In this paper we use the method of fuzzification of crisp set to fuzzy set as extension of crisp set to fuzzy set. In particular the concepts of fuzzy closed filters of a bounded BE-algebra are introduced; and also some related properties are investigated. As a result a new concept of fuzzy closed filters of a bounded BE-algebras are discussed. Using the idea of fuzzy closed filters of a bounded BE-algebras, some related properties are investigated. In general characterization theorems that related fuzzy closed filters and fuzzy filter are proved. Furthermore, characterization theorem that relate closed filter and fuzzy closed filter in abounded BE-algebra is investigated.
The term “folk medicine” refers to the entire process of diagnosing and treating ailments. It is relied on by around 80% of patients in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The study looked into the experiences of type 2 diabetes patients in North-East Ethiopia regarding folk healing alternatives. A qualitative approach, informed by Kleinman’s explanatory model, was used. From July 2019 to January 2020, data were collected from twenty-four type 2 diabetes patients who were purposefully chosen to include varied socio-demographic characteristics, using face-to-face in-depth interviews until theoretical saturation was reached. QDA Miner Lite v2.0.8 was used to analyze the data, which was then discussed thematically. Twenty-four participants were interviewed (11 men and 13 women). Their average life-span with diabetes was 12 years. Allopathic alternatives to folk healing were viewed positively by the patients. They believed that the folk healers are deceivers. Rather of treating diabetes itself, folk medicines were used to address its consequences. Spiritual and herbal healing were the most common folk healing approaches. While the former was highly-practiced for both diagnosis (through “Woliy”) and therapy (“Dua” and “Tsebel”), the latter was not well-practiced and was only preferred for treatment. In contradiction to Kleinman’s explanatory approach, allopathic treatments were preferred over spiritual healing, while spiritual healing was preferred over herbal alternatives, implying that combining spiritual alternatives with diabetes care appears to improve intervention outcomes. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops well adapted in arid and semi-arid areas of Ethiopia but yield is low as compared to its potential. The crop has been adversely affected by climate change and climate variability accompanied by low soil fertility, insects and weeds. Thus, assessment of impact of projected climate change is important for developing suitable management strategies. The present study was conducted with the objectives (1) to calibrate and evaluate the CERES-sorghum model in DSSAT (2) to assess impact of projected climate change on sorghum production in 2030s (2020–2049) and 2050s (2040–2069) under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios and (3) to identify best crop management strategies that can sustain sorghum production. The CERES-sorghum model was calibrated and evaluated using field experimental data of anthesis, physiological maturity, grain yield and aboveground biomass yield. In the simulation, the initial weather and CO 2 were modified by future climates under the two climatic change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Historical daily weather data (1981–2010) of rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and solar radiation were obtained from the nearest weather stations at Sirinka and Kombolcha while future climate date for 2030s and 2050s were downloaded from the ensemble of 17 CMIP5 GCM outputs run under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 downscaled to the study sites using MarkSim. Different sowing dates, nitrogen rates, and supplemental irrigation were evaluated for their effectiveness to increase sorghum yield under the present and future climate conditions of the study area. The result of model calibration showed that the RMSE for anthesis, physiological maturity, grain yield, and above-ground biomass yield were 2 days, 2 days, 478 kg ha ⁻¹ , and 912 kg ha ⁻¹ , respectively with normalized nRMSE values of 2.74%, 1.6%, 13.42%, and 5.91%, respectively. During the model evaluation the R ² values were 78% for anthesis, 99% for physiological maturity, 98% for aboveground biomass yield, and 94% for grain yield. The d-statistics values were 0.87, 0.91, 0.67, and 0.98 while the nRMSE values were 2.6%, 2.7%, 23.4%, and 4.1% for the respective parameters. The result of statistical analysis for both model calibration and evaluation revealed that there existed strong fit between the simulated and observed values that indicated the model can be used for different application to improve sorghum productivity in the region. The result of impact analysis showed that sorghum grain yield may decrease by 2030s and 2050s under both RCPs scenarios. However, the result of management scenarios showed that sorghum yield may be substantially increased through use of optimum nitrogen fertilizer, application of supplemental irrigation and by using early sowing dates individually or in combination. In conclusion, projected climate change could adversely affect sorghum production in the semi-arid areas of Ethiopia in the present and future climate conditions but impact could be reduced by using suitable crop management strategies.
