West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences
Recent publications
The animal model deals with the species other than the human, as it can imitate the disease progression, its’ diagnosis as well as a treatment similar to human. Discovery of a drug and/or component, equipment, their toxicological studies, dose, side effects are in vivo studied for future use in humans considering its’ ethical issues. Here lies the importance of the animal model for its enormous use in biomedical research. Animal models have many facets that mimic various disease conditions in humans like systemic autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular diseases, Atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., and many more. Besides, the model has tremendous importance in drug development, development of medical devices, tissue engineering, wound healing, and bone and cartilage regeneration studies, as a model in vascular surgeries as well as the model for vertebral disc regeneration surgery. Though, all the models have some advantages as well as challenges, but, present review has emphasized the importance of various small and large animal models in pharmaceutical drug development, transgenic animal models, models for medical device developments, studies for various human diseases, bone and cartilage regeneration model, diabetic and burn wound model as well as surgical models like vascular surgeries and surgeries for intervertebral disc degeneration considering all the ethical issues of that specific animal model. Despite, the process of using the animal model has facilitated researchers to carry out the researches that would have been impossible to accomplish in human considering the ethical prohibitions.
Highlights • Paulownia leaves silage (PLS) fed to dairy cows decreased CH4 emission. • Dietary PLS inhibited the methanogen community and increased selected bacteria populations. • Diet containing PLS elevated propionate proportion and decreased acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen fluid. • Transcript abundance of genes regulating fatty acid metabolism in the milk somatic cells were increased by PLS. • Dietary PLS elevated proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, and reduced n-6/n-3 ratio in the milk.
The catfish Ompok bimaculatus (butter catfish) has recently gained importance as an aquaculture candidate species because of its delicious taste, higher nutritional value and market demand. A significant problem in butter catfish aquaculture is its inability to voluntarily spawn in captivity. This experiment was conducted to study the impact of photoperiod on the voluntary spawning of O. bimaculatus in the pre‐spawning season (April) in captivity. A total of 80 broodfish were equally distributed (n = 20; F = 10 and M = 10) into four photoperiod treatments: natural condition (control), 12:12 light:dark (L:D), 15L:9D and 9L:15D were stocked in rectangular tanks, and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. Light intensity was maintained at 1000 lx throughout the study for all treatments, except the control. The fish were fed a commercial diet (40% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) at a rate of 3% of body weight, twice a day, for 45 days. Ovasis™ was used for hormone induction to study induced breeding. Broodfish reared under natural photoperiod (control) did not respond to voluntary captive spawning. A complete voluntary captive spawning response was observed in the 12L:12D broodfish, and partial success was observed in the 15L:9D and 9L:15D broodfish. The fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the 12L:12D broodfish group than those in the broodfish group. Hence, the photoperiod regime of 12L:12D with 1000 lx light intensity would be ideal for voluntary captive spawning and can be elected for maximum seed production in the pre‐spawning season. The present study showed that photoperiod manipulation and fixed light intensity stimulate advanced gonadal maturation and voluntary captive spawning of butter catfish, which can help seed production throughout the year.
Edwardsiella tarda is considered one of the important bacterial fish pathogens. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda are structurally and functionally conserved, and immunogenic. This study assessed the effects of the OMPs of E. tarda CGH9 as a vaccine without aluminium hydroxide [AH] (T1) and with AH adjuvant (T2) on the respiratory burst (ROB) activity, lymphocyte proliferation of head kidney (HK) leukocytes, and serum antibody production in pangas catfish Pangasius pangasius. The ROB activity and lymphocyte proliferation of HK leukocytes increased in both vaccinated groups compared to the control. Nonetheless, the T2 group showed a gradual increase in ROB activity and lymphocyte proliferation of HK leukocytes up to 3-weeks post-vaccination (wpv). The serum antibody production in the T1 group decreased initially for up to 2-wpv and increased from 3-wpv; whereas, in the T2 group, the serum-specific antibody levels were significantly high from 1-wpv compared to control. Simultaneously, the protective efficacy in terms of relative percentage survival in the T2 group after injecting with a lethal dose of E. tarda CGH9 was high (89.00±15.56) compared to the T1 group (78.00±0.00). Furthermore, the catfish administered with a booster dose of E. tarda OMPs with or without AH adjuvant showed no additional increase in immune response or protective immunity. These results suggested that E. tarda OMPs and AH adjuvant complex has a higher potential to induce protective immunity, which may be a good choice as a vaccine to combat E. tarda infection in catfish.
