York St John University
  • York, United Kingdom
Recent publications
The Dark Triad traits are considered a male-centric framework of personality with women generally scoring lower on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Research has examined the drivers behind this relationship attributing effects mostly to biological or evolutionary reasons with less work understanding environmental factors. To date, no research has examined the relationship between the Dark Triad and attitudes towards feminism. Three hundred and forty-three participants completed self-report measures of the Dark Triad and feminist attitudes. Results reported no differences between men and women on feminist attitudes, but men scored higher on the Dark Triad. Multiple linear regression indicated a negative association between the Dark Triad and feminist attitudes with all three traits significantly negatively contributing to the model. In all cases, this effect was stronger in men. These findings suggest that whilst men and women hold similar feminist attitudes, Dark Triad traits may facilitate a disregard for feminism.
The effects of pre-meal whey protein consumption on acute food intake and subsequent energy balance measured over 48-h was investigated in males of healthy-weight (HW) or living with overweight and obesity (OV/OB). On two separate trial days, following a controlled breakfast (09:00) and lunch (13:00), 12 HW and 12 OV/OB males consumed either whey protein (20 g) or flavoured water beverages (16:40), and ad libitum test meal (17:00). A controlled 48-h assessment of energy intake and expenditure was used to determine any compensatory behaviour. Test meal energy intake reduced 15.9 % in HW (P = 0.003), and 17.8 % in OV/OB (P = 0.005) following whey protein, compared to placebo. We report no between-group differences and no changes in compensatory behaviour. A small dose of whey protein reduces energy intake at the next meal, without upregulating compensatory behaviours in both HW and OV/OB males. However, chronic effects on body composition and weight loss remain to be elucidated.
Background: Exercise has been suggested to counteract specific complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its role as a therapeutic option remains poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise in IBD. Methods: Five databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL and SPORTDiscus) and three registers (Clinicaltrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and ISRCTN) were searched from inception to September 2022, for studies assessing the effects of structured exercise of at least 4 weeks duration on physiological and/or psychological outcomes in adults with IBD. Two independent reviewers screened records, assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB 2.0) and ROBINS-I tools, and evaluated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE method. Data were meta-analysed using a random-effects model. Results: From 4,123 citations, 15 studies (9 RCTs) were included, comprising of 637 participants (36% male). Pooled evidence from six RCTs indicated that exercise improved disease activity (SMD = -0.44; 95% CI [-0.82 to -0.07]; p = 0.02), but not disease-specific quality of life (QOL) (IBDQ total score; MD = 3.52; -2.00 to 9.04; p = 0.21) when compared to controls. Although meta-analysis could not be performed for other outcomes, benefits were identified in fatigue, muscular function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, bone mineral density and psychological well-being. Fourteen exercise-related non-serious adverse events occurred. The overall certainty of evidence was low for disease activity and very low for HRQOL as a result of downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision. Conclusions: Structured exercise programmes improve disease activity, but not disease-specific QOL. Defining an optimal exercise prescription and synthesis of evidence in other outcomes, was limited by insufficient well-designed studies to ascertain the true effect of exercise training. This warrants further large-scale randomised trials employing standard exercise prescription to verify this effect to enable the implementation into clinical practice. Registration: This systematic review was prospectively registered in an international database of systematic reviews in health-related research (CRD42017077992; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
This article addresses the complex issues surrounding trans youths' shared care perceived by parents in primary care settings in the UK. The analyses in this article draws on qualitative data derived from an online survey of 153 parents with trans children. Through the conceptual framework of healthcare assemblages, findings suggest that quality shared care for trans youth is based upon transient service relationships inherent in their healthcare-primary care, gender identity services, endocrinologists, and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAHMS)-and, as such, this complexity must be understood better by GPs in order for quality shared care to be administered. We explored various blockages to quality shared care within primary care surgeries that produced limit situations, such as lack of knowledge, training, or experience with trans healthcare. One other key factor was that there were strong external forces that were limiting trans youths' quality shared care in the form of abject depictions from beyond the consultation, which all produced negative effects. Despite these blockages, we also demonstrate how and where quality shared care is received. For instance, we show that continuity of care or treatment after an initial diagnosis or assessment contributes to quality shared care as too does personalized care to those youths receiving it. Overall, this research provides insights into the complex perceptions of parents about what quality shared care is and ought to be for trans youth.