Background Despite being the most effective treatment for advanced type 2 diabetes, the choice to start and maintain insulin therapy is based on a variety of criteria, including the patients' acceptance and willingness to adhere to it. The patients' beliefs and experiences, on the other hand, could not be revealed without a thorough exploration. Objectives This study investigated the barriers and facilitators to insulin treatment from the perspectives of patients with type 2 diabetes following treatment at Dessie Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, North-East Ethiopia. Methods A phenomenological study was conducted from July 2019 to January 2020. Twenty-four (11 males and 13 females) participants were recruited purposively. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews, lasted about 23 to 71 min, until theoretical saturation was reached, and then organized using QDA Miner Lite v2.0.9. The transcripts were thematically analyzed using narrative strategies and the themes that arose were discussed in detail. Results The most common facilitator of insulin treatment was its relative effectiveness, which was followed by its convenience (fewer gastrointestinal side effects, small needle size and ease of use), the concept of it is life, faith in doctors' decisions, family support, and health insurance membership. The most common impediments, on the other hand, were market failures (expensiveness and supply shortages), followed by its properties and patients' circumstances. Conclusions Market failures due to supply shortages and associated costs were identified to be the most significant barriers to insulin treatment, necessitating the availability of an effective pharmaceutical supply management strategy that targets on insulin supply and affordability. It is also strongly recommended that health insurance coverage be increased.
Every organ can be affected by Rosai-Dorfman disease, the most common being skin and soft tissue, bone and upper respiratory tract. Here we present a Rosai-Dorfman disease patient who manifested with multiple organ involvement. A 33-year-old male presented with multiple joint pain, diarrhea, a purulent nasal discharge and sinus pain. After having serials of investigations he was misdiagnosed as having tuberculosis and fungal sinusitis. Finally, cytology from lymph node aspiration suggested Rosai-Dorfman disease. The sino nasal presentation of Rosai-Dorfman disease can be misdiagnosed as fungal sinusitis and the gastrointestinal manifestation can mimic gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Diffuse joint involvement could also be an initial manifestation of Rosai-Dorfman disease.
Objective Urinary tract infection has catastrophic health outcome among diabetes mellitus patients. This study was conducted to investigate prevalence of bacterial uropathogens, their antibiogram, and associated factors among diabetes mellitus patients in Kombolcha town. Method Cross-sectional study was done from February to April 2020. A total of 282 study participants were involved and simple random technique was applied for enrollment of subjects. Well-constructed and pre-tested questionnaire was utilized to collect the data. Five to ten milliliters of mid-stream urine specimen was collected for microbiological data. Each sample was inoculated into cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium, incubated overnight in aerobic atmosphere at 37°C for 24 h and finally biochemical tests were carried out. According to Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities pattern of the bacteria was performed on Mueller–Hinton Agar. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23. Descriptive statistics, bi-variable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. For statistical significance association, p value ⩽ 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval was considered Results The general prevalence of urinary tract infection among study participants was 20.2% (57/282). Being female and having merchant occupation had a statistically significant association. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 70.2% (40/57) and the leading isolate was Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. About 57.5% gram-negative and 35.3% gram-positive bacteria showed multidrug resistance. Conclusion The general prevalence of significant bacteriuria was found to be consistent with similar studies conducted in different areas. The higher multidrug resistance rate was observed for the isolated bacteria. Health-care professionals should give due attention and follow rational antibiotic prescription practices to treat these infections.
