Billions liters of wastewater are created every day from industrial and domestic locations, and while wastewater is frequently regarded as a concern, it includes the potential to be regarded as a rich supply of energy and materials. The creation of hydrogen gas by electrolysis utilizing a solar system is an alternate method for treating this residual water. Wastewater has four to five times the energy necessary to its treatment and a good source of bio-hydrogen as a feedstock chemical, clean energy vector, and a fuel generally acknowledged to play a part in the energy system's decarburization. The goal of this research was to see how well wastewater might be used to produce anaerobic hydrogen. Synthetic wastewater with high- and ordinary strength organic loadings as real-time residential wastewater with(out) a combination of food waste was examined. Hydrogen generation during sewage sludge and mining residue suspensions coupled was measured using electro dialytic methods at 50 and 100 mA. Hydrogen purity has been reached at 33 % along the electro dialytic treat of sewage sludge. Hydrogen purity reached 71 percent and 34 percent, respectively, while adding sewage sludge or effluent as enhancers in waste solutions. The maximum extraction ratios of phosphorus (71 %) and tungsten (62 %), respectively, were obtained while the technique has been performed to waste suspensions mixed with sewage sludge. This study's findings could be used to develop onsite household energy and wastewater recovery systems.
Dietary manipulations play an important role in improving the rabbit behaviour and performance and mitigating the negative effects of heat stress (HS) in rabbits. Thus, this study was designed to determine the modulatory role of thyme essential oil (TEO) in improving the blood metabolites, antioxidant status, immunological response, ovarian activity, reproductive traits and fecundity of rabbit does kept under high environmental stress. A total of 100 nulliparous does were used and randomly assigned into five treatments of 20 does each. The basal diet fed to the experimental groups contained TEO at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups, respectively. The period of TEO treatment was one month during an experimental period of three months during the summer season. Results showed that TEO at a level of 100 mg/kg diet decreased (p ≤ .001) MDA, while increased (≤.001) total proteins (TPs), albumin (AL), globulin (GL), blood haemoglobin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), haematocrit (Ht) and glutathione (GSH). Conversely, the TEO treatment did not affect GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Immunological variables (IgG and IgM), milk production, ovulation rate (OR) and normal embryos percentage were significantly improved by 100 mg TEO/kg diet supplementation. The reproductive variable of stressed rabbit does fed TEO were significantly higher than those in the control diet. Collectively, dietary TEO supplementation can alleviate the negative influences of heat stressed-female rabbits, via enhancing the antioxidant capacity and immunological parameters. • Highlights • Dietary manipulations play an important role in improving the rabbit behaviour and performance. • Addition of TEO to rabbit diets improved rabbit performance and health as well as reduced the negative effects of heat stress (HS). • Immunological indices and milk production, ovulation rates (ORs) and normal embryos were significantly improved by TEO. • Thyme essential oil (TEO) decreased MDA and increased protein and its fraction, blood haemoglobin and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).
Precipitable water vapour (PWV) plays an important role in rain prediction; up to now, lots of different measuring methods and devices are developed to observe PWV. In this paper, radiosonde techniques are used to compute PWV’s spatial and temporal variations and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) using in spatial only. GNSS data (GPS and GLONASS) from eight Egyptian stations were processed for the year 2014. Five radiosonde stations for the period from 2005 to 2016 were used. Time series is constructed using the daily surface measurements of radiosonde stations. The linear trend is estimated by straight line fit over 12 years of seasonally adjusted PWV time series. The PWV in Egypt has a positive trend in time series at more than five radiosonde sites with a rate of 0.3 mm/year. The monthly cycle is a near sine curve and the stochastic errors are from 0% to 5.4% over 12 years. The comparison between PWV estimated from GNSS data using the PPP approach and radiosonde data for each station in year 2014 was done in the near station. The nearest two stations, GNSS station “MTRH” and radiosonde station “62,306”, get a bias of 0.66 mm. Three common interpolation techniques (Inverse Distance Weighting, Kriging, and Minimum Curve) are used. The biases of the three used methods were 1.65 mm, 1.96 mm and 0.61 mm, respectively. The statistical methods of Minimum Curve interpolation are found superior to other methods with mean error at Mersa-Matrouh, Aswan and Al-Arish stations reaching 0.1 mm, 1.0 mm and 0.30 mm, respectively. The minimum curve technique is recommended in spatial interpolation for the prediction of PWV amount.