Intensive fish farming often leads to the emergence of infectious and parasitic diseases, which require aquadrugs to control them. The present study evaluated the effects of 1× (50 μg/kg biomass/day) and 3× (150 μg/kg biomass/day) dietary emamectin benzoate (EB)-dosing on healthy Oreochromis niloticus for 7 consecutive days in comparison with control. Dietary EB caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in feed intake and an increase in mortalities. The total erythrocyte counts (TECs), monocyte counts (MCs), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) reduced significantly. Contrarily, the counts of total leukocytes (TLCs), thrombocytes (TCs), lymphocytes (LCs) and neutrophils (NCs) increased significantly within 7 days of EB-dosing (ED) in both groups. The TECs, Hb, TCs and MCs normalized on day 35 post-EB-dosing (PED), while Ht, MCH, LCs, and MCs recuperated on day 14 PED. Both groups experienced a significant increase in serum glucose, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and creatinine levels as well as a decrease in calcium, chloride ions and acetylcholinesterase levels during the ED period. The alkaline phosphatase and creatinine levels of the 1× group recovered on day 14 and 28 PED, respectively but not in the 3× group. The dosed fish documented reduced erythrocyte cellular and nuclear morphometry like larger axis, minor axis, volume, and surface area, which recovered during the PED period, except for the nuclear volume. The results suggested the tolerability of O. niloticus juveniles and their ability to mount adaptive responses to the effect of EB to recuperate with the suspension of dosing.
The generation of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria largely depends on the use of antimicrobials not only in humans but also in pet animals and livestock. The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence of beta-lactamase and biofilm-producing- E.coli in healthy pet and backyard livestock. The study also intended on molecular docking experiments to confirm the nature of the catalytic mechanism in β-lactamase enzymes, encoded by the various blaCTX-M genotypes and phylogenetic analysis to reveal clonal relationship of the animal origin E. coli isolates with human clinical strains. The rectal swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 254), cats (n = 108), sheep (n = 119) and goats (n = 143) in India. In total 247 (76.47%) E. coli strains were identified as ESBL producers. The possession of ESBL-producers was significantly more (p < 0.05) in pets than in the backyard livestock. Most of the strains possessed blaCTX-M-15 like clones. E. coli strains possessing blaCTX-M-15.2, blaCTX-M-157, blaCTX-M-181 and blaCTX-M-218 like clones, isolated from pets were not reported earlier. The study detected 56.65% of E. coli strains as moderate or strong biofilm producers possessing biofilm-associated genes (csgA, rcsA, rpoS, sdiA). ESBL-producing E. coli showed phenotypical resistance to tetracycline (93.1%), azithromycin (89.8%), ampicillin (84.2%), cefotaxime (80.9%), doxycycline (82.5%), co-trimoxazole (80.9%), ampicillin/cloxacillin (76.9%). The CTX-M variants obtained in this study were modelled by the SWISS-MODEL and verified. Ligand having minimum binding energy, show the highest affinity of β-lactamases for cefotaxime and cefpodoxime. The Gibbs free energy release for all 14 different complex ranges between −6.9 (CTX-M-15.2+cefpodoxime) to −5.3 (CTX-M-218+cefpodoxime) Kcal/mol. Phylogenetic analysis of the animal origin ESBL-E. coli strains revealed a partial clonal relationship with the clinical isolates of local human patients. The present study described the significant presence of biofilm and β-lactamase producing, multi-drug resistant E. coli in pet animals having public health importance.
Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are key indicators of the plasticine era, widely spread across different ecosystems. MPs and NPs become global stressors due to their inherent physicochemical characteristics and potential impact on ecosystems and humans. MPs and NPs have been exposed to humans via various pathways, such as tap water, bottled water, seafood, beverages, milk, fish, salts, fruits, and vegetables. This paper highlights MPs and NPs pathways to the food chains and how these plastic particles can cause risks to human health. MPs have been evident in vivo and vitro and have been at health risks, such as respiratory, immune, reproductive, and digestive systems. The present work emphasizes how various MPs and NPs, and associated toxic chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), impact human health. Polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are common MPs and NPs, reported in human implants via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure, which can cause carcinogenesis, according to Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reports. Inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure-response cause genotoxicity, cell division and viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress induction, metabolism disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and immunological responses in humans. Lastly, this review work concluded with current knowledge on potential risks to human health and knowledge gaps with recommendations for further investigation in this field.
Mithun (Bos frontalis) or gayal and Indian Bison or wild gaur (Bos gaurus) are listed among the rare and endangered bovine species of India. The remote location of mithun in four North Eastern Hill states (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram), scattered population size, and non-availability of genetic diversity status are major limitations towards devising a suitable breeding and conservation policy of these species. Since several studies have demonstrated the successful applicability of microsatellite/SSR markers across related genera/families in both crop plants and animal species, 30 FAO recommended cattle microsatellites were utilized for the assessment of the genetic diversity of Indian mithun, bison, and local Tho-tho cattle. Mitochondrial transmembrane protein coding cytochrome B (CYTB) complete sequence data of 71 bovine samples from India were also used to reinforce the study. Population structuring clustered the all bovines into three subgroups as per geographical location and species. Bottleneck analysis indicated a mode shift in the allelic frequency distribution of gaur, indicating minor genetic bottleneck events in the past, while no bottleneck was found in mithun and Tho-tho cattle. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report of molecular genetic characterization showing the population structure and status of genetic diversity in rare Indian bovines, namely, Mithun, Gaur, and Tho-tho cattle.
Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease with inevitably fatal outcome. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) could sense dsRNA viral infections, and implicated in pathogenesis of rabies and Negri bodies (NBs) formation. Present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of TLR3 in pathogenesis, NBs formation, and therapeutic potential of blocking TLR3/dsRNA interaction in rabies infection. Young Swiss albino mice were infected with 100 LD50 of street rabies virus (SRABV) intracerebrally (i/c) on day 0 and treated with 30 μg of CU CPT 4a (selective TLR3 inhibitor) i/c on 0, 3 and 5 days post-infection (DPI). Three mice each were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 DPI to study sequential pathological consequences through histopathology, Seller's staining, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay, flow cytometry, and viral and cytokine genes quantification by real-time PCR. CU CPT 4a inhibited TLR3 expression resulted in delayed development and decreased intensity of clinical signs and pathological lesions, low viral load, significantly reduced NBs formation, and increased survival time in SRABV-infected mice. These parameters suggested that TLR3 did influence the SRABV replication and NBs formation. Inhibition of TLR3 led to decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons indicated an anti-inflammatory effect of CU CPT 4a during SRABV infection. Further, TLR3-inhibited group revealed normal CD4+/CD8+ T-cells ratio with less TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells indicated that immune cell kinetics are not affected during TLR3-inhibition. SRABV-infected and mock-treated mice were developed severe clinical signs and histopathological lesions, more NBs formation, high viral load, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in brain, which were correlated with higher expression levels of TLR3. In conclusion, these data suggested that TLR3/dsRNA signalling pathway could play critical role in pathogenesis of SRABV infection in vivo and opens up new avenues of therapeutics.
