Context Yi Shen An (YSA) is an investigational composite of traditional Chinese medicine (Reference: 2010L000974) for the treatment of renal disease. Objective To investigate the protective effects of YSA against membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). Materials and methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were injected with cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA) to create a model of MGN. Then, rats were orally treated with YSA at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg for 35 successive days; prednisone (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. At the end of the experimental period, we performed a series of tests, including 24 h urinary protein, and biochemical, immunological, antioxidative, coagulation indices, and histopathological examination. Results YSA-1 g/kg significantly lowered urinary protein from 68.37 to 30.74 mg (p < 0.01). Meantime, total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) recovered from 66.26 and 20.51 g/L to 76.08 and 35.64 g/L (p < 0.01), respectively. YSA removed the deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement 3c (C3c), prevented inter-capillary cell hyperplasia on the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and reduced electron-dense deposits and fusion of podocytes. In addition, serum IgG and superoxide dismutase were significantly elevated. In contrast, malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triglyceride, circulating immune complex (CIC), and immunoglobulin M decreased in the YSA-treated group. Moreover, the blood coagulation dysfunction was adjusted. Discussion and conclusions These findings indicate YSA may exert a therapeutic effect against MGN through the inhibition of CIC formation, and the removal of IgG and C3c deposition from the GBM, thus supporting the development of further clinical trials.
Context: Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is abundant in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Apiaceae) and grains, and possesses diverse biological activities; but the effects of FAEE on osteoporosis has not been reported. Objective: This study investigated whether FAEE can attenuate osteoclastogenesis and relieve ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis via attenuating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Materials and methods: We stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) followed by FAEE. The roles of FAEE in osteoclast production and osteogenic resorption of mature osteoclasts were evaluated by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, expression of osteoclast-specific genes, proteins and MAPK. Ovariectomized (OVX) female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered FAEE (20 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks to explore its potential in vivo, and then histology was undertaken in combination with cytokines analyses. Results: FAEE suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation (96 ± 0.88 vs. 15 ± 1.68) by suppressing the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, proteins and MAPK signalling pathway related proteins (p-ERK/ERK, p-JNK/JNK and p-P38/P38) in vitro. In addition, OVX rats exposed to FAEE maintained their normal calcium (Ca) (2.72 ± 0.02 vs. 2.63 ± 0.03, p < 0.05) balance, increased oestradiol levels (498.3 ± 9.43 vs. 398.7 ± 22.06, p < 0.05), simultaneously reduced levels of bone mineral density (BMD) (0.159 ± 0.0016 vs. 0.153 ± 0.0025, p < 0.05) and bone mineral content (BMC) (0.8 ± 0.0158 vs. 0.68 ± 0.0291, p < 0.01). Discussion and conclusions: These findings suggested that FAEE could be used to ameliorate osteoporosis by the MAPK signalling pathway, suggesting that FAEE could be a potential therapeutic candidate for osteoporosis. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Diarrheal disease is a common health problem with complex causality. Although diarrhea is accompanied by disturbances in microbial diversity, how gut microbes are involved in the occurrence of diarrhea remains largely unknown. Here, using a pig model of post-weaning stress-induced diarrhea, we aim to elucidate and enrich the mechanistic basis of diarrhea. We found significant alterations in fecal microbiome, their metabolites, and microRNAs levels in piglets with diarrhea. Specifically, loss of ssc-miRNA-425-5p and ssc-miRNA-423-3p, which inhibit the gene expression of fumarate reductase (frd) in Prevotella genus, caused succinate accumulation in piglets, which resulted in diarrhea. Single-cell RNA sequencing indicated impaired epithelial function and increased immune response in the colon of piglet with diarrhea. Notably, the accumulated succinate increased colonic fluid secretion by regulating transepithelial Cl-secretion in the epithelial cells. Meanwhile, succinate promoted colonic inflammatory responses by activating MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling in the macrophages. Overall, our findings expand the mechanistic basis of diarrhea and suggest that colonic accumulation of microbiota-produced succinate caused by loss of miRNAs leads to diarrhea in weanling piglets.