Certain anticancer agents selectively target the nucleus of cancer cells. One such drug is 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME), which is used for treating lung cancer. To improve the therapeutic effectiveness of these agents, many new methods have been devised. 2ME was entrapped into the core of hydrophobic invasomes (INVA) covered with Phospholipon 90G and apamin (APA). The Box–Behnken statistical design was implemented to enhance the composition. Using Design-Expert software (Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN), the INVA component quantities were optimized to obtain spherical particles with the smallest size, that is, a diameter of 167.8 nm. 2ME-INVA-APA significantly inhibited A549 cells and exhibited IC50 of 1.15 ± 0.04 µg/mL, which is lower than raw 2ME (IC50 5.6 ± 0.2 µg/mL). Post 2ME-INVA-APA administration, a significant rise in cell death and necrosis was seen among the A549 cells compared to those treated with plain formula or 2ME alone. This effect was indicated by increased Bax expression and reduced Bcl-2 expression, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Moreover, the cell cycle analysis showed that 2ME-INVA-APA arrests the G2-M phase of the A549 cells. Additionally, it was observed that the micellar formulation of the drug increased the cell count in pre-G1, thereby exhibiting phenomenal apoptotic potential. Furthermore, it up-regulates caspase-9 and p53 and downregulates TNF-α and NF-κβ. Collectively, these findings showed that our optimized 2ME-INVA-APA could easily seep through the cell membrane and induce apoptosis in relatively low doses. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Background Fetus in fetu is a rare congenital anomaly. Its incidence is 1/500,000 births. So, pediatric surgeons may encounter this pathology only once or twice during their professional careers. Case presentation We present a rare case of a fetus extracted from the small intestinal mesentery of a healthy neonate who was explored after delivery. The extracted fetal mass included a fully differentiated skull and limbs with a celomic cavity. The fetal mass was supplied by a main feeding vessel branching from the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion Fetus in fetu, despite being a rare variant, must be kept in mind when dealing with a neonatal abdominal mass showing bony parts on radiography.
Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance use disorder (SUD) are well-known risk factors for psychosis and dramatically affect schizophrenia. In this research, we aimed to measure the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia and assess the effect of ACEs on the clinical presentation and overall functioning and the association between them and SUD in patients with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study included a random sample of 165 schizophrenic patients who were examined by doing drug screen in urine, structured questionnaire to collect Socioeconomic characteristics, history of schizophrenia, structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ), World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, compliance rating scale, addiction severity index fifth edition (ASI) for individuals with positive urine drug screen. Results Only 14.4% of the studied patients had no adverse childhood experiences. The prevalence of positive substance abuse screening was 18.2%. There were statistically significant negative correlations between total ACE score and educational level, socioeconomic level, and the onset of schizophrenia. On the other hand, statistically significant positive correlations were found between the total ACE score and PANSS score and ASI score. The first most frequent ACE was significantly associated with female gender, lower education levels, low and middle socioeconomic classes, lifetime substance use, smokers, and positive drug screening. Emotional neglect and contact sexual abuse were significantly associated with positive drug screening. At the same time, Physical abuse was significantly associated with both lifetime substance use and positive drug screening. Conclusion The current study’s findings indicate that childhood adverse experiences and substance abuse are prevalent problems in patients with schizophrenia. Given that there is an association between both issues, they may affect the symptomatology of the disorder, the prognosis, and the therapeutic plan. It is advised that a greater emphasis on and identification of childhood trauma and drug use disorder may be a necessary step in assessing patients with schizophrenia.