Living within state care can have detrimental effects on children’s development, as substantial research has proposed. Recognising how music-making may support children’s social, emotional and personal development, many cultural organisations have begun developing music projects that work specifically with care-experienced children. Although evaluation has detailed the various benefits these projects may have, there has been little research into the approaches employed by the facilitators who deliver these projects. With this in mind, this article examines a community music project that focused on foster family music-making. It explores the facilitators’ social pedagogical approach to music-making and the benefits participants report they have gained from the project, both to themselves and the children in their care.
Autistic adults are likely to receive comorbid mental health diagnoses, however, the recommended therapies for these difficulties often fail to meet their diverse needs. Currently, recommended adaptations for therapies are confined to local clinical practices and are therefore widely variable. This qualitative study sought specialist opinion on achievable adaptations to psychological and occupational therapy with autistic clients, as well as adaptations for full service design. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians from a specialist assessment and therapy service in the UK. Clinicians described autism-related difficulties to be considered when designing services; they described the changes implemented within therapy and by the service as a whole. These included increasing understanding of what clients can expect when travelling, arriving and waiting for therapy, agreeing social etiquette within therapy appointments, reducing sensory demands such as from noise, smells and patterns in the environment and working systemically with families and care services. The solution-focused insights are intended to support practitioners working across specialist and non-specialist services by sharing the knowledge from specialist services that good practice guidance calls for. The findings are preliminary and need to be considered alongside descriptions of good practice from autistic people.
Research has attested to the importance of three lower-order executive functions (EFs; inhibition, shifting, and updating) and visual attention (VA) for sport performance. However, there is limited research examining the association between EF and VA in sport. The present study systematically reviewed literature from Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, APA PsycInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Discover EBSCO that examined both EF and VA in sport following PRISMA guidelines. Experiments that were full-texts published in English, contained original data, quantitatively measured EF and VA, and allowed for direct or inferred comments on the relationship between EF and VA were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two experiments met the inclusion criteria. Results showed large discrepancies in the labelling of sporting expertise, that EF outcomes typically focus on response accuracy over response time, and that quiet eye and number and duration of fixations are popular VA variables. Though limited, studies comparing EF and VA directly indicated a positive relationship suggesting an important link between the two. In sum, more direct assessments of the association between EF and VA are needed to understand their respective and joint contribution to sport performance.
This article draws upon the work of John Caputo to explore ways of reframing faith in God in a manner congruent with a postmodern sensibility. The heart of this shift lies in moving away from an ontological starting point that objectifies the being of God, towards an attempt to analyse the lived experience of faith in terms of an orientation to ‘the impossible’, an existential response to a call, and the embrace of radical uncertainty in pursuit of a transformed world. The article concludes that this is not atheism; God is profiled in terms of promise, call and event.
In Germany, the medical device industry constitutes a cornerstone of the health sector. In this study, we investigated the challenges and factors affecting the present-day performance of German SMEs concerned with medical devices. The research methodology adopted a cross-sectional and correlational research design, with simple random-sampling techniques, to data obtained from 110 mid-level and senior managers in German SMEs by means of an online structured survey in August 2022. We statistically validated our study data using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) testing, and Bartlett’s test, to assess the relationship between study variables and measure data adequacy using the R4.1.1(21) software, then carried out principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax factor loading and extracted six factors for use as research variables. The researchers also applied descriptive data analysis techniques using SPSS.21. The main study variables were: (1) the business performance of small and medium businesses (SMP); (2) their financial situation (SMEF); and (3) their implementation of new medical device industry regulations (MDR). By such statistical means, results confirmed poorer business performance and lower anticipated growth amongst SMEs affected by MDR, over and above the impacts of the present-day economic situation. The data can be used by management information systems (MIS) and decision system support professionals for planning and developing practical models about how to cope with current industry challenges. We recommend further research involving inferential analysis and triangulation of these data in the form of a semi-structured qualitative study in the larger scope of the population and different sectors.
Using a self-determination theory (SDT) framework, the aims of our study were to examine the perfectionism-exercise dependence relationships, and whether basic psychological needs and introjected regulation explained these relationships. Distance runners (n = 260, M age: = 42.41 years; SD: = 11.95 years, n = 144 female) completed measures of multidimensional perfectionism (self-oriented perfectionism (SOP); socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP)), basic psychological need satisfaction and thwarting, introjected regulation, and exercise dependence. Bivariate correlations revealed significant positive SOP-exercise dependence and SPP-exercise dependence relationships. Structural equation modelling suggested that, in combination, perfectionism, basic psychological need satisfaction/thwarting and introjected regulation accounted for large amounts of variance in exercise dependence. Tests of indirect effects showed that the SPP-exercise dependence relationship was mediated by basic psychological need thwarting and introjected regulation. Our findings suggest that while the SOP-exercise dependence relationship is more direct, need thwarting and introjected regulation represent a motivational signature of SPP and exercise dependence.
