Importance Ranitidine, the most widely used histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H 2 RA), was withdrawn because of N-nitrosodimethylamine impurity in 2020. Given the worldwide exposure to this drug, the potential risk of cancer development associated with the intake of known carcinogens is an important epidemiological concern. Objective To examine the comparative risk of cancer associated with the use of ranitidine vs other H 2 RAs. Design, Setting, and Participants This new-user active comparator international network cohort study was conducted using 3 health claims and 9 electronic health record databases from the US, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, France, South Korea, and Taiwan. Large-scale propensity score (PS) matching was used to minimize confounding of the observed covariates with negative control outcomes. Empirical calibration was performed to account for unobserved confounding. All databases were mapped to a common data model. Database-specific estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Participants included individuals aged at least 20 years with no history of cancer who used H 2 RAs for more than 30 days from January 1986 to December 2020, with a 1-year washout period. Data were analyzed from April to September 2021. Exposure The main exposure was use of ranitidine vs other H 2 RAs (famotidine, lafutidine, nizatidine, and roxatidine). Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was incidence of any cancer, except nonmelanoma skin cancer. Secondary outcomes included all cancer except thyroid cancer, 16 cancer subtypes, and all-cause mortality. Results Among 1 183 999 individuals in 11 databases, 909 168 individuals (mean age, 56.1 years; 507 316 [55.8%] women) were identified as new users of ranitidine, and 274 831 individuals (mean age, 58.0 years; 145 935 [53.1%] women) were identified as new users of other H 2 RAs. Crude incidence rates of cancer were 14.30 events per 1000 person-years (PYs) in ranitidine users and 15.03 events per 1000 PYs among other H 2 RA users. After PS matching, cancer risk was similar in ranitidine compared with other H 2 RA users (incidence, 15.92 events per 1000 PYs vs 15.65 events per 1000 PYs; calibrated meta-analytic hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12). No significant associations were found between ranitidine use and any secondary outcomes after calibration. Conclusions and Relevance In this cohort study, ranitidine use was not associated with an increased risk of cancer compared with the use of other H 2 RAs. Further research is needed on the long-term association of ranitidine with cancer development.
Background This meta-analysis aimed to consolidate existing data from randomised controlled trials on hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Methods Hypoplastic left heart syndrome specific randomised controlled trials published between January 2005 and September 2021 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were included. Regardless of clinical outcomes, we included all randomised controlled trials about hypoplastic left heart syndrome and categorised them according to their results. Two reviewers independently assessed for eligibility, relevance, and data extraction. The primary outcome was mortality after Norwood surgery. Study quality and heterogeneity were assessed. A random-effects model was used for analysis. Results Of the 33 included randomised controlled trials, 21 compared right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt and modified Blalock–Taussig-Thomas shunt during the Norwood procedure, and 12 regarded medication, surgical strategy, cardiopulmonary bypass tactics, and ICU management. Survival rates up to 1 year were superior in the right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt group; this difference began to disappear at 3 years and remained unchanged until 6 years. The right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt group had a significantly higher reintervention rate from the interstage to the 6-year follow-up period. Right ventricular function was better in the modified Blalock–Taussig-Thomas shunt group 1–3 years after the Norwood procedure, but its superiority diminished in the 6-year follow-up. Randomised controlled trials regarding medical treatment, surgical strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass, and ICU management yielded insignificant results. Conclusions Although right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt appeared to be superior in the early period, the two shunts applied during the Norwood procedure demonstrated comparable long-term prognosis despite high reintervention rates in right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt due to pulmonary artery stenosis. For medical/perioperative management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, further randomised controlled trials are needed to deliver specific evidence-based recommendations.
Background Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index and TyG‐related indices combined with obesity‐related markers are considered important markers of insulin resistance. We aimed to examine the association between the TyG index and modified TyG indices with new‐onset hypertension and their predictive ability stratified by sex. Methods and Results We analyzed data from 5414 Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study participants aged 40 to 69 years. Multiple Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were conducted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for new‐onset hypertension according to sex‐specific tertile groups after confounder adjustments. To evaluate the predictive performance of these indices for new‐onset hypertension, we calculated Harrell's C‐index (95% CI). Over a 9.5‐year follow‐up period, 1014 men and 1012 women developed new‐onset hypertension. Compared with the lowest tertile (T) group, the adjusted HR and 95% CI for new‐onset hypertension in T3 for TyG, TyG‐body mass index, TyG‐waist circumference, and TyG‐waist‐to‐height ratio were 1.16 (0.95–1.40), 1.11 (0.84–1.48), 1.77 (1.38–2.27), and 1.68 (1.33–2.13) in men and 1.37 (1.13–1.66), 1.55 (1.16–2.06), 1.43 (1.15–1.79), and 1.64 (1.30–2.07) in women, respectively. The C‐indices of TyG‐waist‐to‐height ratio for new‐onset hypertension were significantly higher than those of TyG and TyG‐body mass index in both men and women. Conclusions TyG and TyG‐body mass index were significantly associated with new‐onset hypertension only in women. TyG‐waist circumference and TyG‐waist‐to‐height ratio were significantly associated with new‐onset hypertension in both men and women. A sex‐specific approach is required when using TyG and modified TyG indices to identify individuals at risk of incident hypertension.