Background Tea trees originated in southwest China 60 million or 70 million years ago. Written records show that Chinese ancestors had begun drinking tea over 3000 years ago. Nowadays, with the aging of populations worldwide and more people suffering from non-communicable diseases or poor health, tea beverages have become an inexpensive and fine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. At present, there are 3 billion people who like to drink tea in the world, but few of them actually understand tea, especially on its development process and the spiritual and cultural connotations. Methods We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, and other relevant platforms with the key word “tea”, and reviewed and analyzed tea-related literatures and pictures in the past 40 years about tea’s history, culture, customs, experimental studies, and markets. Results China is the hometown of tea, tea trees, tea drinking, and tea culture. China has the oldest wild and planted tea trees in the world, fossil of a tea leaf from 35,400,000 years ago, and abundant tea-related literatures and art works. Moreover, tea may be the first Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by Chinese people in ancient times. Tea drinking has many benefits to our physical health via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-regulatory, anticancer, cardiovascular-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. At the moment, COVID-19 is wreaking havoc across the globe and causing severe damages to people’s health and lives. Tea has anti-COVID-19 functions via the enhancement of the innate immune response and inhibition of viral growth. Besides, drinking tea can allow people to acquire a peaceful, relaxed, refreshed and cheerful enjoyment, and even longevity. According to the meridian theory of traditional Chinese medicine, different kinds of tea can activate different meridian systems in the human body. At present, black tea (fermented tea) and green tea (non-fermented tea) are the most popular in the world. Black tea accounts for over 90% of all teas sold in western countries. The world’s top-grade black teas include Qi Men black in China, Darjeeling and Assam black tea in India, and Uva black tea in Sri Lanka. However, all top ten famous green teas in the world are produced in China, and Xi Hu Long Jing tea is the most famous among all green teas. More than 700 different kinds of components and 27 mineral elements can be found in tea. Tea polyphenols and theaflavin/thearubigins are considered to be the major bioactive components of black tea and green tea, respectively. Overly strong or overheated tea liquid should be avoided when drinking tea. Conclusions Today, CAM provides an array of treatment modalities for the health promotion in both developed and developing countries all over the world. Tea drinking, a simple herb-based CAM therapy, has become a popular man-made non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed worldwide, and it can improve the growth of economy as well. Tea can improve our physical and mental health and promote the harmonious development of society through its chemical and cultural elements.
Steroidal alkaloids possess the basic steroidal skeleton with a nitrogen atom in rings or side chains incorporated as an integral part of the molecule. They have demonstrated a wide range of biological activities, and some of them have even been developed as therapeutic drugs, such as abiraterone acetate (Zytiga®), a blockbuster drug, which has been used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Structurally diverse natural steroidal alkaloids present a wide spectrum of biological activities, which are attractive for natural product chemistry and medicinal chemistry communities. This review comprehensively covers the structural classification, isolation and various biological activities of 697 natural steroidal alkaloids discovered from 1926 to October 2021, with 363 references being cited.
Background Despite the importance of root decomposition in predicting ecosystem responses to future climate change, the effects of branch order on root decomposition and the feedback to soil still remains poorly understood. Here we separated root samples taken from two tree species ( Castanopsis fargesii and Schima superba in subtropical forests along the coastal area in eastern China) into four-order classes (1st–2nd order, 3rd order, 4th order, and 5th order) and conducted a 540-day litterbag incubation experiment in laboratory to examine root mass loss, nutrient release, and the influence on soil during decomposition. Results C. fargesii roots of 1st–2nd and 3rd order decayed more slowly than those of 4th and 5th order, but this pattern was not significant for S. superba . Of all the measured root traits, the decomposition rates correlated best with root C/N ratio, diameter and specific root length (SRL) based on the structural equation modeling. Both tree species and root order exhibited significantly effects on root initial traits. Overall, C. fargesii roots decay faster than S. superba , and this appears to be associated with root initial C quality and N concentration. In addition, root order positively affected root decomposition rates mainly through root diameter and SRL. However, no significant difference was found in C and N content between soils below the litterbag with different-order roots. Conclusions Our findings suggest the effects of branch order on root decomposition are dependent on tree species. Moreover, root morphological properties might also be the controlling factor in root decay besides root chemistry fractions. Overall, the integrative effects should be considered to improve our understanding of the fate of fine-root litter and their contribution to soil C and N pool.