This review pooled the magnitude of inguinal hernia based on the available population-based studies conducted throughout the world. We have searched for population-based articles reporting the magnitude of inguinal hernia on PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Google Scholar. Random-effect meta-analysis was carried out to pool the magnitude of inguinal hernia and its proportion between male and female subjects. To determine the presence of between-study heterogeneity, I ² and Cochran’s Q methods were employed. Publication bias was evaluated by the Egger test and visual examination of a funnel plot. All statistical tests were conducted by Stata version 16 software. Ten population-based studies with a total population of 51,304,093 were incorporated to pool the magnitude of inguinal hernia. The pooled prevalence of inguinal hernia was 7.7% (95% confidence interval: 6.06–9.34). Subgroup analysis showed that the highest pooled prevalence of inguinal hernia (12.72%) was observed in Asia, On the contrary, the lowest pooled prevalence emanated from America, 4.73%. The pooled prevalence of inguinal hernia in males is far higher than females. It was, respectively, 9.61% (95% confidence interval: 6.46–12.76) and 1.31% (95% confidence interval: 0.36–2.26) for males and females. The current meta-analysis revealed a higher burden of inguinal hernia. This finding glares the light that giving greater attention to inguinal hernia is required. It is recommended to identify the significant causes of inguinal hernia and design appropriate prevention as well as management strategies.
Background Unintended pregnancy predisposes women to unsafe abortion, malnutrition, mental illness, and even death. Though adolescent girls and young women are at higher risk of unintended pregnancy, there is a paucity of evidence in its burden and associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Method This study was a secondary data analysis of 36 sub-Saharan African countries with a total weighted sample of 17,797 adolescent girls and young women. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted and, the Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was reported to assess the association between the independent variables and unintended pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Result The pooled prevalence of unintended pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa was 30.01 with 95% CI (29.38–30.74). In multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis, adolescent girls, and young women with higher education (AOR = 0.71 95%CI 0.52–0.97), those who know modern contraceptive methods (AOR = 0.86 95%CI 0.75–0.98), and traditional contraceptive methods (AOR = 0.90, 95%CI 0.59–0.95), married (AOR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.73–0.88), those from female-headed households (AOR = 0.86,95%CI 0.78–0.94), had lower odds of unintended pregnancy. Whereas adolescent girls and young women from Central Africa (AOR = 2.09,95%CI 1.23–3.55), southern Africa (AOR = 5.23, 95%CI 2.71–10.09), and Eastern Africa (AOR = 1.07,95%CI 1.07–2.66) had higher odds of unintended pregnancy. Conclusion Prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa is high. Therefore, educating adolescent girls and young women, and improving their knowledge about family planning services is vital. It is also better for the government of countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other global and local stakeholders to work hard to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services, including family planning, education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programs to reduce unintended pregnancy.
Background Malaria is an infectious disease which has been globally targeted for elimination in at least 35 of 90 endemic countries by 2030. Most successful malaria elimination country programmes have engaged the private health sector in an effort to identify, document, investigate, provide effective treatment, and follow-up cases. However, there has been limited rigorous research showing evidence of adherence among healthcare providers of the formal private health sector to national malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines in Ethiopia, starting from malaria control to elimination phases. The aims of this study were to investigate and explain the level of adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare providers working in formal private health facilities in north-western Ethiopia. Methods An explanatory sequential mixed method design was conducted in the West Gojjam Zone of Ethiopia. Quantitative data were extracted from 1650 medical records of adult uncomplicated malaria outpatients served in 11 private-for-profit health facilities. In addition, using a qualitative approach, 33 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with healthcare providers were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using eight steps. Results Of 1650 suspected malaria cases in adult outpatients, 80.6% (1330/1650) were screen tested using microscopy and the remainder 19.4% (320/1650) were tested using multispecies rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs). Hence, the results revealed that private healthcare providers universally adhered to diagnosis guidelines. In addition, after following-up and excluding other causes of fever, 4.1% (56/1376) patients were clinically diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria. Despite this, the proportion of private