Isotretinoin, a first-generation nonaromatic retinoid, leads to numerous diseases including eye disorders and neurological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, metabolic, connective tissue, and musculoskeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of isotretinoin on peripheral nerve functions. The study included 30 patients that were started on isotretinoin due to nodulocystic acne. A thorough neurological and general examination was performed for each patient by a neurologist both at the beginning and end of the study. Laboratory investigations including complete blood count (CBC), serum biochemical analysis, vitamin B12 levels, thyroid function tests, and urine tests were performed to identify the other factors that may affect the functions of peripheral nerves. A neurophysiological examination was performed using an electroneuromyography (EMG) device. The 30 patients comprised 7 (23.3%) men and 23 (76.7%) women, with a mean age of 21.9±3.56 years. No serious side effect occurred in any patient. No motor or sensory values suggestive of neuropathy were observed in any patient. However, significant differences were found between the pre-and post-treatment sensory and motor values of some nerves. Although it did not cause peripheral polyneuropathy, isotretinoin resulted in alterations in the latency, amplitude, and velocity values of peripheral nerves.
This is a review paper that briefly represents the recursive and operational approaches to the Tau method on solving ordinary differential and integro-differential equations with suitable initial or boundary conditions, and we discuss a new extension of the method on solving a class of Abel Volterra integral equations which can be also used for solving fractional differential equations. Extension of height and canonical polynomials are introduced. Illustrative examples are given in each case to clarify the performance and structural properties of the method.
Despite the discovery of numerous driving and passenger genes that play key roles in cancer characteristics, progress in cancer treatment has not been satisfactory. This is mainly because conventional therapies are neither selective nor targeted. Another important reason is that cancer cells rapidly develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents due to excessive accumulation of mutations and/or epigenetic changes. In light of this, we believe that the discovery of new targets and key genes/proteins could improve treatment options. In this study, tissue samples (tumor and normal mucosa) were first collected from the colon or rectum by right or left hemicolectomy. Proteomic analysis was then performed using the label-free nLC-MS/MS method. We determined 77 proteins with statistically significant differences in expression levels between cancerous and normal mucosa. While the expression of 76 proteins was decreased in cancer tissues, only one protein (RNA-binding motif protein_X chromosome—RBMX) was increased in colorectal cancer tissues. The bioinformatics portal Metascape was used to determine the biological processes involved. 77 proteins with significantly different expression between cancerous and normal tissues were compared with the UALCAN platform using data from the Clinical Proteomics Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC). The results for 45 of the 77 proteins clearly matched the CPTAC dataset. Western blot studies confirmed that RBMX protein (critical for gene transcription and alternative splicing of various pre-mRNAs) was increased 2.04-fold, while decorin protein (a matrix proteoglycan with tumor suppressor functions) was dramatically decreased by about 6.04-fold in tumor samples compared with normal mucosa.
Pearl mullet (Alburnus tarichi, Güldenstadt 1814) is an endemic fish species of great importance worldwide. This species is an important economic and cultural resource for the region since it lives in Lake Van, one of the world's largest sodic lakes. It is often not possible to determine the sex of fish based on morphological characteristics. In this study, landmark-based geometric and morphometric method was preferred to identify the shape difference between male and female sexes of pearl mullet fishes species in Lake Van. A total of 100 pearl mullet fish (50 females and 50 males) were used as material. Significant morphological differences were found between the male and female sexes (P<0.001 in canonical analysis of variance). These differences were found that the male fishes were longer than the female fishes on the lateral side and the head of the male fishes were larger than the female fishes. In addition, female fishes formed a deeper abdominal line towards the ventral side in the wireframe graph. The presence of a large gill positioned cranially is another important feature that distinguishes female fishes from male fishes. Lateral and ventral body differences between the sexes were statistically determined by ANOVA test results.