Background Data regarding the relation between both subclinical thyroid dysfunction, thyroid autoantibodies and clinical outcomes in stroke patients are limited. This study aimed to evaluate subclinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoantibodies production in acute stroke patients and their relation to long term stroke outcome. We recruited 138 patients who were subjected to thorough general, neurological examination and brain imaging. Blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of serum thyroid function [free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)], thyroid autoantibodies within 48 h after hospital admission. FT4 and TSH after 1 year were done. The stroke severity was assessed at admission by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The stroke outcome was assessed at 3 months and after 1 year by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We divided the patients into two groups according to thyroid autoantibodies (positive and negative groups). Results Subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 23% of patients, and subclinical hypothyroidism in 10% of patients. Euthyroidism was detected in 67% of patients. 34% patients had positive thyroid autoantibody. Positive thyroid autoantibodies were commonly found in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism (28%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism (21%) and euthyroidism (14%). 73% and 59% of stroke patients had poor outcomes (mRS was > 2) at 3 months and 1 year respectively with no significant difference between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients. In the positive group final TSH level, NIHSS score at admission, and disability at 1 year were significantly higher compared with the negative group. Poor outcome was significantly associated with higher NIHSS score at admission, positive thyroid autoantibodies, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and atrial fibrillation. Conclusions Subclinical thyroid dysfunction could be found in stroke patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroid autoantibodies were associated with a poor outcome at 1 year in first-ever acute stroke patients especially in those presented with atrial fibrillation and higher NIHSS score at admission.
Background The presented evidence-based clinical practice guideline (CPG) is proposed as a National CPG using an evidence-based and formal CPG adaptation methodology. The purpose of this study was to adapt the international CPGs’ recommendations for children with bronchiolitis to suit the healthcare system in the Egyptian context. This CPG, ‘diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Bronchiolitis’, applies to children from 1 through 23 months of age. Other exclusions are noted. The quality of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and strength of recommendations are indicated. This study is part of a larger collaborative initiative with the faculty staff of pediatric departments of 15 Egyptian universities and a national research center to formulate a national Committee (EPG) that aims to define the topics of, assign authors to, and assist in the adaptation of pediatric evidence-based CPGs according to a national strategic plan. The committee is guided by a formal CPG adaptation methodology: the ‘Adapted ADAPTE’. Results The Bronchiolitis Guideline Adaptation Group (BGAG) reviewed the results of the AGREE II assessment and decided to adapt mainly the Australasian (PREDICT) CPG and for the questions not answered in PREDICT we adapted the relevant recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) CPG. Seven implementation tools were included: a care pathway for assessment of severity, a clinical algorithm for treatment of acute bronchiolitis in the emergency room, a separate flowchart for assessing babies with bronchiolitis, a power point slide presentation lecture for treatment of acute bronchiolitis, patient information in Arabic, a clinical score (Modified Tal Score) for prediction of bronchiolitis severity, and the criteria for admission and discharge in the hospital. A comprehensive set of multifaceted CPG implementation strategies was provided for the clinicians, patients, nurses, and other relevant stakeholders contextualized to the national settings Conclusion Our experience with this adaptation methodology provides useful insight into its utilization on a national level in Egypt. The BGAG recommended the next review of this adapted CPG to be after 3 years from its publication (i.e., 2022) after checking for updates in the original CPG.
