From a new perspective, polymorphism is now often considered as a functional property that extends the applications of many materials. BiFeO3 is still an interesting material from both fundamental and applied points of view. A unique characteristic of BiFeO3 film, the polymorphism was stabilised only using the epitaxial strain caused by the substrate of the film. Here we report the hydrothermal synthesis of biphasic BiFeO3 ceramics using low NaOH concentration and temperature. The ability of BiFeO3 ceramics to morph into tetragonal and rhombohedral allotropic phases was demonstrated, confirming the theoretical prediction that the polymorphism can be stabilised even in powder form. Based on our experimental study NaOH(aq) is proposed as responsible for the strain on the structure of the rhombohedral phase. In addition, the in-depth characterisation of this biphasic ceramic opens up new opportunities for the technological applications of BiFeO3 material.
The extent to which culture moderates the effects of need for approval from others on a person's handling of interpersonal conflict was investigated. Students from 24 nations rated how they handled a recent interpersonal conflict, using measures derived from face‐negotiation theory. Samples varied in the extent to which they were perceived as characterised by the cultural logics of dignity, honour, or face. It was hypothesised that the emphasis on harmony within face cultures would reduce the relevance of need for approval from others to face‐negotiation concerns. Respondents rated their need for approval from others and how much they sought to preserve their own face and the face of the other party during the conflict. Need for approval was associated with concerns for both self‐face and other‐face. However, as predicted, the association between need for approval from others and concern for self‐face was weaker where face logic was prevalent. Favourable conflict outcome was positively related to other‐face and negatively related to self‐face and to need for approval from others, but there were no significant interactions related to prevailing cultural logics. The results illustrate how particular face‐threatening factors can moderate the distinctive face‐concerns earlier found to characterise individualistic and collectivistic cultural groups.
Background: The article presents, from a diachronic perspective, the concerns of valorization and preservation of the documentary heritage through digitisation projects in the Romanian Library System. The development of the argument is made starting from the analysis of the interest in the subject in international literature (through a bibliometric analysis) and the investigation of the online presence of libraries expressed statistically from the typology of forms of representation, to specific digital products and services, thus highlighting how they evolved in the sense of diversifying and modernizing the products and services provided and taking into account the political, economic, and technological constraints. Methods: The evaluation of the involvement of Romanian libraries in digitisation activities was done through the such research methods as content analysis and scientometric research, which allowed the carrying out of a longitudinal case study extended for the period 2007-2022, during the unravelling of the events. Results: The most representative initiatives for the creation of the Digital Library of Romania and the involvement of libraries in national and European projects are presented, and examples of good practices are highlighted, including political and administrative concerns to support protection and capitalization through the digitisation of the libraries' heritage. This study is the first in Romanian specialized bibliography that proovides an overall and evolutionary perspective on the national project of digitisation of the documentary cultural heritage. Analyzing a large number of official documents and library web addresses has been a major challenge. Conclusions: During the analyzed period (2007-2022), there have been numerous initiatives and digitisation projects, but the results have not always met expectations. From the experience of Romanian libraries, it can be concluded that digital content development initiatives have not always been successful because of the absence or insufficient commitment of the sustainability component.