Background/aims: Liver transplantation is an acceptable treatment for some selected hepatocellular carcinoma. We report our experience of 6 patients with liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with background inherited metabolic disease. Materials and methods: This is a single-center retrospective, descriptive study. Consecutive patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with background inherited metabolic disease were included in the study. The record of the patients was accessed, and the following data were extracted: sociodemographic variables, type of metabolic disease, date of liver transplantation, tumor characteristics, laboratory parameters, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, immediate- and long-term outcome after transplantation, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25.0. Results: Six patients received liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with background inherited metabolic liver disease. The median age was 4.5 years. The median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 29.30. The median maximum tumor diameter was 2.15 cm. Three patients had multiple tumor nodules. Half of the patients had microvascular invasion. Four of the patients had a moderately differentiated tumor. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II is the commonest inherited metabolic disease seen in 3 patients. Median follow-up is 46.1 months. Half of the patients are currently more than 5 years post liver transplantation with no features of recurrence. The estimated survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years are 100%, 83.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Liver transplant for these categories of patients is associated with good disease-free and overall survival, even in the presence of some seemingly poor prognostic features.
Background: Out of all measure systemic exposure to fluorides can cause defect of skeletal and dental fluorosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by fluorine-induced oxidative stress and importance of vitamin D in its prevention is not known enough in bone cells. This study was carried out to investigate fluorine-induced oxidative stress, ER stress, and death pathways and the effect of vitamin D on them. Methods: MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell line was used as the material of the study. The NaF and vitamin D concentrations were determined by the MTT assay. NaF treatments and vitamin D supplementation (pre-add, co-add, and post-add) was administered in the cell line at 24th and 48th hours. The expression of the genes in oxidative stress, ER stress, and death pathways was determined using RT-qPCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: Vitamin D significantly reduced mRNA expression levels of SOD2, CYGB, ATF6, PERK, IRE1, ATG5 and BECN1 whereas caused an increase in levels GPX1, SOD1, NOS2 and Caspase-3 in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell line of NaF-induced. In addition, GPX1, SOD1, ATF6, PERK, IRE1, BECN1, Caspase-3 and RIPK1 protein levels were examined by Western blot analysis, and it was determined that vitamin D decreased IRE1 and PERK protein levels, but increased GPX1, SOD1, ATF6 and Caspase-3 protein levels. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that vitamin D has protective potential against NaF-induced cytotoxicity reasonably through the attenuation of oxidative stress, ER stress, ATG5, IRE1 and by increasesing caspase-3 in vitro conditions.
Composites were produced using medium-density fiberboard (MDF) flour with pumice powder which was mixed at various ratiosby the hand lay-up technique. Mechanical properties, such as tensile and three-point bending strengths, were determined byASTM D3039 and ASTM D790 respectively. The best three-point bending and tensile strength properties were maximum valuesobtained from composites containing 20wt% pumice powder (pp) and 50wt% pumice powder (pp) respectively. It is observed thatthe water absorption rate into the composites decreases with an increase in the pumice powder-to-ratio. The composite filled with50wt%pumice powder absorbed the least amount of water compared to the other composites. All composites were characterizedby scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetryanalysis (DSC). SEM images revealed a near-homogeneous surface partly free of defects and holes. However, lateral profile imagesshowed the presence of MDF flour particles agglomerated and a considerable number of bubbles and cavities that could interferewith the mechanical properties of the composites. The results of the mechanical, and thermal properties suggested that pumicepowder epoxy composites with MDF flour can increase their tensile, three-point-bending strength, and glass transition temperaturefor the pure MDF flour composite.
Cell lines are valuable resources as model for human biology and translational medicine. It is thus important to explore the concordance between the expression in various cell lines vis-à-vis human native and disease tissues. In this study, we investigate the expression of all human protein-coding genes in more than 1,000 human cell lines representing 27 cancer types by a genome-wide transcriptomics analysis. The cell line gene expression is compared with the corresponding profiles in various tissues, organs, single-cell types and cancers. Here, we present the expression for each cell line and give guidance for the most appropriate cell line for a given experimental study. In addition, we explore the cancer-related pathway and cytokine activity of the cell lines to aid human biology studies and drug development projects. All data are presented in an open access cell line section of the Human Protein Atlas to facilitate the exploration of all human protein-coding genes across these cell lines.
Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic infection that is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. CE is very common, especially in the rural areas of developing countries. The most commonly affected organs by hydatid cysts are the liver and the lungs. However, the primary splenic hydatid cyst (PSHC) is a very rare manifestation of CE with an incidence of 0.5–8%. Case presentation A 17-year-old female patient presented with abdominal pain which gradually increased over months, along with anorexia and vomiting. Computerized tomography showed a massive splenic cystic mass. An open total splenectomy was performed. By follow-up, the platelet count and a postoperative chest X-ray were normal. The patient was prescribed Albendazole and analgesics. The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of PSHC. Conclusion Despite the occurrence of PSHC being very rare, it is very important to take it into consideration, especially in endemic areas.
This study experimentally investigates the mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites (CFRECs) filled with Graphene (Gr) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanoparticles. Gr and SiC nanoparticle filled CFREC plates at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% weight ratios were fabricated using a vacuum infusion technique from unidirectional carbon fiber fabric with both 0 and 90° fiber orientation. According to ASTM standards, tensile, compression, and three point bending tests were performed to determine the effects of additive type and weight ratios. CFRECs with Gr additive exhibit improved tensile properties compared to the unfilled composites, especially at higher filler contents and at specific fiber orientations. Also, the Gr additive showed a better improvement in the tensile behavior of the CFRECs than the SiC additive. In general, it was found that the elastic modulus values of nanoparticle additive samples were higher than that of the unfilled composite material in both fiber orientations. Except for the 0.5% SiC ratio with 0° fiber orientation, the particle added nanocomposites did not exceed the value of the unfilled composite and did not make a positive effect on the compressive strength. It has been observed that Gr additives give more positive results on the bending strength of CFRECs than SiC, especially at a 2% weight ratio. Highlights Effects of nanoparticle types on mechanical properties of CFRECs were compared. Weight ratio effects on the properties of nanoparticle‐filled CFRECs were studied. The load‐bearing capacity decreased as the additive ratio increased. Additives and ratios should be carefully selected for the intended applications. Overall, presence Gr resulted in enhanced properties much prominently for composites.
The aim of this study was to analyze the pregnancy process, especially the Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) disease course and attack types during pregnancy, and to examine the relationship between disease-related factors and female infertility in FMF patients. The study, which was planned in a multicenter national network, included 643 female patients. 435 female patients who had regular sexual intercourse were questioned in terms of infertility. Pregnancy and delivery history, FMF disease severity and course during pregnancy were evaluated. The relationship between demographic and clinical findings, disease severity, genetic analysis results and infertility was investigated. 401 patients had at least 1 pregnancy and 34 patients were diagnosed with infertility. 154 patients had an attack during pregnancy. 61.6% of them reported that attacks during pregnancy were similar to those when they were not pregnant. The most common attack symptoms were fever, fatigue and abdominal pain-peritonitis (96%, 87%, and 83%, respectively) in the pregnancy period. The disease-onset age, disease activity score, gene mutation analyses, and regular colchicine use (> 90%) were similar between the fertile and infertile groups, while the frequency of previous appendectomy and alcohol consumption rates were higher in individuals with infertility. Our results indicated no significant change in the frequency and severity of attacks during pregnancy. The low rate of infertility (7.8%) in our patients was noted. It has been suggested that the risk of FMF-related infertility may not be as high as thought in patients who are followed up regularly and received colchicine.
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether isotretinoin and acitretin have beneficial effects on neural tissue damage following acute spinal cord injury. Methods: Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, sham spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury with isotretinoin 15 mg/kg for 14 days, spinal cord injury with isotretinoin 15 mg/kg for 28 days, spinal cord injury with acitretin 10 mg/kg for 14 days, and spinal cord injury with acitretin 10 mg/kg for 28 days. The damage to the spinal cord was formed by the clip compression technique. A neurological evaluation was conducted on days 1, 14, and 28. All rats were sacrificed following the treatment period, and samples of their spinal cords were collected for histopathological analysis. Results: The inclined plane angle was significantly increased on the 14th and 28th days in the isotretinoin 15 mg and acitretin 10 mg groups, compared to the spinal injury group (P=.049 and P=.009, respectively). The Drummond-Moore criterion was significantly higher in the acitretin 10 mg group than in the injury group (P=.026). Cleaved Caspase-3 expression was similar in the isotretinoin 15 mg day 28 group and the control group (P > .05), but significantly decreased in the acitretin 10 mg 14th-day and acitretin 10 mg 28th-day groups compared to spinal injury isotretinoin 15 mg 14th-day and isotretinoin 15 mg 28th-day groups (P < .05). Conclusion: This was the first study elaborating that isotretinoin and acitretin reduced neuronal apoptosis and improved functional recovery after spinal cord injury. These neuroprotective effects might open a window of opportunity for patients.