healthcare provider adherence with confirmed malaria case treatment guidelines was 20.9% (69/330). In addition, 1320 (95.9%) of adult outpatients with negative laboratory results were not treated. Some of the identified determinant factors for sub-optimal adherence of healthcare providers to malaria guidelines were interruptions in supply and lack of availability of recommended anti-malarial drugs, lack of availability of quality assured laboratory supplies, and poor knowledge of the recommendations of the national standards. Conclusions Private healthcare providers adhered to universal parasitological diagnosis, providing comprehensive counseling, and linking patients with community health workers. In addition, almost all laboratory negative patients were not treated with anti-malarial drugs. However, only one-fifth of confirmed patients were treated in line with national guideline recommendations. Malaria control and elimination efforts across Ethiopia could be improved through establishing a collaborative function of a win-win public private mix partnership model. In addition, including the data of the private health sector in the health information system could show real malaria burden and use the information to improve the adherence to malaria diagnosis, treatment, and reporting standards within the targeted era of elimination. Therefore, building the capacity of private healthcare providers and ensuring the availability of all nationally recommended drugs and supplies in private health sector facilities is recommended to improve the quality of services.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging and major zoonotic foodborne pathogen. It has an increasing concern about the spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. This study aimed to isolate and characterize Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 from raw milk, yogurt, and meat of bovine origin and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to June 2015, and a total of 284 milk and meat samples were collected from different sources in Mekelle. The collected samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and the determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern following the standard bacteriological and molecular techniques and procedures and antimicrobial sensitivity test. Out of the total 284 samples, 70 (24.6%) were bacteriologically positive for E. coli and 14.3% were found to be Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7. Of note, 100% of E. coli isolates carried the pal gene and 41.7% eaeA gene (EHEC). Of these EHEC isolates, 40% and 60% were positive for stx1 and stx2 , respectively. E. coli isolates showed the highest level of susceptibility to gentamycin (91.7%) but the highest level of resistance to amoxicillin (95.8%). Of the tested isolates, 18 (75%) of E. coli showed multidrug-resistant. This study revealed the occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 in foods of bovine origin in the study area. In conclusion, a nationwide phenotypic and molecular characterization, in-depth typing, and drug-resistant gene identification of E. coli O157:H7 should be undertaken.
Food insecurity is a recurrent feature of the Ethiopian drylands. The risk of food insecurity has been aggravated by climate variability, climate change, population pressure, and subsistence agricultural practices. In Ethiopia, common bean is the main source of protein for people who do not get access to animal protein. The national average yield in Ethiopia is 1600 kg ha ⁻¹ which is far below yield at research sites (3000 kg ha ⁻¹ ) mainly due to drought, low soil fertility and lack of improved agronomic practices. A simulation study was conducted with the objectives (1) to calibrate and evaluate the CROPGRO-dry bean model of DSSAT for simulating phenology, growth and yield of common bean (2) to assess impacts of future climate on phenology and yield (3) to explore climate adaptive strategies for common bean. Three sowing dates (early, normal and late) and two water regime (rainfed and irrigated) were evaluated as climate adaptive measures. Results of model calibration indicated that the crop genetic coefficients were properly estimated. The RMSE, R ² and d-index values for days to flowering in the model evaluation phase were 2.42 days, 0.76 and 0.82, respectively. The RMSE, R ² and d-index values for days to physiological maturity were 3.19 days, 0.70 and 0.87, respectively while the values for grain yield were 113.7 kg ha ⁻¹ , 0.95 and 0.89 for the respective parameters. The impact analysis showed that both days to flowering and days to maturity may decrease in 2030s and 2050s at both sites and under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios as compared to the simulated values for the baseline period (1981–2010) but the decrease is not statistically significant. On the other hand, grain yield may significantly increase by 11% in 2030s under RCP8.5 scenario and by 9.2% and 21.1% in 2050s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios respectively. The highest significant increase in grain yield may be obtained from the early sowing (SSD − 15 days) combined with supplemental irrigation which may increase yield by 89%, 71% and 56% for the baseline period, 2030s and 2050s, respectively. However, the pattern of climate changes and the nature of crop stressors may change overtime. Thus, understanding the cumulative effects of these factors may help to develop climate resilient cropping systems in the study region.