Pakistan is urbanizing at the fastest pace in South Asia, and if left unplanned, it will not only reduce adaptive capacity of its residents rather it will be a chaos for its residents. The aim of this study is to answer the question on how urbanites of Pakistan are coping with climate change and which part of the society required support to cope with changing climate? To answer this questions, this study conducted survey through a structured questionnaire, from the urban residents of Islamabad, to explore their coping mechanisms towards climate change. Survey collected information on demographic, social, economic, and physical aspects, using Hackman’s Treatment effect model. The sample selection equation is conditional on the adaptations to climate change in the outcome equation. Main independent variables are income, age, education, and occupation. Selection equation is based on perceptions of individuals about climate change which contains dependent variables of changes in temperature of summers and winters, changes in rain fall pattern, fog, hailstorm, and information received from social media and peer groups. With the result of 57.55, the Wald test shows that overall, there exists goodness of fit at the 99 percent confidence level. The value of rho in the Heckman model is 0.40 which implies the Heckman model provides more consistent and more efficient estimates. The results are suggesting that increasing age enhances the likelihood of adaptations as the positive and significant coefficient of age implies that age has probability to adapt to climate change. The positive and significant coefficient of income, education, and occupation implies that urbanites have higher probability to adapt to climate change. Perception is the essential foundation of adaptation, and differences in perception can be transferred to the adapted strategies. Households that experience a greater variation in annual mean temperature are more likely to adopt any adaptation strategy to cope with climate change. Essentially, poverty encompasses the majority of the characteristics that reduce respondents’ adaptation capacity and increase their susceptibility to climate change. The major contextual disparities were discovered across union councils in the form of financial, personal, social, physical, and natural capitals of families. Therefore, obligation is on government to offer greater support for individuals who are less affluent in terms of these assets. For this city, officials must offer subsidy schemes to less privileged and marginalized people of urban dwellers to enhance their adaptive capacity.
This study examines the causal relationship between air pollution ( AP) and outward foreign direct investment ( OFDI) in China by applying the bootstrap rolling-window full- and subsample Granger causality test in a sample from 2013 to 2022. We find that AP negatively influenced OFDI in 2016, while this influence became positive at the end of 2019. The results confirm the coexistence of the pollution haven hypothesis, factor endowment hypothesis, and Porter hypothesis. In turn, OFDI negatively influenced AP in 2019, which proves the “composition effect” and “technique effect,” implying that OFDI brings better air quality by optimizing the economic structure and promoting green technology. However, this influence became positive in 2020, which is consistent with the “scale effect,” indicating that OFDI worsens air quality by expanding production. This research provides insights for the government to coordinate OFDI growth and carbon neutralization to achieve sustainable development. It also has implications for firms to reduce environmental costs through OFDI.
In a context in which sedentary screen time is on the rise and adolescents are less eager to engage in free-time activities, physical and recreational activities, although too often ignored, have proven to be an antidote for a large array of psychological and behavioral problems in adolescents, including drug use. The present study is a cross-sectional investigation of the association between physical and recreational activities, sedentary screen time, and time spent with parents and the intensity of drug use in adolescents. The participants were part of a representative sample of 2677 adolescents from Bucharest, Romania. The results indicate that vigorous physical and recreational activities, as well as time spent with parents, were negatively associated with an index of drug use (13 drugs), while screen time positively predicted the intensity of drug use. These findings raise the question of the involvement of parents and educational authorities in promoting healthy behaviors and good practices for the prevention of drug use and improving public adolescents' health.
This study aims to investigate potential archaeological proxies at a large Bronze Age fortification in Hungary, namely the Csanádpalota-Juhász T. tanya site, using open-access satellite data. Available Sentinel-2 images acquired between April 2017 and September 2022 were used. More than 700 images (727) were initially processed and filtered, accounting at the end of more than 400 (412) available calibrated Level 2A Sentinel images over the case study area. Sentinel-2 images were processed through image analysis. Based on pan-sharpened data, the visibility of crop marks was improved and enhanced by implementing orthogonal equations. Several crop marks, some still unknown, were revealed in this study. In addition, multi-temporal phenological observations were recorded on three archaeological proxies (crop marks) within the case study area, while an additional area was selected for calibration purposes (agricultural field). Phenological observations were performed for at least four complete phenological cycles throughout the study period. Statistical comparisons between the selected archaeological proxies were applied using a range of vegetation indices. The overall results indicated that phenological observations could be used as archaeological proxies for detecting the formation of crop marks.