This study explores the connection between Christianity and environmental concern among a sample of 23,714 13- to 15-year-old students (who self-identify as Christian or self-identify as no religion) employing three scales of Attitude toward Christianity, Conservative Christian Belief, and Environmental Concern and Behaviour, together with measures of personality, church attendance, and personal prayer. The key findings are that: religious behaviours, church attendance and personal prayer, are significant predictors, with churchgoing and praying students holding higher levels of environmental concern and behaviour; religious affect is more significant than religious behaviours, with a positive attitude toward Christianity accounting for greater variance than churchgoing and prayer in predicting higher levels of environmental concern and behaviour; conservative Christian belief is associated with lower levels of environmental concern and behaviour (after taking into account religious practice and religious affect); and nominal Christian affiliation is associated with lower levels of environmental concern and behaviour.
Gender is consequential in adventure tourism, where women are systemically underrepresented. Despite significant attention to the affective experiences of tourists, the gendered differences produced through affective experiences, and their implications for inclusivity in adventure activities and places, has been little explored. To address this, we examine the sensory and emotional politics of grading professional women mountaineers' bodies, and its relationality with managing social and physical risk, through mobile video, interview and reflexive ethnography. We highlight the affective intensities of maintaining professional status, as regulated through prevailing masculine ideals, requiring women to perform significant emotional labour when working in high-risk environments by developing extreme strategies to alleviate stress. This elucidates how power-laden affective relations create and deny inclusion in adventure spaces.
Animal methods bias in scientific publishing is a newly defined type of publishing bias describing a preference for animal-based methods where they may not be necessary or where nonanimal-based methods may already be suitable, which impacts the likelihood or timeliness of a manuscript being accepted for publication. This article covers the output from a workshop between stakeholders in publishing, academia, industry, government, and non-governmental organizations. The intent of the workshop was to exchange perspectives on the prevalence, causes, and impact of animal methods bias in scientific publishing, as well as to explore mitigation strategies. Output from the workshop includes summaries of presentations, breakout group discussions, participant polling results, and a synthesis of recommendations for mitigation. Overall, participants felt that animal methods bias has a meaningful impact on scientific publishing, though more evidence is needed to demonstrate its prevalence. Significant consequences of this bias that were identified include the unnecessary use of animals in scientific procedures, the continued reliance on animals in research-even where suitable nonanimal methods exist, poor rates of clinical translation, delays in publication, and negative impacts on career trajectories in science. Workshop participants offered recommendations for journals, publishers, funders, governments, and other policy makers, as well as the scientific community at large, to reduce the prevalence and impacts of animal methods bias. The workshop resulted in the creation of working groups committed to addressing animal methods bias and activities are ongoing.
The last 25 years have seen a dramatic shift in tuition fee policy in England. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to understand the motivations behind policy setting, comparing the pivotal reviews undertaken by Dearing, Browne and Augar. It concludes that four themes may have influenced tuition fee policy making: national politics and political narrative; the marketisation and neoliberalisation of HE; the link between the costs and benefits of education; and the pressures of the economic environment.
Background Abdominal wall hernia (AWH) affects mental health and mental health questions are frequently included within Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMS) for this patient population. However, these questions have not been informed by the subjective lived experiences of mental health in AWH patients. This study is the first to qualitatively examine how AWH affects patients’ mental health.Methods Fifteen patients were interviewed from a purposive sample of AWH patients until no new themes emerged. Interviews explored patient thoughts and experiences of AWH and mental health. Data were examined using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA).ResultsThree key themes pertaining to mental health were identified: “psychological and emotional distress”, “identity disruption” and “coping mechanisms and support systems”.Conclusion Our findings illustrate that AWH is a pathology that can have a significant detrimental impact on people’s mental health. This impact has implications for patient care and can be treated and managed through better psychological support. This support may positively affect AWH patient’s experience and outcomes in terms of quality of life. This paper provides recommendations for improved AWH patient care in regard to mental health.
