. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly en- hanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To assess and compare results of anterior segment angiography of ophthalmologically normal cats following IV injection with indocyanine green and sodium fluorescein dyes. ANIMALS 10 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Anterior segment angiography was performed in anesthetized cats following administration of 0.25% indocyanine green (1.0 mg/kg, IV) or 10% sodium fluorescein (20 mg/kg, IV) solution. All cats received both treatments. Imaging (1 eye/cat) was performed with a full-spectrum digital single-lens reflex camera equipped with an adaptor (1 image/s for 30 seconds) immediately following IV dye injection and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after injection. Onset and duration of arterial, capillary, and venous phases of iris vasculature were identified and compared statistically between treatments. Degree of iridal pigmentation, leakage of dye from iris vasculature, and image quality were subjectively assessed. RESULTS No differences were found in onset or duration of vascular phases between treatments. Visibility of the iris vasculature was not impaired by poor or moderate iridal pigmentation with either method. Indocyanine green provided subjectively better vascular detail and image contrast than sodium fluorescein. No vascular dye leakage was observed following indocyanine green administration. Leakage of dye from blood vessels in the stroma (in 10 cats) and presence of dye in the anterior chamber (in 5 cats) were detected after sodium fluorescein administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Images obtained with either fluorescent dye were considered to be of diagnostic quality. Lack of leakage following indocyanine green administration suggested this treatment may have better diagnostic utility for anterior segment angiography. The photographic equipment used provided a cost-effective alternative to existing imaging systems. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate effects of laser treatment on incisional wound healing in ball pythons (Python regius). ANIMALS 6 healthy adult ball pythons. PROCEDURES Snakes were sedated, a skin biopsy specimen was collected for histologic examination, and eight 2-cm skin incisions were made in each snake; each incision was closed with staples (day 0). Gross evaluation of all incision sites was performed daily for 30 days, and a wound score was assigned. Four incisions of each snake were treated (5 J/cm2 and a wavelength of 980 nm on a continuous wave sequence) by use of a class 4 laser once daily for 7 consecutive days; the other 4 incisions were not treated. Two excisional skin biopsy specimens (1 control and 1 treatment) were collected from each snake on days 2, 7, 14, and 30 and evaluated microscopically. Scores were assigned for total inflammation, degree of fibrosis, and collagen maturity. Generalized linear models were used to investigate the effect of treatment on each variable. RESULTS Wound scores for laser-treated incisions were significantly better than scores for control incisions on day 2 but not at other time points. There were no significant differences in necrosis, fibroplasia, inflammation, granuloma formation, or bacterial contamination between control and treatment groups. Collagen maturity was significantly better for the laser-treated incisions on day 14. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in collagen maturity at day 14 but did not otherwise significantly improve healing of skin incisions. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine effects of a microalgae nutritional product on insulin sensitivity in horses. ANIMALS 8 healthy mature horses. PROCEDURES Horses (n = 4/group) received a basal diet without (control diet) or with docosahexaenoic acid–rich microalgae meal (150 g/d) for 49 days (day 0 = first day of diet). On day 28, an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure was performed. Horses then received dexamethasone (0.04 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 49, the clamp procedure was repeated. After a 60-day washout, horses received the alternate diet, and procedures were repeated. Plasma fatty acid, glucose, and insulin oncentrations and glucose and insulin dynamics during the clamp procedure were measured on days 28 and 49. Two estimates of insulin sensitivity (reciprocal of the square root of the insulin concentration and the modified insulin-to-glucose ratio for ponies) were calculated. RESULTS Baseline glucose and insulin concentrations or measures of insulin sensitivity on day 28 did not differ between horses when fed the control diet or the basal diet plus microalgae meal. On day 49 (ie, after dexamethasone administration), the microalgae meal was associated with lower baseline insulin and glucose concentrations and an improved modified insulin-to-glucose ratio for ponies, compared with results for the control diet. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although the microalgae meal had no effect on clamp variables following dexamethasone treatment, it was associated with improved plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin sensitivity estimates. A role for microalgae in the nutritional management of insulin-resistant horses warrants investigation. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin concentrations as prognostic indicators for horses with inflammatory disease in regard to euthanasia, complications, and hospitalization duration and cost. ANIMALS 20 clinically normal horses and 53 horses with inflammatory disease. PROCEDURES Total WBC count, neutrophil count, and fibrinogen, SAA, and haptoglobin concentrations were determined for clinically normal horses and horses with suspected inflammatory disease. Clinicopathologic values at admission were compared to test the use of SAA and haptoglobin concentrations in predicting euthanasia, complications, and hospitalization duration and cost. Haptoglobin and SAA concentrations of 22 horses were monitored during hospitalization to test the use of serial measurements in predicting survival and complications. RESULTS Neutrophil count and SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were significantly different at admission for horses with inflammatory disease, compared with those for clinically normal horses. Horses with colitis and peritonitis had significantly higher SAA and haptoglobin concentrations than clinically normal horses. A moderate positive correlation (r = 0.355) between hospitalization duration and haptoglobin concentration was identified. Horses with an increase in SAA concentration between 24 and 72 hours after admission, compared with admission SAA concentration, were significantly more likely (OR, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 45.9) to be euthanized or develop complications.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin at admission were not significantly correlated with outcome in horses with inflammatory conditions. Acutephase proteins likely have more utility in serial analysis rather than testing at a single time point for horses with inflammatory conditions. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To investigate the safety of daily oral administration of grapiprant to dogs. ANIMALS Thirty-six 9-month-old Beagles of both sexes. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to groups that received grapiprant via oral gavage at 0, 1, 6, or 50 mg/kg (total volume, 5 mL/kg), q 24 h for 9 months. Each group contained 4 dogs of each sex (ie, 8 dogs/group), except for the 50 mg/kg group, which included 4 additional dogs that were monitored for an additional 30 days after treatment concluded (recovery period). All dogs received ophthalmologic, ECG, and laboratory evaluations before treatment began (baseline) and periodi- cally afterward. All dogs were observed daily. Dogs were euthanized at the end of the study for necropsy and histologic evaluation. RESULTS All dogs remained clinically normal during treatment, with no apparent chang- es in appetite or demeanor. Emesis and soft or mucoid feces that occasionally contained blood were observed in all groups, although these findings were more common in dogs that received grapiprant. In general, clinicopathologic findings remained within baseline ranges. Drug-related changes in serum to- tal protein and albumin concentrations were detected, but differences were small and resolved during recovery. No drug-related gross or microscopic pathological changes were detected in tissue samples except mild mucosal regeneration in the ileum of 1 dog in the 50 mg/kg group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested the safety of long-term oral administration of grapiprant to dogs. Efficacy of grapiprant in the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis needs to be evaluated in other studies. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine bactericidal effects of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin on clinical isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica at various bacterial densities and drug concentrations. SAMPLE 4 unique isolates of M haemolytica recovered from clinically infected cattle. PROCEDURES Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined for each drug and isolate. Mannheimia haemolytica suspensions (106 to 109 CFUs/mL) were exposed to the determined MIC and MPC and preestablished maximum serum and tissue concentrations of each drug. Log10 reduction in viable cells (percentage of cells killed) was measured at various points. RESULTS Bacterial killing at the MIC was slow and incomplete. After 2 hours of isolate exposure to the MPC and maximum serum and tissue concentrations of the tested drugs, 91% to almost 100% cell killing was achieved with enrofloxacin, compared with 8% growth to 93% cell killing with florfenicol, 199% growth to 63% cell killing with tilmicosin, and 128% growth to 43% cell killing with tulathromycin over the range of inoculum tested. For all drugs, killing of viable organisms was evident at all bacterial densities tested; however, killing was more substantial at the MPC and maximum serum and tissue drug concentrations than at the MIC and increased with duration of drug exposure. Rank order of drugs by killing potency was enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that antimicrobial doses that equaled or exceeded the MPC provided rapid killing of M haemolytica by the tested drugs, decreasing opportunities for antimicrobial-resistant subpopulations of bacteria to develop during drug exposure. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction. RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Veterinary Research