People in economically advantaged nations tend to evaluate their life as more positive overall and report greater well-being than people in less advantaged nations. But how does positivity manifest in the daily life experiences of individuals around the world? The present study asked 15,244 college students from 62 nations, in 42 languages, to describe a situation they experienced the previous day using the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ). Using expert ratings, the overall positivity of each situation was calculated for both nations and individuals. The positivity of the average situation in each nation was strongly related to the economic development of the nation as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). For individuals’ daily experiences, the economic status of their nation also predicted the positivity of their experience, even more than their family socioeconomic status. Further analyses revealed the specific characteristics of the average situations for higher HDI nations that make their experiences more positive. Higher HDI was associated with situational experiences involving humor, socializing with others, and the potential to express emotions and fantasies. Lower HDI was associated with an increase in the presence of threats, blame, and hostility, as well as situational experiences consisting of family, religion, and money. Despite the increase in a few negative situational characteristics in lower HDI countries, the overall average experience still ranged from neutral to slightly positive, rather than negative, suggesting that greater HDI may not necessarily increase positive experiences but rather decrease negative experiences. The results illustrate how national economic status influences the lives of individuals even within a single instance of daily life, with large and powerful consequences when accumulated across individuals within each nation.
The Boltzmann equation becomes invalid as the size of gas molecules is comparable with the average intermolecular distance. A better description is provided by the Enskog collision operator, which takes into account the finite size of gas molecules. This extension implies nonlocal collisions as well as an increase in collision frequency, making it computationally expensive to solve. An approximation of the Enskog collision operator, denoted the simplified Enskog collision operator, is used in this work to develop a quadrature-based lattice Boltzmann model for non-ideal monatomic dense gases. The Shakhov collision term is implemented in order to fine-tune the Prandtl number. This kinetic model is shown to be able to tackle non-equilibrium flow problems of dense gases, namely, the sound wave and the shock wave propagation. The results are compared systematically with the results of the more accurate but computationally intensive particle method of solving the Enskog equation. The model introduced in this paper is shown to have good accuracy for small to moderate denseness of the fluid (defined as the ratio of the molecular diameter to the mean free path), and due to the efficiency in terms of computational time, it is suitable for practical applications.
The heavy dependence on online education during the COVID-19 pandemic has long-term consequences for teaching and learning. The problem statement of the present study is to identify, from a student-centered perspective, solutions for a teaching approach in the virtual environment to increase student involvement and stimulate active relevant learning. The research objectives are to describe the team dynamics in Project-Based Virtual Learning (PBVL) and to identify the advantages and disadvantages of learning in PBVL, from the students’ perspective. At three separate intervals, 102 undergraduate students enrolled in three different courses wrote down reflections of their experience with PBVL in an online self-administrated reflective journal. Following a data-driven systematic qualitative content analysis of the students’ learning journals, four main themes emerged regarding the learning experience in virtual teams: collaboration, communication, trust, and learning. Based on the results, a three-stage framework for PBVL team dynamics was proposed: Teambuilding–Teamwork–Team performance (TTT) framework. The results show that PBVL favors the development of professional, learning, and personal skills through collaboration.
The question of how often Americans fall behind on their finances is analyzed using the National Financial Well-Being survey of the United States Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. An ordered logit model is proposed to study the effect of individual and household characteristics on the likelihood of falling behind in one’s finances. The analysis shows that traditional variables such as income, age, education, and health are statistically significant predictors of falling behind in one’s finances. In addition, the study shows that the volatility of income, saving habits, and individuals’ financial knowledge significantly contribute to the explanation of Americans’ economic behavior.
In this work, we present the manufacturing process of magnetizable membranes based on cotton microfibers, honey, carbonyl iron, and three different concentrations of silver microparticles. Each membrane is used as a dielectric material for the fabrication of electrical devices. By using the plane capacitor method, the electrical capacitance and dielectric loss tangent are measured in a medium-frequency alternating field superimposed on a static magnetic field. From the obtained data, the time constants of the devices, the components of complex dielectric permittivity, and the electrical conductivity of the membranes as a function of the electric field frequency and magnetic flux density can be extracted. The results show that the obtained membranes can be useful for the fabrication of low-cost and environmentally friendly magneto-active membranes that are required for various technical and biomedical applications.