Background: Frontal QRS-T (fQRS-T) angle is a novel marker to predict many cardiovascular diseases. The present study aims to compare the fQRS-T angle of first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls (HC) and evaluate the relationship between fQRS-T angle and blood count-related inflammatory markers such as neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR). Methods: Electrocardiogram (ECG) and complete blood count (CBC) of 63 patients who were diagnosed with drug-naive FEP in the psychiatry clinic of a training and research hospital and 78 healthy controls (HC) individuals who had applied to the health committee polyclinic for recruitment or pre-military examination between 2016 and 2021 were included. Results: fQRS-T angle was wider in FEP patients (55.5o) than in healthy controls (22o) (p < .001). NLR, PLR, and MHR were higher in FEP patients than in healthy controls (p = .001, p < .001, and p < .001, respectively). fQRS-T angle was positively correlated with NLR (r = 0.52 and p < .001) and MHR (r = 0.39 and p = .002) in FEP patients. NLR (t = 2.196 and p = .032) and MHR (t = 5.469 and p < .001) values were found to be the predictors of fQRS-T angle in FEP patients. Conclusion: In summary, we can conclude that patients with FEP tend to exhibit a wider fQRS-T angle compared to their healthy controls. Additionally, the values of NLR and MHR could potentially serve as useful indicators for predicting the fQRS-T angle in FEP patients. Conducting subsequent long-term studies could provide deeper insights into the interpretation of the fQRS-T angle and its potential connection to cardiovascular diseases in schizophrenia patients.
Knowing the motor branches and variations of the musculocutaneous nerve to the muscles along its course will facilitate the treatment of flexor spasticity and supracondylar fractures of the humerus in order to minimize nerve lesion. In fetal cadavers, the purpose of our study was to determine the number and course of the formation variations and motor branches of the musculocutaneous nerve. The significance of studying fetal nerve variations is due to injury to the brachial plexus roots during birth. Our study was conducted using the anatomical dissection technique on 102 upper limbs from 51 fetuses ages ranged from 17 to 40 weeks. Throughout its course, the variations and motor branches of the musculocutaneous nerve were analyzed. In 13.7% of cases, the musculocutaneous nerve did not piercing the coracobrachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve gave the muscles 1-3 motor branches. Additionally, motor branches terminated with 1-7 fringes. The biceps brachii motor branches of the musculocutaneous nerve were typed. Accordingly, 15.6% were type 1A, 3.9% were type 1B, 35.4% were type 1C, and 19.6% were type 1D. It was determined that 23.5% of the extremities were type 2 and that 1.9% were type 3. The distance between the musculocutaneous nerve's motor branches and the acromion was proportional to the arm's length. There were no statistically significant differences between the sides and genders for any measurement. Our study's findings will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatrics, orthopedics, surgical sciences, and radiology conditions. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic injury and postoperative complications. We also believe that our research will serve as a resource for anatomists and other scientists.
Objective: This study aims to investigate the impact of maternal albumin and serum electrolyte levels on the efficacy of single-dose methotrexate (SDMtx) therapy for ectopic pregnancies. Building on previous research, recommendations are provided to enhance the success of SD-Mtx therapy in the management of ectopic pregnancy. Materials and methods: Conducted at a tertiary center gynecology clinic, the study included 353 patients diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy and treated with SD-Mtx from 2012 to 2023. Patients who responded positively to SD-Mtx treatment comprised Group 1 (n=313), while those requiring surgical intervention due to failed SD-Mtx therapy constituted Group 2 (n=40). Through the hospital's digital database, patient data including complete blood count, biochemistry, and hormone test results were retrospectively examined. Results: The mean β-hCG value was 1996 IU/mL for Group 1 in contrast to 2058 IU/mL for Group 2. There was no statistically significant difference in β-hCG levels between the two groups. Notably, Group 1 patients exhibited lower serum magnesium levels but higher potassium levels compared to Group 2 patients, with statistically significant differences. Furthermore, Group 1 patients had higher albumin levels than those in Group 2, with a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Successful SD-Mtx treatment was associated with lower maternal serum magnesium levels and higher potassium and albumin levels. Considering electrolyte levels before administering SD-Mtx and addressing any imbalances could potentially enhance treatment success. Additionally, restoring low albumin levels might improve the efficacy of SD-Mtx treatment for ectopic pregnancies. While this study suggests these trends, further extensive studies with a larger sample size are necessary to establish more definitive evidence.