The fifth edition of the World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors published in 2021 reflects the current transitional state between traditional classification system based on histopathology and the state‐of‐the‐art molecular diagnostics. This Part 3 Review focuses on the molecular diagnostics and imaging findings of glioneuronal and neuronal tumors. Histological and molecular features in glioneuronal and neuronal tumors often overlap with pediatric‐type diffuse low‐grade gliomas and circumscribed astrocytic gliomas (discussed in the Part 2 Review). Due to this overlap, in several tumor types of glioneuronal and neuronal tumors the diagnosis may be inconclusive with histopathology and genetic alterations, and imaging features may be helpful to distinguish difficult cases. Thus, it is crucial for radiologists to understand the underlying molecular diagnostics as well as imaging findings for application on clinical practice. Evidence Level 3 Technical Efficacy Stage 3
Living cells efflux intracellular ions for maintaining cellular life, so intravital measurements of specific ion signals are of significant importance for studying cellular functions and pharmacokinetics. In this work, de novo synthesis of artificial K ⁺ ‐selective membrane and its integration with polyelectrolyte hydrogel‐based open‐junction ionic diode (OJID) is demonstrated, achieving a real‐time K ⁺ ‐selective ion‐to‐ion current amplification in complex bioenvironments. By mimicking biological K ⁺ channels and nerve impulse transmitters, in‐line K ⁺ ‐binding G‐quartets are introduced across freestanding lipid bilayers by G‐specific hexylation of monolithic G‐quadruplex, and the pre‐filtered K ⁺ flow is directly converted to amplified ionic currents by the OJID with a fast response time at 100 ms intervals. By the synergistic combination of charge repulsion, sieving, and ion recognition, the synthetic membrane allows K ⁺ transport exclusively without water leakage; it is 250 and 17 times more permeable towards K ⁺ than monovalent anion, Cl ‐ , and polyatomic cation, N‐methyl‐D‐glucamine ⁺ , respectively. The molecular recognition‐mediated ion channeling provides a 500% larger signal for K ⁺ as compared to Li ⁺ (0.6 times smaller than K ⁺ ) despite the same valence. Using the miniaturized device, non‐invasive, direct, and real‐time K ⁺ efflux monitoring from living cell spheroids is achieved with minimal crosstalk, specifically in identifying osmotic shock‐induced necrosis and drug‐antidote dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Background The incidence of post ERCP infections is reported to be up to 18% in patients with biliary obstruction. Antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the risk of infectious complications after ERCP; however, the clinical value of prophylactic antibiotics in ERCP remains controversial. Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to investigate whether the use of prophylactic antibiotics would reduce infectious complications after ERCP in patients with biliary obstruction. We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a single dose of 1 g intravenous cefoxitin or normal saline as a placebo 30 min before undergoing ERCP. The primary outcome was the incidence of infectious complications after ERCP. Results We enrolled 378 patients, and 189 patients were assigned to each group. The risk of infectious complications after ERCP was 2.8% (5 of 176 patients) in the antibiotic-prophylaxis group and 9.8% (17 of 173 patients) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 0.74, P =0.0073). The incidence rates of bacteremia were 2.3% (4 of 176 patients) and 6.4% (11 of 173 patients), respectively (risk ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.04; P =0.0599). The incidence rate of cholangitis was 1.7% (3 of 176 patients) in the antibiotic-prophylaxis group and 6.4% (11 of 173 patients) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.87; P =0.0267). Conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis before ERCP in patients with biliary obstruction resulted in a significantly lower risk of infectious complications, especially cholangitis, than placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov trial number NCT02958059).