Background Through the disease course, different prognostic factors have been addressed in patients with SLE admitted to intensive care unit. For instance, higher disease activity on admission, recent immunosuppressive therapy, infections, renal disease, and central nervous system involvement, all had negative effects on the outcome of the disease. It is still a clinical challenge for the physicians to manage this disease which has many aspects regarding its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and its outcome remains to be explained. The aim of our study was determining the course, outcome, and determinants of admission to intensive care unit in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Results Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus admitted to the intensive care unit in the study sample was 21.4%, and the death rate among them is 18.2%. In our study, the main causes of intensive care admission were cardiovascular causes followed by renal failure then infections. Holding the other covariates constant, a higher value of CRP, SLEDAI, and damage index value is associated with intensive care admission among lupus patients. Conclusion Our study showed that systemic lupus erythematosus patients with a higher value of CRP, SLEDAI, and damage index value were liable for intensive care unit admission. Good control of disease activity of SLE which in turn reduces damage of different body systems is mandatory. Periodic screening for functions of renal and cardiac systems is of great value. Proper screening and prophylaxis is recommended against variable causes of infections. Rheumatologists should be careful in controlling SLE active disease and to balance the doses of immunosuppressive especially in the presence of infection. They should focus the research on finding more accurate infection predictive index parameters to early predict the onset of infection.
Background Psychological distress is considered a threat to the mental health of human beings. This research was conducted at the beginning of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, when most people had limited knowledge about coronavirus, mode of transmission, associated manifestations, with uncertainty about treatment, vaccine, future life, and coping capacity. This study examined the nature of the psychological distress related to the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and coping strategies adopted among the general population in Egypt. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study assessing a convenience sample consisting of 312 participants from the general population in Egypt. Data were gathered as online responses to a questionnaire which incorporated a sociodemographic datasheet, psychological distress scale, and ways of coping scale. Results Forty-two percent of the participants showed severe psychological distress and 26% showed mild to moderate psychological distress. There was a strong positive correlation between the distress score and the overall coping score—that is, the higher the distress, the more ways of coping were adopted ( p < 0.001). This study also showed that the methods of adaptation used by most of the population were based on emotional coping strategy. The most adaptive people were those who work in the health field and the residents in the cities with a monthly income sufficient enough to meet their needs; better adaptation methods were also seen among both divorced and highly educated people. We also found a significant relationship between sociodemographic characteristics except for sex and overall coping methods ( p < 0.001). Further, significant relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and psychological distress were observed ( p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the study population as a sample of the general population in Egypt reported suffering from varying degrees of psychological distress during the COVID-19 crisis. However, the more severe an individual’s level of psychological distress, the greater their adaptation ability was. This study focuses light on the importance to provide appropriate interventions against COVID-19-related stresses and equipping people with suitable strategies for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Background Gradually stepped decannulation, such as capping with fenestrated tubes or tube downsizing, is likely to prolong the decannulation process. The purpose of the study is to determine the differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures, expiratory peak flow, and dyspnea index when breathing through the upper airway before and after decannulation. The study recruited sixteen adult patients with a tracheostomy who were fit for decannulation. Measurement of peak flow rate, aerodynamic measures, and dyspnea index has been done at two settings: first during capping and second after decannulation by 2 h using finger support to close the stoma and prevent air leak. Results Changes in outcome measures after decannulation revealed a significant increase in peak flow rate, vital capacity, maximum phonation, and phonatory speech pressure level; the glottal resistance significantly decreased after decannulation. The dyspnea severity index scores improved from 22.35 during capping to 13.37 after decannulation. Conclusions The results of our study showed that tracheostomy tube capping causes a significant reduction in peak flow and aerodynamic measures which improved after tracheostomy decannulation.
Background Years ago the utility of of ¹⁸ F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ( ¹⁸ FDG-PET/CT) in differentiated thyroid cancer was confined mainly to cases with elevated serum thyroglobulin and negative ¹³¹ I whole body scan. In this study, we try to assess the diagnostic performance of ¹⁸ FDG-PET/CT in recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer patients with positive ¹³¹ I whole body scan and in addition to evaluate the impact of ¹⁸ FDG-PET/CT on the treatment strategy. Results The ¹⁸ FDG PET/CT detected tumor recurrence in 35 (81.3%) patients most of them (91.4%) were in stage IV, while the rest 8.5% was in stage III. No recurrence was detected among patients in stage II and III by ¹⁸ FDG PET/CT. Regarding lesion-based analysis, sensitivity of ¹⁸ FDG-PET/CT was superior to that of ¹³¹ I post-therapeutic whole body scan (TxWBS) (78.2% vs. 69.4%, respectively), while both modalities had the same specificity (50%). ¹⁸ FDG-PET/CT changed the treatment plan in 18 (41.6%) patients. Conclusion ¹⁸ FDG-PET/CT may be complementary to ¹³¹ ITxWBS in high-risk DTC with impact on treatment strategy.