Introduction: In this study, the toxicities and management of palbociclib and ribociclib in older patients (≥65 years) with metastatic breast cancer patients were investigated. Materials and methods: Among older patients receiving palbociclib and ribociclib, Geriatric 8 (G8) and Groningen Frailty Index were used to evaluate frailty status. Dose modifications, drug withdrawal and other serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded and analyzed according to baseline patient characteristics. Results: A total of 160 patients from 28 centers in Turkey were included (palbociclib = 76, ribociclib = 84). Forty-three patients were ≥ 75 years of age. The most common cause of first dose modification was neutropenia for both drugs (97% palbociclib, 69% ribociclib). Liver function tests elevation (10%) and renal function impairment (6%) were also causes for ribociclib dose modification. Drug withdrawal rate was 3.9% for palbociclib and 6% for ribociclib. SAEs were seen in 11.8% of those taking palbociclib and 15.5% of those on riboclib. An ECOG performance status of ≥2 and being older than 75 years were associated with dose reductions. Severe neutropenia was more common in patients with non-bone-only metastatic disease, those receiving treatment third-line therapy or higher, coexistance of non-neutropenic hematological side effects (for ribociclib). Neutropenia was less common among patients with obesity. Discussion: Our results show that it can be reasonable to start palbociclib and ribociclib at reduced dose in patients aged ≥75 years and/or with an ECOG performance status ≥2.
Introduction:Although more common in adults, autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) is one of the most common thyroid diseases in children and adolescents. Salivary gland involvement has been described in many studies of patients with AT. Several inflammatory scores are used to assess the inflammatory status of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. We aimed to sonographically evaluate the parotid and submandibular salivary glands with inflammatory parameters in patients with AT in our study.Methods:Our study population consisted of 37 consecutive pediatric AT patients and 29 healthy control subjects. Ultrasonographic and laboratory evaluations of the study population were performed. Jamovi and MedCalc software were used to analyze the data.Results:The volume of the thyroid gland in the patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (p=0.030), while there was no difference in the volume of the salivary glands. Multiple logistic regression analysis was planned to assess the predictability of salivary gland involvement in patients with the disease. Both systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and pan-immune inflammation value (PIV) were found to be predictors of salivary gland involvement in AT patients.Conclusion:We found that both SII and PIV inflammatory markers are predictive of salivary gland parenchymal changes in patients with AT, and SII is likely to be more valuable than PIV at this time.
This paper utilizes the analytical technique (AT) to investigate the new soliton configurations (NSCs) of the nonlinear 3D fractional model (NL3DFM) with its spatial and temporal variables (STVs) which is stretch for the KdV model. The procedure gives a diversity of NSCs to the scientific literature. A lot of new computing soliton configurations have been taken. Some soliton configurations are shaped in density plots (DPs), contour plots (CPs), 2D plots (2DPs) and 3D plots (3DPs) that represent the unidirectional generation of short amplitude deep waves on the surface of acoustic and hydro-magnetic fluctuations in a channel especially for shallow water (SW). Moreover, some effects are manifested via numerical simulations (NSs) that confirm the originality of our task. Besides, we note that totally the NSCs are novel and an outstanding influence to solitary wave theory's existing literature. The chief knowledge of this investigation understanding novel NSCs and hence NSCs of this novel perception through its STVs and NL3DFM. The created process can be implemented to numerous other NL3DFMs. Comparing our studied answers and that got in earlier written scientific papers offers the novelty of our examination. The AT could also be implemented to get NSCs for other 3D-fractional models.
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