Lipid species play a critical role in the growth and virulence expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). During Mtb infection, foamy macrophages accumulate lipids in granulomas, providing metabolic adaptation and survival strategies for Mtb against multiple stresses. Host-derived lipid species, including triacylglycerol and cholesterol, can also contribute to the development of drug-tolerant Mtb, leading to reduced efficacy of antibiotics targeting the bacterial cell wall or transcription. Transcriptional and metabolic analyses indicate that lipid metabolism-associated factors of Mtb are highly regulated by antibiotics and ultimately affect treatment outcomes. Despite the well-known association between major antibiotics and lipid metabolites in TB treatment, a comprehensive understanding of how altered lipid metabolites in both host and Mtb influence treatment outcomes in a drug-specific manner is necessary to overcome drug tolerance. The current review explores the controversies and correlations between lipids and drug efficacy in various Mtb infection models and proposes novel approaches to enhance the efficacy of anti-TB drugs. Moreover, the review provides insights into the efficacious control of Mtb infection by elucidating the impact of lipids on drug efficacy. This review aims to improve the effectiveness of current anti-TB drugs and facilitate the development of innovative therapeutic strategies against Mtb infection by making reverse use of Mtb-favoring lipid species.
The decline in ovarian reserve and the aging of the ovaries is a significant concern for women, particularly in the context of delayed reproduction. However, there are ethical limitations and challenges associated with conducting long-term studies to understand and manipulate the mechanisms that regulate ovarian aging in human. The marmoset monkey offers several advantages as a reproductive model, including a shorter gestation period and similar reproductive physiology to that of human. Additionally, they have a relatively long lifespan compared to other mammals, making them suitable for long-term studies. In this study, we focused on analyzing the structural characteristics of the marmoset ovary and studying the mRNA expression of 244 genes associated with ovarian aging. We obtained ovaries from marmosets at three different reproductive stages: pre-pubertal (1.5 months), reproductive (82 months), and menopausal (106 months) ovaries. The structural analyses revealed the presence of numerous mitochondria and lipid droplets in the marmoset ovaries. Many of the genes expressed in the ovaries were involved in multicellular organism development and transcriptional regulation. Additionally, we identified the expression of protein-binding genes. Within the expressed genes, VEGFA and MMP9 were found to be critical for regulating ovarian reserve. An intriguing finding of the study was the strong correlation between genes associated with female infertility and genes related to fibrosis and wound healing. The authors suggest that this correlation might be a result of the repeated rupture and subsequent healing processes occurring in the ovary due to the menstrual cycle, potentially leading to the indirect onset of fibrosis. The expression profile of ovarian aging-related gene set in the marmoset monkey ovaries highlight the need for further studies to explore the relationship between fibrosis, wound healing, and ovarian aging.
Introduction Limited non-opioid analgesic options are available for managing postoperative pain after renal transplantation. We aimed to investigate whether the unilateral anterior quadratus lumborum (QL) block would reduce postoperative opioid consumption after living-donor renal transplantation in the context of multimodal analgesia. Methods Eighty-eight adult patients undergoing living-donor renal transplantation were randomly allocated to receive the unilateral anterior QL block (30 mL of ropivacaine 0.375%) or sham block (normal saline) on the operated side before emergence from anesthesia. All patients received standard multimodal analgesia, including the scheduled administration of acetaminophen and fentanyl via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. The primary outcome was the total opioid consumption during the first 24 hours after transplantation. The secondary outcomes included pain scores, time to first opioid administration, cutaneous distribution of sensory blockade, motor weakness, nausea/vomiting, quality of recovery scores, time to first ambulation, and length of hospital stay. Results The total opioid consumption in the first 24 hours after transplantation did not differ significantly between the intervention and control groups (median (IQR), 160.5 (78–249.8) vs 187.5 (93–309) oral morphine milligram equivalent; median difference (95% CI), −27 (−78 to 24), p=0.29). No differences were observed in the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The anterior QL block did not reduce opioid consumption in patients receiving multimodal analgesia after living-donor renal transplantation. Our findings do not support the routine administration of the anterior QL block in this surgical population. Trial registration number NCT04908761 .
Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a chronic degenerative process that may progress. This study aimed to investigate associating factors and clinical implications of MAC progression. Methods and Results Among 560 patients with MAC identified by transthoracic echocardiography between January 2012 and June 2016, 138 patients (mean±SD age 72.7±10.2 years, 73 women) with mild or moderate MAC who received follow‐up examination within 18 to 36 months were retrospectively analyzed. Progressive MAC was defined as hemodynamic or structural profiles that had worsened by more than 1 grade. Hemodynamic features were assessed by the transmitral mean diastolic pressure gradient (MDPG), and structural features were assessed by the MAC angle in the parasternal short‐axis view. The clinical outcome was defined as a composite of all‐cause mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, and occurrence of ischemic stroke. Forty‐three patients (31.2%) showed progressive MAC. Patients with progressive MAC had higher systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, MAC angle, and MDPG than those with stable MAC. Patients with progressive MAC had smaller left ventricular (LV) end‐systolic dimensions and higher LV ejection fractions compared with those with stable MAC. In multivariate analysis, pulse pressure, LV ejection fraction, MAC angle, and MDPG at baseline were significantly associated with MAC progression. During a median of 39.2 months' follow‐up, patients with progressive MAC showed poorer clinical outcomes than those with stable MAC (log‐rank P =0.015). Conclusions MAC progression is not rare and is associated with structural substrate and hemodynamic loads that result in mechanical stress. Patients with progressive MAC have poor outcomes.