Background Do underlying allergic respiratory diseases such as asthma and rhinitis predispose to a severe coronavirus (COVID-19) infection? We conducted this systematic review to map out and synthesize evidence of published literature. Main body of the abstract We searched five bibliographic databases for articles published between 1 January and 15 November 2020 using keywords: “COVID” AND “Allergic disease,” “Prognosis and COVID-19,” “SARS-CoV-2,” “Asthma,” “Allergic rhinitis.” We synthesized 32 eligible articles from a total of 11,376 articles retrieved from the search process. The profile of allergic respiratory conditions was identified, and only seven studies reported on the treatment administered. No significant difference was observed concerning the prevalence of COVID-19 in individuals with allergic asthma and those with non-allergic asthma (RR = 0.61, p = 0.08). The mortality rate significantly decreased in COVID-19-infected patients with asthma than patients without asthma (RR = 0.63, p = 0.04). Short conclusion There is little evidence available on the role of asthma medications and risk factors influencing the prognostic outcomes for COVID-19 individuals with respiratory allergies, which invites further research.
Background Hypomagnesemia is a predictor of progression and mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, limited data is available about the prevalence and kidney-related risk factors of hypomagnesemia in the CKD patients. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of low serum magnesium level associated with proteinuria and its impact on CKD patients. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 CKD patients with different stages according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), divided into 2 groups (proteinuric and non-proteinuric) in the period from February 2020 to August 2020. Results The number of participants in this study was 100 subjects, 50 patients were proteinuric and 50 patients had no proteinuria. The study participants’ serum magnesium levels ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 mg/dL. Fourteen (28%) of proteinuric individuals had a serum magnesium level of less than 1.8 mg/dL. Hypomagnesemic patients had significantly higher urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) (2071 mg/g vs. 812 mg/g, P <0.001), significantly higher CRP (48 mg/L vs. 12 mg/L, P <0.001), and lower mean hemoglobin levels as well (10.4 g/dL vs. 10.91 g/dL, P = 0.044). Serum magnesium level showed negative correlation with UACR ( r =−0.504, P <0.001), parathyroid hormone ( r =−0.276, P =0.005), and CRP ( r =−0.505, P <0.001). Conclusions Hypomagnesemia is a frequent electrolyte disorder in patients with CKD. Hypomagnesemia is independently associated with proteinuria. Hypomagnesemia is a risk factor of inflammation, anemia and hyperparathyroidism in pre-dialysis CKD population.
Inoculating rice plants by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may be used as a practical and eco-friendly approach to sustain the growth and yield of drought stressed rice plants. The effect of rice inoculation using plant growth hormones was investigated under drip full irrigation (FI; 100% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and deficit irrigation (DI; 80% of ETc) on growth, physiological responses, yields and water productivities under saline soil (ECe = 6.87 dS m⁻¹) for 2017 and 2018 seasons. Growth (i.e. shoot length and shoot dry weight), leaf photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ content), air–canopy temperature (Tc–Ta), membrane stability index (MSI%), and relative water content, (RWC%) chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) stomatal conductance (gs), total phenols, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), nitrogen contents and water productivities (grain water productivity; G-WP and straw water productivity; S-WP) were positively affected and significantly (p < 0.05) differed in two seasons in response to the applied PGPR treatments. The highest yields (3.35 and 6.7 t ha⁻¹ for grain and straw yields) as the average for both years were recorded under full irrigation and plants inoculated by PGPR. The results indicated that under water scarcity, application of (I80 + PGPR) treatment was found to be favorable to save 20% of the applied irrigation water, to produce not only the same yields, approximately, but also to save more water as compared to I100%.