The paper investigated gender inequalities in the accounting profession in the specific context of an eastern European country, in the past heavily dominated by men, but now with a substantial number of women. Thus, we used a questionnaire survey explored the relationship between women’s perception of discrimination and institutional and individual characteristics. Institutional factors such as rewards practices, opportunities, and access to top positions in organisations influence women's perception of gender discrimination. Concerning the intersectionality of individual characteristics interaction, our results revealed that women professionals with higher academic achievement and children are more likely to report discrimination. In contrast, women professionals with a higher-ranking position in organisations and those working in the public sector are less likely to report it compared with those from the private sector. These findings are of interest from a theoretical perspective to those who explore gender-related issues in general and in the case of accounting organisations. They are also helpful from a practical standpoint regarding the management of these accounting organisations, which should ensure gender-equitable policies for employees.
The current research discusses the ethical aspects that were currently not studied yet in the context of the teacher attrition phenomenon and its impact on school effectiveness, which is measured in this research by promoting achievements basing the assumption that teacher perception of ethical climate might explain teacher attrition behaviors, including leaving teaching (Rosenblatt & Shapira-Lishchinsky, 2017). This research has examined teacher perceptions of school ethical climate through three dimensions found to be relevant in the 21st-century era in the aspects of organizational climate in general and school climate in particular, caring ethical climate, law and code ethical climate, and instrumental ethical climate. For this purpose, quantitative research is based on the pioneer researchers Victor & Cullen’s (1987, 1988) questionnaire and self-report of teachers regarding teacher tendency to leave the teaching profession, and their perception of learner achievement promotion in the context of ethical climate in their school was used. To deepen and expand the understanding of teacher perceptions, qualitative research including in-depth interviews was also performed. The research population consisted of 223 teachers from elementary and junior high schools in Israel. The current research indicates a principal finding that expresses the influence and importance of a caring ethical climate in reducing attrition behaviors and teacher attrition intentions and promoting learner achievements. Moreover, it was found that law and code ethical climate is correlated with promoting student achievements, and therefore integrating these two ethical climate dimensions will be the foundation for a program for new and senior teacher preservation in the education system. The research findings are currently relevant since the education system in Israel faces a severe shortage of teachers due to increased teacher attrition of teaching.
This study focuses on IT employee retention, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Retaining and employing young IT professionals today is a challenging task for human resources employees. We believe that this is a topical and very relevant topic for the HR field as most companies are facing staff turnover, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also known that the IT sector is very dynamic and constantly evolving, companies need manpower and competitiveness among employers is high. In addition, a poor retention strategy can have a negative effect on the productivity and work quality of the IT department. And these are some good reasons for a company to invest in a retention strategy. Our research is qualitative in nature and we have sought to identify aspects of employee motivation and satisfaction with the benefits they receive from their employers. Understanding the real needs of IT employees was also one of the aims of this research. The results of the investigation indicated a strong relevance of retention means such as the salary, the team and the good relationship with colleagues, the working environment and the development opportunities available to employees within the company.
Rural area represents the population with a high work capacity, but with less employment opportunities than in urban areas, so in order to have a decent job 5 (five) needs are referred to: working conditions should be safe, both physically and mentally, people should have access to medical facilities, health, working hours should be ones in which you can rest and have time for family and compensation should be acceptable for the work done. The employment opportunities that people have differ depending on the environment they come from, so in rural areas the job opportunities are discrete, as it is the quality in work, both of them depending strongly on the area characteristics - whether it is developed or underdeveloped- and by its infrastructure, always considering that agriculture is most increased activity in these areas. The study aims to map and depict the occupational situation of people living in Romanian rural areas, coping with limited job opportunities, compared to those living in towns and cities, as well as how people in rural areas choose their jobs, how the labour market has influenced them to find a suitable job and where they can get or acquire the skills they need. As people in rural areas choose to migrate, the population is an ageing one and over time, villages will depopulate and the labour force and human resources will shrink.