Objective: Treatment strategies for osteochondral defects, for which particulated autologous cartilage transplantation (PACT) is an emerging treatment strategy, aim to restore the structure and function of the hyaline cartilage. Herein, we compared the efficacy of PACT with control or human transforming growth factor-β (rhTGF-β), and clarified the necessity of bone graft (BG) with PACT to treat shallow osteochondral defects in a porcine model. Design: Two skeletally mature male micropigs received 4 osteochondral defects in each knee. The 16 defects were randomized to (1) empty control, (2) PACT, (3) PACT with BG, or (4) rhTGF-β. Animals were euthanized after 2 months and histomorphometry, immunofluorescence analysis, semiquantitative evaluation (O'Driscoll score), and magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score were performed. Results: Hyaline cartilages, glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and collagen type II staining were more abundant in the PACT than in the control and rhTGF-β groups. The O'Driscoll score was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001), with both PACT groups showing superiority (P = 0.002). PACT had the highest score (P = 0.002), with improved restoration of subchondral bone compared with PACT with BG. The MOCART score showed significant differences between groups (P = 0.021); MOCART and O'Driscoll scores showed high correlation (r = 0.847, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Treatment of osteochondral defects with PACT improved tissue quality compared with that with control or rhTGF-β in a porcine model. BG, in addition to PACT, may be unnecessary for shallow osteochondral defects. Clinical Relevance. BG may not be necessary while performing PACT.
Despite initiatives to eradicate racial inequalities in pain treatment, there is no clear picture on whether this has translated to changes in clinical practice. To determine whether racial disparities in the receipt of pain medication in the emergency department have diminished over a 22-year period from 1999 to 2020. We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, an annual, cross-sectional probability sample of visits to emergency departments of non-federal general and short-stay hospitals in the USA. Pain-related visits to the ED by Black or White patients. Prescriptions for opioid and non-opioid analgesics. A total of 203,854 of all sampled 625,433 ED visits (35%) by Black or White patients were pain-related, translating to a population-weighted estimate of over 42 million actual visits to US emergency departments for pain annually across 1999–2020. Relative risk regression found visits by White patients were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.22–1.30; p<0.001) times more likely to result in an opioid prescription for pain compared to Black patients (40% vs. 32%). Visits by Black patients were also 1.25 (95% CI, 1.21–1.30; p<0.001) times more likely to result in non-opioid analgesics only being prescribed. Results were not substantively altered after adjusting for insurance status, type and severity of pain, geographical region, and other potential confounders. Spline regression found no evidence of meaningful change in the magnitude of racial disparities in prescribed pain medication over 22 years. Initiatives to create equitable healthcare do not appear to have resulted in meaningful alleviation of racial disparities in pain treatment in the emergency department.
PURPOSE A precise oncologic approach for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is necessary. We performed a genomic profile-based umbrella trial for the patients with platinum-refractory recurrent and/or metastatic HNSCC. METHODS In this multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II trial, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). Patients were assigned to each treatment arm on the basis of their matching genomic profiles: arm 1, alpelisib, a PIK3CA inhibitor; arm 2, poziotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 inhibitor; arm 3, nintedanib, an fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor; and arm 4, abemaciclinb, a CDK4/6 inhibitor. If there was no matching target, patients were allocated to arm 5, duvalumab ± tremelimumab, anti–PD-L1/cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte-4 inhibitor. When progressive disease (PD) occurred in arms 1-4, cross over to arm 5 was allowed. The primary end point was disease control rate (DCR) in arm 1 and overall response rate (ORR) in arms 2-5 by investigator assessment. RESULTS Between October 2017 and August 2020, 203 patients were enrolled, including crossover. In arm 1, the ORR was 21.2% and DCR was 65.6%. The ORR was 0% for arm 2, 42.9% for arm 3, 0% for arm 4, and 15.6% for arm 5. In the case of PD with durvalumab, tremelimumab was added, and the ORR for durvalumab + tremelimumab was 2.2%. The median progression-free survival was 3.4, 3.2, 5.6, 1.6, and 1.7 months for each arm, respectively. The median overall survival was 12.4, 6.1, 11.1, 9.1, and 12.7 months, respectively. Overall, the toxicity profiles were manageable, and there were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION To our knowledge, this study is the first biomarker-driven umbrella trial for platinum-refractory HNSCC using matched molecular targeted agents. We found that NGS-based genomic phenotyping was methodologically feasible and applicable.