Background Globally, malaria is among the leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Despite various malaria elimination strategies being implemented in the last decades, malaria remains a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Furthermore, there have been limited and inconclusive studies in Ethiopia to generate information for action towards malaria in under-five children. Additionally, there is a considerable disparity between the results of the existing studies. Therefore, the pooled estimate from this study will provide a more conclusive result to take evidence-based interventional measures against under-five malaria. Methods The protocol of this review is registered at PROSPERO with registration number CRD42020157886. All appropriate databases and grey literature were searched to find relevant articles. Studies reporting the prevalence or risk factors of malaria among under-five children were included. The quality of each study was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Data was extracted using Microsoft Excel 2016 and analysis was done using STATA 16.0 statistical software. The pooled prevalence and its associated factors of malaria were determined using a random effect model. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q-test statistics and I ² test. Furthermore, publication bias was checked by the visual inspection of the funnel plot and using Egger’s and Begg’s statistical tests. Result s Twelve studies with 34,842 under-five children were included. The pooled prevalence of under-five malaria was 22.03% (95% CI 12.25%, 31.80%). Lack of insecticide-treated mosquito net utilization (AOR: 5.67, 95% CI 3.6, 7.74), poor knowledge of child caretakers towards malaria transmission (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI 1.70, 3.89), and living near mosquito breeding sites (AOR: 5.05, 95% CI 2.92, 7.19) were risk factors of under-five malaria. Conclusion More than one in five children aged under five years were infected with malaria. This suggests the rate of under-five malaria is far off the 2030 national malaria elimination programme of Ethiopia. The Government should strengthen malaria control strategies such as disseminating insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), advocating the utilization of ITNs, and raising community awareness regarding malaria transmission.
The use of guided inquiry-based learning (GIBL) in a manner designed to challenge individual students’ unscientific conceptions of science, has been researched widely. However, few (if any) studies have investigated the implementation of GIBL in a manner designed to challenge the fundamental patterns of students’ context-dependent unscientific conceptions of science. This study investigates the effect of GIBL on transforming the fundamental patterns of Ethiopian eighth-grade students’ context-dependent conceptions, schemes of knowledge, about vision. The study used a quasi-experimental pre–post design with a mixed method approach. We measured conceptual change using qualitative and quantitative assessments based on facet-scheme frequencies. Treatment-group students’ conceptions expressed in a facet-scheme structure were compared with those of students receiving conventional instruction (CI). Before instruction, both student groups subscribed to spontaneous (observer not connected with the object/image) and inclusive (observer incorrectly connected with the object/image) vision schemes. After instruction, the frequencies of these schemes were decreased to a greater extent among GIBL students than CI students. The scientific scheme was observed with more frequency among GIBL students than CI students. We therefore conclude that GIBL transformed the students’ schemes of knowledge from unscientific to scientific to a greater extent than CI. The study points out vital practical implications for educators.
Insulin treatment is seriously influenced by the choice of injection site and storage practices. The study looked at the storage mechanisms and injection site preferences of type 2 diabetes patients at Dessie Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, in Dessie City Administration, North-East Ethiopia. We conducted a qualitative study from July 2019 to January 2020 on twenty-four (11 males and 13 females) participants who were recruited purposefully. Until theoretical saturation was reached, we collected the data through face-to-face, in-depth interviews that lasted about 23 to 71 minutes and organized it using QDA Miner Lite v2.0.9. We then thematically analyzed the transcripts and discussed the themes that arose in detail using narrative strategies. A jar filled with wet sand was the most common handling device for insulin, for both insulin in use and reserves, both at home and on the road. The most popular injection site was the abdomen, followed by the thighs and upper arms. With the container they indicated, it is unclear how the patients store insulin. The dangers of storing insulin at home are often disregarded, and better education is required. Practical advice on how to properly keep insulin at home is also essential.