Despite the recent advancements in Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology, safety still remains a key challenge for their commercialisation and development. One of the major systems influencing the safety of AVs is its navigation system. Road localisation of autonomous vehicles is reliant on consistent accurate Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning information. The GNSS relies on a number of satellites to perform triangulation and may experience signal loss around tall buildings, bridges, tunnels, trees, etc. We previously proposed the Wheel Odometry Neural Network (WhONet) as an approach to provide continuous positioning information in the absence of the GNSS signals. We achieved this by integrating the GNSS output with the wheel encoders’ measurements from the vehicle whilst also learning the uncertainties present in the position estimation. However, the positioning problem is a safety critical one and thus requires a qualitative assessment of the reasons for the predictions of the WhONet model at any point of use. There is therefore the need to provide explanations for the WhONet’s predictions to justify its reliability and thus provide a higher level of transparency and accountability to relevant stakeholders. Explainability in this work is achieved through the use of Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) to examine the decision-making process of the WhONet model on an Inertial and Odometry Vehicle Navigation Benchmark Data subset describing an approximate straight-line trajectory. Our study shows that on an approximate straight-line motion, the two rear wheels are responsible for the most increase in the position uncertainty estimation error compared to the two front wheels.KeywordsWheel odometryAutonomous vehiclesInertial navigation systemDeep learningExplainable machine learningGNSS outagePositioningNeural networks
This paper provides a review of the use of action learning in healthcare organisations, or by healthcare professionals, in the past decade, as evidenced in peer-reviewed journals. Action learning has a long history in healthcare and is perhaps particularly suited to an environment where wicked problems abound, where professional development is prized, and where many of the professions subscribe to reflective practice as a vehicle of development. A systematic search for literature in peer-reviewed English language journals was undertaken, followed by a process of pursuing references from the publications revealed by that search. Papers that provided accounts or evaluations of programmes and projects that included action learning were analysed. Common themes concerning purposes, processes, benefits and challenges were identified. Action learning was used for three purposes in the projects and programmes: to improve an aspect of healthcare services; to develop skills of the participants; to enhance collective capability. Whilst in some cases the intention was to achieve all three beneficial outcomes, it was apparent that in the majority of examples one or another of these purposes was prioritised as the principal aim of the programme or project.
Psychological skills training (PST) is a common and effective form of support provided by sports psychologists. Nevertheless, its use in helping support athletes with perfectionism and some of the problematic issues they can face is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of PST in reducing perfectionistic cognitions and improving emotional experiences in athletes. Using a single-subject multiple baseline research design, we recruited five national-level basketball players (M = 21.8 years) based on their concerns over mistakes (a key dimension of perfectionistic concerns). All participants received eight, one-to-one PST sessions over a four-week period. Participants completed self-report measures of perfectionistic cognitions, cognitive appraisals, pre-competition emotions, and performance satisfaction on a weekly basis, before, during, and after the intervention, as well as 3-months later. Results suggested that PST improved at least some of the cognitive appraisals, pre-competition emotions, and performance satisfaction in most participants. Minimal changes were observed for perfectionistic cognitions. The findings support the general use of PST but other interventions may be required to reduce perfectionistic cognitions. Lay summary: Perfectionistic concerns are related to performance and well-being difficulties in athletes. We used a short PST intervention to examine if it can improve the experiences of athletes selected based on their concern over mistakes. The intervention was effective for some aspects of their experiences, such as pre-competition emotions and performance satisfaction but less effective for the perfectionistic cognitions they reported. • IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE • Sport psychologists are better informed as to the effectiveness of PST when working with athletes. • The effectiveness of PST varies based on the individual and the intended outcome. • There is a need for more expert guidance on perfectionism for training sports psychologists.
Aim To qualitatively examine how Abdominal Wall Hernia (AWH) affects patients’ mental health. Methods Fifteen patients were interviewed from a purposive sample of AWH patients until no new themes emerged. Interviews explored patient thoughts and experiences of AWH and mental healtth. Data were examinted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Results Three themes pertaining to mental health were identified: “psychological and emotional distress”, “identity disruption” and “coping mechanisms and support systems”. Conclusions This is the first study to qualitatively examine how AWH affects patients’ mental health. Our findings illustrate that AWH is a pathology that can have a significant detrimental impact on people's mental health. This impact has implications for patient care and can be treated and managed through better psychological support. This support may positively affect AWH patient's experience and outcomes in terms of quality of life. We provide recommendations for improved AWH patient care in regards to mental health.
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Gang Pan
  • School of Humanities
Stephen Gibson
  • Faculty of Health & Life Sciences
Alison Jane Laver Fawcett
  • School of Sience Technology and Health
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