This paper mainly studies the exponential synchronization issue for the inertial complex-valued fuzzy cellular neural networks (ICVFCNNs) with time-varying delays via periodically intermittent control. To achieve exponential synchronization, we use a non-reduced order and non-separation approach, which is a supplement and innovation to the previous method. Based on directly constructing Lyapunov functional and a novel periodically intermittent control scheme, sufficient conditions for achieving the exponential synchronization of the ICVFCNNs are established. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the validity of the obtained results.
Asphaltene-trapped (adsorbed or occluded) biomarkers are considered a valid source of information for crude oil with severe secondary alterations. However, thermal stress might change asphaltene-trapped hydrocarbons to some extent. Therefore, it is indispensable to investigate the thermal evolution behavior of asphaltene-trapped biomarkers. In this study, low-maturity bitumen from the Kuangshanliang area of the Sichuan Basin (China) was selected as a sample. The thermal evolution behavior of free and asphaltene-trapped saturated biomarkers was investigated by thermal simulation experiments. The results revealed, in addition to normal biomarkers, also a series of even carbon number n-alk-(1)-enes in asphaltene-occluded hydrocarbons. All of them were hardly influenced by secondary alterations. Moreover, due to the restriction of macromolecular structure, the thermal evolution of asphaltene-trapped biomarkers lags behind that of free biomarkers. Most biomarker parameters of occluded hydrocarbons changed little with increasing maturity. In particular, the distributions of occluded terpanes or steranes retained the characteristics of early diagenesis of organic matter, even if they suffered from strong thermal alteration.
In hydrotreatment of bio-oil, it is difficult to convert the aliphatic compounds with the carbon number less than four into liquid fuel via hydrodeoxygenation. Thus, ideally, the very light organics of bio-oil could be reformed to generate hydrogen for further upgrading the heavier organics in bio-oil to biofuel or fine chemicals. In this study, the pyrolysis of poplar sawdust coupled with the simultaneously steam reforming of the bio-oil (pyro-reforming) were studied over Ni/SBA-15 catalyst at the medium temperature range from 450 to 650 °C for transforming mainly the light aliphatic compounds into H2. The results showed that the effective steam reforming of the aliphatic compounds like carboxylic acid and small aldehydes/ketones took place to remarkable extent from 550 °C, while the furans, anhydrate sugars, light phenols and heavy phenolics of fused ring structures could be largely retained in the resulting bio-oil. Coking reached the maximum with increasing temperature to 500 °C from cracking/polymerization of the volatiles. Further increase of temperature to 650 °C accelerated steam reforming and gasification of precursors of coke, shifting the morphology of coke from amorphous form to unregular carbon nanotube structures (stringed beads-like) and making the coke more aromatic and more resistant to oxidation. Nevertheless, in overall, the coke produced from 450 to 650 °C was aliphatic with low C/H ratio, low thermal stability and low crystallinity, originating from the significant contribution from the aliphatic compounds in the bio-oil for coking.
