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ABSTRACT: The annual production of apples in Poland reaches 3 million tonnes of which only one-third are the dessert apples and the remaining quantity is aimed at processing. This unfavourable structure of production leads to losses on the part of growers, resulting from lower purchase prices. Changes aimed at increasing the production of delicatessen apples have become necessary, the more so as according to forecasters the demand for apples in the next few years is to increase by about 30%. The quality of apples can be improved through determination of parameters that help reduce losses resulting from bruises, abrasions and other mechanical damages while growing and harvesting. Most preferred is the manual picking assisted by modern technology associated with the movement of the picker with the use of movable platforms and mobile lifting baskets. Due to many hours’ long physical strain as well as the monotypic character of movements performed by the picker, apple harvesting may contribute to the development of ailments in the musculoskeletal system. The main aim of this paper it was to develop a methodology that shall help define favorable conditions of work for pickers and growers of apples with a minimum of risk associated with the emergence of problems in the musculoskeletal system while maintaining a high quality of fruit for immediate consumption. The tekscan system was used to determine surface pressure values at different loads and the shape of the contact surface corresponding to the shape of fingertips. The work of picker's muscles was analysed with the use of the electromyograph, a device that allows to measure the load on workers while picking apples. The conducted study enabled to develop favourable working conditions for growers of apples with a minimum risk associated with the emergence of problems in the musculoskeletal system of harvesters and at the same time with a high quality of apples for direct consumption.
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ABSTRACT: During the last years, as a result of the technological development, farmers started to include a new solution like machinery or other devices but the risk level connected with accidents resulting from their use is still high. Agriculture is described as one of the most dangerous industry in Poland. Based on these circumstances the studies were conducted where the main objective was to investigate a workload during agricultural manual and mechanized tasks. The analysis was conducted on 15 farmers on their own farms during the morning and evening milking in the tethering and carousel systems while lifting and carrying a full bucket or a sack and while the tractor was moving. The analysis of muscle load was conducted with the surface EMG (Electromyography) system and Job Strain Index method. The highest values of muscle tension and force were observed in the forearm muscles during the attachment of teat cups to the udder. It was connected with lifting the equipment in an uncomfortable posture assumed by the milker. For the tractor driver the ergonomics of the seat and steering wheel was measured. It has been demonstrated that unfavourable working conditions increase the musculoskeletal overload. One of the methods of preventing them is to create appropriate working conditions for a specific person and gender. This will allow each worker to properly adjust the work and to apply specific matching equipment.
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ABSTRACT: Biologically active piperitone-derived racemic iodo-, bromo- and chlorolactones (1–3) were transformed with the use of microbial enzymatic systems. Four strains of filamentous fungi Absidia glauca AM254, Absidia cylindrospora AM336, Mortierella vinaceae AM149 and Nigrospora oryzae AM8 transformed halolactones (1–3) to four new halohydroxylactones (4–7). In all biotransformations the hydroxy group was incorporated in inactivated methine carbon atom at isopropyl substituent. In N. oryzae AM8 culture the bromolactone with additional hydroxy group in α-position, relative to C
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