Background Epilepsy is one of the commonest and most serious neurological conditions. It is frequently associated with one or more medical or psychiatric comorbidities. Depression is one of the most common comorbidities. Patients with epilepsy (PWE) are expected to suffer from a high level of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was applied to 290 PWE. Data was collected by personal interviews with each patient using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9) scale for the diagnosis of depression and assessing its severity. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the risk factors of depression in PWE during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results We found that 70.3% of PWE suffered from depression. Low financial status, refractory seizures, fear of infection and death by COVID-19, had close relatives died by COVID-19, had a sleep disturbance, a decreased family support, increased seizure rate during the pandemic, increased ER visits during the pandemic, lack of drug adherence, and decreased epilepsy-related follow-up visits during the pandemic were significantly associated with increased risk of depression in PWE during the pandemic. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic has a serious effect on the psychological and physical well-being of PWE. There was an increased rate of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in PWE with its subsequent burden on those patients. So, these patients are in a high need of care and support during the pandemic.
Background Although Ramadan fasting has a beneficial effect on health, the role of Ramadan fasting on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as quantified by the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), is not determined yet. So, this study aimed to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on patients with NAFLD by assessing the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and biochemical parameters of the fatty liver. Patients and methods A prospective observational study was conducted on 40 NAFLD patients, who were diagnosed by ultrasonography and quantified with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in transient elastography (FibroScan) and fasted the month of Ramadan. Transient elastography for CAP and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were performed. Fibrosis 4 score (FIB4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) were also calculated. Results There is a statistically significant change in body mass index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, serum albumin, total protein, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase after Ramadan fasting. There were significant clinical improvements after Ramadan fasting in FIB-4 (1.31 ± 0.26 and 1.24 ± 0.25 respectively, p < 0.001), CAP (318.52 ± 34.59 and 294.0 ± 20.34, respectively, p < 0. 001), and LSM (6.95 ± 1.62 and 6.59 ± 1.49, respectively, p < 0. 001). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Ramadan fasting could improve liver steatosis in patients with NAFLD proved with a significant reduction in the CAP and LSM.
Background COVID-19 pneumonia is responsible for the latest pandemics. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan is known to be an essential tool for diagnosis of COVID-19. In this research, the relationship between on-admission chest CT severity score, capillary blood oxygen saturation level, and laboratory inflammatory markers results in patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia was investigated. Methods This prospective analytical study was conducted in COVID-19 isolation unit, Zagazig University Hospitals, from 1st to end of April 2021. Adult patients with COVID-19 infection were included. Chest CT scan was performed for all patients, and CT severity score was computed. The initial capillary oxygen saturation was also assessed at the time of admission. The information was gathered and analyzed. Results A total number of 305 COVID-19 patients were involved in the study with the following data: age, gender, presence of co morbidities, capillary blood oxygen saturation, laboratory tests including absolute lymphocytic count, CRP, D-dimer and ferritin levels, as well as chest CT severity score. Based on chest CT severity score, we found that 110 cases (36.1%) were mild, 163 cases (53.4%) were moderate, and 32 cases (10.5%) were severe, with significant male predominance among moderate and severe cases. The initial measurements of blood oxygen saturation values revealed that mean blood oxygen saturation was 95.6% among mild to moderate cases and 85.4% among severe cases. Furthermore, there was a high statistically significant negative correlation between chest CT severity score and absolute lymphocytic count of studied cases, while there was a statistically significant positive correlation with D-dimer, CRP and ferritin levels. Conclusions CT scans can help clinicians in developing a management strategy and serve as a predictor of illness severity and possible outcomes. In individuals with COVID-19 infection, the severity of a chest CT scan is positively correlated to inflammatory markers and oxygen demand.
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