The degree of polycondensation (DP) has significantly affected the physical and chemical performance of polymeric graphitic carbon nitride (PCN), especially in optimizing the electronic structure and surface chemical properties, thus regulating DP is a promising strategy for improving the photocatalytic performance of graphitic carbon nitride. This investigation supplies a facile procedure, step-by-step polymerization, to synthesize porous carbon nitride nanosheets (PCNNs) with different DP. The PCNNs revealed an uplifted visible-light-driven (λ ˃ 420 nm) photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of 415.6 μmol/h/g, which is approximately 7.3-fold higher than that of PCN. The increased activity of PCNNS would be originated from the porous structure with good hydrophilicity and the higher DP of the heptazine unit facilitating the separation and transport of photoexcited carriers. This work successfully demonstrates a prospective post-synthesis strategy effective for boosting the performance of graphitic carbon nitride.
We investigate the effects of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) preparation conditions and microstructures of the boron-doped polysilicon films on the passivation quality of p-type tunnel oxide passivated contact (p-TOPCon) integrated with plasma-assisted N 2 O oxidation (PANO) SiO x. The B 2 H 6 gas flow, activation temperature, substrate temperature, H 2 dilution ratio, and carbon (C)-doped polycrystalline silicon insertion layer are investigated. The best passivation based on plane-surface n-type CZ-Si lifetime sample manifests an implied open-circuit voltage (iV oc) of 706 mV, a single-sided saturation current density (J 0,s) of 17.9 fA/cm 2 , and an effective lifetime (τ eff) of 2.25 ms at 1 × 10 15 cm − 3 , showing a slight improvement compared with the controlled sample featuring an iV oc of 703 mV. Although this passivation quality is one of the best specifications of the p-TOPCon featuring PANO SiO x so far, it is insufficient for industry application. Detailed experimental studies and a numerical simulation suggest that the passivation quality is probably weakened by the boron-induced defects located at the interfacial and beneath the SiO x , whose harmful influence is difficult to offset by the field-passivating effect. Generally, we provide new insight into the bottleneck of the p-TOPCon's passivation and then discuss the new strategies for improving the p-TOPCon's passivation in this paper.
The expansion of the global population and improved living standards has created an increasing demand for fresh fruit. The combination of agricultural and medical development for new fungicides is one of the most effective approaches for keeping fruit fresh. Both amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine are quite safe and have a wide spectrum of antifungal activity. For the purpose of investigating their potential applications for preserving fruit freshness, we evaluated their antifungal efficiencies against Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine significantly inhibited spore germination and the mycelial growth of P. italicum. The 5-flucytosine showed much better bioactivity than the well-known agricultural fungicide prochloraz, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, crystal violet staining, propidium iodide dyeing, ultrastructural observation and the ergosterol content indicated that amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine destroyed the cellular ultrastructure and membrane integrity. In addition, nucleic acids (OD260) and proteins (OD280) escaped from P. italicum cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study indicated that amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine have good potential as antifungal preservatives for postharvest citrus fruit due to their excellent antifungal effects, and that the primary mode of action was the destruction of the membrane integrity and permeability of P. italicum.
Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a multi-epoch InSAR method for measuring displacements of Earth's surface over time by exploring the interferometric phase of constantly coherent points, named Persistent Scatterer (PS). PSI has shown its superior capability to monitor linear features with long-distance and large-span characteristics. Nevertheless, the interpretation of estimated displacements over PS is a challenge to overcome. Here, we propose a target characterization approach for multi-epoch InSAR post-processing to efficiently correlate the target's possible deformation types and corresponding deformation characteristics. The PS targets were categorized into elevated (ELV) and ground (GRD) groups. The deformation signals are assigned into four types: Defo-Type I stable, Defo-Type II shallow, Defo-Type III structural, and Defo-Type IV mixed deformation based on the ELV versus GRD differential motion estimation. Our approach is demonstrated over the metro network of Shanghai city, China using High-resolution TerraSAR-X data. The seven-year displacements map along Shanghai metro lines estimated by PSI shows that 85% of the points are relatively stable, while only 0.07% exhibits a significant deformation trend. We performed the stability evaluation along the subway by incorporating velocity, cumulative and relative deformation. It was found that the lines that have been operated for a long time are relatively stable, and obvious deformations were observed on the newly built lines and the extension sections of existing lines. By interpreting deformation types, We inferred that the displacements along metro lines mainly corresponded to Defo-Type II, and the areas with obvious deformation involve the superposition of multiple deformation types.