The main goal of this study is to examine financial inclusion and related factors in rural South Wollo Zone areas. The binary logit model, primary and secondary data, and multi-stage sampling techniques were all applied in the study. Only 20.72 percent of those questioned in the rural South Wollo zone were given access to formal financial institutions, leaving 79.28 percent of those who were excluded. According to the report, access to traditional financial institutions is influenced favorably by factors such as affordability, financial literacy, age, and secondary education in rural areas, as well as the availability of Islamic banking services. Both the inability of rural inhabitants to access formal financial institutions and their lack of trust in traditional financial institutions represent significant obstacles. The study also looks into the expensive replacement of formal financial institutions in rural areas by traditional financial groups. Based on our research, we recommend that the government and other relevant organizations seek to improve the country’s degree of financial inclusion in rural areas by offering formal financial services at a reasonable cost and by boosting the financial capacity of rural low-income groups.
Background Mung bean is an important pulse legume multipurpose crop that has significant health and economic benefits. It plays an important role in climate resilience and increasing food security. We conducted the study in Kalu Woreda Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia, where the crop is highly adopted. The study aimed to analyse and evaluate the local value chain of the crop. Though Mung bean is a market oriented crop and playing an important role in food and nutrition security; there is a lack of clear evidence that shows how the local value chain of the crop is performing. Therefore, empirical evidence on the Mung bean value chain is required to design interventions to enhance the value chain actors’ performance. Methods A mixed approach was used to collect and analyse the data and to have a complete picture of the research. We collected data from producers, collectors, wholesalers, retailers, and exporters through household survey, focus group discussion and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics and econometric model were used to analyse the quantitative data. We analysed qualitative data using narration, summarization, and theme formation. Results and conclusion The average allocated land for Mung bean per household was 0.32 ha with a standard deviation of 0.15 ha. Mung bean value chain actors include input suppliers, producers, collectors, retailers, wholesalers, exporter and consumers. The highest percentage of the profit share goes to exporters (25.04%), followed by wholesalers (21.61%). Traditional farming practices, small landholding, poor access to agricultural inputs, pests and disease, poor infrastructure, and price fluctuations were the major Mung bean production and marketing challenges. Sex 0.166 (P = 0.008), the volume of Mung bean produced 0.26 (0.0001), farming experience 0.028 (0.048), frequency of extension contact 0.01 (0.072) and land allocated for Mung bean 3.411 (0.0001) were significantly determining the amount of Mung bean supplied to the market. Supporting farmers with agricultural inputs and delivering training on post-harvest issue, experience sharing among producers, and linking producers to cooperatives looks important to develop Mung bean local value chain. Strengthening multi-stakeholder linkages among Mung bean value chain actors through field days and workshops is also imperative in smoothing the local and international marketability of the crop.
In this study, the activity concentration of NORMs were measured using gamma spectrometer, based on NaI(Tl) detector with Maestro-32 installed computer soft- ware. Accordingly, the average activity concentrations of ²³²Th, ²³⁸U, and ⁴⁰K in soil samples were found 17.85±0.50, 40.16±0.54, and 271.46±0.07, respectively, which are lower than the average world recommended values given by UNSCEAR 2000 for Th and K, but higher for U decay series. In the same way, activity concentration of NORMs in food items cultivated from the irrigation site were measured and the highest activity concentrations were observed in bean samples. The transfer factors of ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K from soil to food items were computed based on the measured activity values, and in most food items it is observed above the world average values. The consecutive chronic daily intake via ingestion for some food items from samples are also above the permissible limit. The transfer factor from Gerado agricultural soil to plant exceed the world average values in the cases of ²³²Th and ²³⁸U according to our study.