Despite global commitments and efforts, a gender‐based division of paid and unpaid work persists. To identify how psychological factors, national policies, and the broader sociocultural context contribute to this inequality, we assessed parental‐leave intentions in young adults (18–30 years old) planning to have children (N = 13,942; 8,880 identified as women; 5,062 identified as men) across 37 countries that varied in parental‐leave policies and societal gender equality. In all countries, women intended to take longer leave than men. National parental‐leave policies and women's political representation partially explained cross‐national variations in the gender gap. Gender gaps in leave intentions were paradoxically larger in countries with more gender‐egalitarian parental‐leave policies (i.e., longer leave available to both fathers and mothers). Interestingly, this cross‐national variation in the gender gap was driven by cross‐national variations in women's (rather than men's) leave intentions. Financially generous leave and gender‐egalitarian policies (linked to men's higher uptake in prior research) were not associated with leave intentions in men. Rather, men's leave intentions were related to their individual gender attitudes. Leave intentions were inversely related to career ambitions. The potential for existing policies to foster gender equality in paid and unpaid work is discussed.
Topiramate or (2,3:4,5-bis-O-methylethylidene-β-d-fructopyranose sulfamate) is classified as a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide derived from fructose and is one of the most efficient antiepileptic drugs. Oral medicated jelly is an easily swallowed dosage form for administration to dysphagic patients including pediatrics or geriatrics. For this study, medicated jellies with topiramate were developed and characterized employing currently used gelling agents: sodium alginate, gelatin and pectin. Moist binary mixtures between topiramate and each component used in jellies were prepared before the jellies formulations to determine the substance compatibility. Topiramate, moist binary mixtures and oral medicated jellies were analyzed by FTIR–UATR spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetry to evaluate the thermal behavior and possible interactions between compounds.
The lack of a conventional Lyapunov theory for fractional-order (FO) systems makes it difficult to study the dynamics of fractional-order neural networks (FONNs). Instead, the existing literature derives necessary conditions for various dynamic properties of FONNs using Halanay-type lemmas. However, when these lemmas are used, the results are frequently more conservative than those produced for integer-order neural networks (NNs). In order to provide sufficient criteria that are less conservative than those found in other research, a novel application of the Halanay-type lemma is made within this study. Thus, for extremely general FONNs containing neutral-type, time-varying, and distributed delays, sufficient conditions presented by way of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and algebraic inequalities are achieved. For the FO scenario, a model this broad and including so many different kinds of delays is developed for the first time. Additionally, a novel form of Lyapunov-like function is built, which results in less stringent algebraic inequalities. One of the first times in the setting of FONNs, the free-weighting matrix method is also used to further lower the conservativeness of the obtained conditions. Based on different Lyapunov-type functions, three theorems are developed regarding the asymptotic stability of the proposed networks. Three numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the theoretical developments.
How can one conclude that well-being is higher in country A than country B, when well-being is being measured according to the way people in country A think about well-being? We address this issue by proposing a new culturally sensitive method to comparing societal levels of well-being. We support our reasoning with data on life satisfaction and interdependent happiness focusing on individual and family, collected mostly from students, across forty-nine countries. We demonstrate that the relative idealization of the two types of well-being varies across cultural contexts and are associated with culturally different models of selfhood. Furthermore, we show that rankings of societal well-being based on life satisfaction tend to underestimate the contribution from interdependent happiness. We introduce a new culturally sensitive method for calculating societal well-being, and examine its construct validity by testing for associations with the experience of emotions and with individualism-collectivism. This new culturally sensitive approach represents a slight, yet important improvement in measuring well-being.
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