Background As tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) requires long‐term use, a reduction in bone density should be considered a possibility when treating patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with aging and systemic diseases. Patients treated with tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) have improved bone mineral density loss compared to patients treated with TDF. Although improvements in bone density caused by TAF have been reported, studies on the actual reduction of fractures are insufficient. Aim To evaluate the impact of TAF on the risk of osteoporotic fractures in comparison with that of TDF. Methods Using the national claims data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 32,582 patients with CHB who had been initially treated with TDF or TAF between November 2017 and December 2020. The numbers of patients treated with TDF and TAF were 20,877 and 11,705, respectively. The annual fracture rate per 100 patients in each group was calculated, and the Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) was analysed after applying inverse probability treatment weights (IPTW) for both groups. Results Among 32,582 patients, the average age was 47.8 ± 11.2 years, 64.5% were men, and the follow‐up period was 24.4 ± 11.6 months. The incidence of osteoporotic fractures was 0.78 and 0.49 per 100 person‐years in the TDF and TAF groups, respectively. After application of IPTW, the HR was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.55–0.85, p = 0.001). Conclusion TAF‐treated patients with CHB had a significantly lower risk of osteoporotic fracture than TDF‐treated patients.
Background Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that share one common feature: destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). The destruction of RBCs may be due to membranopathies, enzymopathies, or hemoglobinopathies. Because these are genetic disorders, incorporation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated the diagnostic process of HHA. Method Genetic data from 29 patients with suspected hereditary anemia in a tertiary hospital were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of NGS on hereditary anemia diagnosis. Targeted NGS was performed with custom probes for 497 genes associated with hematologic disorders. After genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, prepared libraries were hybridized with capture probes and sequenced using NextSeq 550Dx (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Result Among the 29 patients, ANK1 variants were detected in five, four of which were pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. SPTB variants were detected in six patients, five of which were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. We detected g6pd pathogenic and spta1 likely pathogenic variants in two patients and one patient, respectively. Whole-gene deletions in both HBA1 and HBA2 were detected in two patients, while only HBA2 deletion was detected in one patient. One likely pathogenic variant in PLKR was detected in one patient, and one likely pathogenic variant in ALAS2 was detected in another. Conclusion Here, NGS played a critical role in definitive diagnosis in 18 out of 29 patients (62.07%) with suspected HHA. Thus, its incorporation into the diagnostic workflow is crucial.
Background and aim: Disorders of glucose metabolism, such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), frequently occur in cirrhosis. We aimed to evaluate who needs to be undertaken a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to find underlying subclinical diabetes. Methods: This prospective study included 713 patients with either compensated (Child-Turcotte-Pugh [CTP] class A) or decompensated cirrhosis (CTP class B/C) without previous DM history. All patients underwent a 75-g OGTT. The patients were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IGT, and newly diagnosed DM (subclinical DM). Results: Among 713 patients, NGT was diagnosed in 139 (19.5%), IGT in 252 (35.3%), and subclinical DM in 322 (45.2%) patients, respectively. During a median follow-up period of 42.0 months, the cumulative survival rates of patients were as follows: NGT, 75.6%; IGT, 57.6%; and subclinical DM, 54.8%. Overall, IGT (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.605; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.009-2.553; P = 0.046) and subclinical DM (aHR, 1.840; 95% CI = 1.183-2.861; P = 0.001) were identified as independent predictors of mortality. In patients with compensated cirrhosis (n = 415), neither IGT nor subclinical DM conferred a higher mortality risk. However, among patients with decompensated cirrhosis (n = 298), those with IGT (aHR, 2.394; P = 0.015) and subclinical DM (aHR, 2.211; P = 0.022) showed a survival rate worse than those with NGT. In addition, subclinical DM was identified as an independent risk factor for infection (aHR, 2.508; P = 0.007). Conclusions: IGT and subclinical diabetes by OGTT are associated with an unfavorable prognosis in cirrhosis, and the effect is pronounced in the decompensated state. Clinicaltrials: gov, Number NCT04828512 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04828512).
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