Afforestation is thought to be one of the key measures for mitigating climate change by capturing atmospheric carbon. However, despite the importance of afforestation in ecosystem functioning, its effects on soil microbial diversity and enzyme activity remain unclear. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of these effects, using a newly compiled dataset of soil microbial diversity and enzyme activity before and after afforestation collected from 80 sites worldwide. Soil fungal diversity and soil enzyme activities increased significantly after afforestation, but soil bacterial diversity did not change significantly. Among these soil enzymes, the activities of β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), urease (UREA), alkaline phosphatase (AP), dehydrogenase (DEH), and catalase (CAT) increased by 104.7%, 84.0%, 101.7%, 199.2%, and 58.3%, respectively. The responses of soil microbial diversity and enzyme activities varied across afforestation durations, climate zones, prior land use types, and species. Specifically, soil bacterial diversity and the activity of BG increased significantly with afforestation duration, and the increase in BG activity was higher in tropical than in temperate zones. In degraded sites, both soil microbial diversity and enzyme activities significantly increased after afforestation. In addition, structural equation models showed that soil carbon content, nitrogen content, and soil pH value were significant driving factors for the soil microbial community diversity and soil enzyme activities. Overall, our results provided a comprehensive understanding of the changes in soil microbial diversity and enzyme activity under different afforestation conditions, as well as scientific bases for locally adapted afforestation in the future.
Dragon fruit or pitaya has important practical and economic value that is cultivated widely in the world. In order to meet the market demand for pitaya seedlings, vitro (tissue) culture is the most widely and practical technique, which cultivated in greenhouses and the intensity and quality of light is also important factor for plant photosynthesis. However, little information was obtained about the molecular and metabolite basis on the diﬀerent light spectra (quality) cultivation conditions in pitaya seedlings. Therefore, metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses were conducted in this study, to explore the effects of different light quality and wavelength ratios on the growth of pitaya plantlets. The results have shown that different light spectra can significantly change the growth, physiological and morphological in pitaya plants. Red light significantly inhibited biomass, stem diameter, and cross-sectional area (CSA) of pitaya plantlets, while blue light can alleviate this inhibition, and 1 Red+ 2 Blue mixture light (1R2B) had the best effect on pitaya plants. Red light also promoted plant height, while blue light inhibited this phenomenon. In addition, the results also showed that the red light significantly influences primary metabolic processes in pitaya plantlets, including glucose metabolism and photosynthesis. And the expression of genes and accumulation of metabolites in these pathways were reduced by red light treatment, while blue light can change this negative pattern. Furthermore, the accumulation of sucrose, glucose, fructose, fructose-6-phosphate, fatty acid, and flavonoids were found to significantly increased in 1R2B treatment group of pitaya plantlets, which further regulation the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) pathway in the energy metabolism process. Therefore, the results suggested that the mixture light quality (1R2B) may be the best condition for the high-quality cultivation of pitaya seedlings in the present study.
The chemical structures of nine cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the branches and leaves of Elaeocarpus sylvestris (Elaeocarpaceae), including undescribed 29-hydroxymogroside I E2, epimogroside I E2, epimogroside I E1, 24-oxomogroside I E1, and 11-O-acetylmogroside I E1, were determined using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The absolute configuration of 29-hydroxymogroside I E2 was confirmed by performing an X-ray diffraction analysis. Cucurbitacin D and 11-O-acetylmogroside I E1 showed cytotoxicity toward human leukemia HL-60, human lung adenocarcinoma A549, human hepatoma SMMC-7721, human breast cancer MCF-7, and human colon cancer SW480 cell lines. The presence of a 11-O-acetyl group might increase the cytotoxicity of this type of triterpenoids.
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