Background Globally, the human immunodeficiency virus has been recognized as a major public health concern. The direct toxicity of antiretroviral medicines or their active metabolites causes liver cell destruction by different mechanisms, inducing immune-mediated inflammation, oxidative stress, and other mechanisms. On the other hand, the virus itself also produces hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the pooled prevalence of hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected patients in Ethiopia. Methods PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ResearchGate databases were used to find relevant articles. As well, various professional associations were searched to retrieve grey literature. The Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess the quality of recruited studies. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel, and the meta-analysis was carried out using STATA 14 software. I² and Cochran’s Q test were employed to assess the presence of heterogeneity between studies. A random effect model was used. The funnel plot and Egger’s statistics were used to assess publication bias. Moreover, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were also done. Results The pooled prevalence of hepatotoxicity among HIV patients in Ethiopia was 25.45% (95% CI = 20.06–30.84%). There was high heterogeneity, with an I² value of 93.7%. Subgroup analysis by HAART status showed a higher pooled prevalence of hepatotoxicity among HIV patients taking HAART (23.63%) than among HAART naive patients (7.29%). In subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence of hepatotoxicity among HIV/Tb co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients was 26.3% and 17.94%, respectively. Conclusion The current systematic review and meta-analysis showed a high prevalence of hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected patients. Therefore, regular monitoring of hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected patients is required in order to avoid liver damage and other complications. Systematic review registration PROSPERO (2022:CRD42022334704)
In Ethiopia, only 58% of the mothers practice exclusively breast feeding, which is far from recommended; therefore, identifying factors associated with exclusive breast feeding helps to fill this gap. Community-based mixed cross-sectional study was conducted on 532 mothers. Binary logistic regression was performed and Variables with p value ≤ 0.05 in multivariable analysis declared as statistically significant variables. For the qualitative part focused group discussion was performed, and a thematic framework analysis was done. Finally the results were presented with narration. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 52%. Husband education (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.6, 5), colostrum feeding (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.3, 3.9), antenatal care (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.1, 4.3.), place of delivery (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.6), residence (AOR = 0.3; 95% CI 0.2, 0.6), counseling during postnatal care (AOR = 2; 95% CI 1.2, 3.3) were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. As most discussant explained reason for not exclusive breastfeeding were due to different perceptions such as breast milk not sufficient, giving water decrease infantile colic and fear of food refusal. Prevalence of breastfeeding is low. Husband education, residence, colostrum feeding, antenatal care, institutional delivery, counseling during antenatal and postnatal care were significantly associated variables.
The wetland ecosystem is among the most important ecosystems globally. It is a source of ecosystem services that can contribute to the income and means of livelihood for communities living near the vicinity of wetlands especially in developing countries. Ethiopia is among the least developing countries in Africa where many communities around the wetlands depend on ecosystem services for their livelihoods. However, these wetlands are being degraded both by anthropogenic and natural factors. Te objectives of the study were to assess the status of the major wetlands and their contribution to the livelihoods of communities in South Wollo Zone of Amhara Regional State located in NorthEastern Ethiopia. Districts in South Wollo with wetland potential were selected purposely in collaboration with Zonal Agricultural Ofce experts. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 114 respondents living around the wetlands for the interview. In addition to this, three focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to gather data focused on types of wetlands, major provisioning ecosystem services, and major threats to wetlands. In the study area, 9 natural and 3 manmade major wetlands were identifed. Tese wetlands have provisioning ecosystem services such as food production; source of grasses for animal feed; ceremonial activities; roof making and handicrafts; and water for drinking, livestock watering, and irrigation which are the major sources of livelihoods. Tough these wetlands have important roles in livelihood, they are highly afected by settlement, conversion for agriculture, overgrazing, excessive water abstraction, deforestation, sand mining, pollution, invasive species, and climate change. Terefore, wetland management intervention plan should be prepared and implemented through a community-based restoration approach.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.