Paulownia is a fast-growing tree that produces a huge mass of leaves as waste that can be used as a feed source for ruminants. The previous study showed that phenolic compounds were the most active biological substances in Paulownia leaves, which affected the ruminal parameters and methane concentration. However, there are no scientific reports on the Paulownia leaves extract (PLE) containing phenolic compounds for their mode of action in the rumen. Phenolics constituted the main group of bioactive compounds in PLE (84.4 mg/g dry matter). PLE lowered the concentration of ammonia, modulated the VFA profile in the ruminal fluid, and decreased methane production. The PLE caused a significant reduction of in vitro dry matter degradability, reduced the number of methanogens and protozoa, and affected selected bacteria populations. PLE had a promising effect on the fatty acid profile in the ruminal fluid. Paulownia as a new dietary component or its extract as a feed additive may be used to mitigate ruminal methanogenesis, resulting in environmental protection and reducing ruminal biohydrogenation, improving milk and meat quality.
There is an ever‐increasing clinical and socioeconomic burden associated with cartilage lesions & osteoarthritis (OA). Its progression, chondrocyte death & hypertrophy are all facilitated by inflamed synovium & joint environment. Due to their capacity to switch between pro‐ & anti‐inflammatory phenotypes, macrophages are increasingly being recognized as a key player in the healing process, which has been largely overlooked in the past. A biomaterial‘s inertness has traditionally been a goal while developing them in order to reduce the likelihood of adverse reactions from the host organism. A better knowledge of how macrophages respond to implanted materials has made it feasible to determine the biomaterial architectural parameters that control the host response & aid in effective tissue integration. Thus, this review summarizes novel therapeutic techniques for avoiding OA or increasing cartilage repair & regeneration that might be developed using new technologies tuning macrophages into desirable functional phenotypes. Scavenging of ROS in rheumatoid arthritis and production of O2; thereby inducing polarization of M2 macrophages. Reduced inflammation and also helpful in sustained delivery of the anti‐rheumatic drug methotrexate that complimented the therapeutic effect of MFC‐MSNs.
Magnesium phosphate (MgP) is a family of newly developed resorbable bioceramics for bone tissue engineering. Although calcium phosphates (CaP) are the most commonly used bioceramics, low solubility, and slow degradation, when implanted in vivo, are their main drawbacks. Magnesium (Mg) is an essential element in the human body as it plays important role in bone metabolism, DNA stabilization, and skeletal development. Recent research on magnesium phosphates has established their higher degradability, in vitro, and in vivo biocompatibility. Compared to CaP, very limited research work has been found in the area of MgP. The prime goal of this review is to bring out the importance of magnesium phosphate ceramics for biomedical applications. In this review, we have discussed the synthesis methods, mechanical properties, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of MgP bioceramics. Moreover, we have highlighted the recent developments in metal ion‐doped MgPs and MgP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
The study investigated the carry-over effects of prepartum diet fermentability, on productivity and metabolic status of cows that received two levels of starch during early lactation. For this aim, 49 multiparous (body condition score [BSC] of 3.63 ± 0.06) and 36 primiparous (3.66 ± 0.05 BCS) Holstein cows were placed in four free stall barns from 20.6 ± 3 days before expected parturition. Immediately, the cows were fed one of the two diets: 1) a diet with high barley grain content (BARL; 20 primiparous and 26 multiparous) and 2) a diet with a high corn grain content (CRN; 16 primiparous and 23 multiparous). After parturition, all cows were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to each of the two post-partum diets differing in the level of starch: 1) high (HS) or/and 2) low starch (LS) diets. All cows received postpartum diets until 21 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples from each cow were taken at calving and 21 DIM. Colostrum samples were taken from all animals immediately after parturition, and milk yield and composition were determined and analyzed in a weekly basis. The interaction effect of parity and grain type at prepartum period was not significant for BCS of cows at calving as well as BW and serum IgG concentration in calves (at 24 h of life) in both primiparous and multiparous cows (P > 0.05). The interactions of grain type, starch level and parity were not significant for any variables of BCS, milk yield and composition except for milk fat (P = 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activity in blood was greater at calving in CRN- cows than in BARL-fed cows (P = 0.04). Regardless of parity, blood phosphorus was the only variable for which a tendency was observed for dietary treatments effects, as cows fed BARL (P = 0.09; 5.43 vs. 5.02 ± 0.24) and LS diets (P = 0.08; 5.44 vs. 5.02 ± 0.24) had higher blood phosphorus concentration compared with CORN-HS diets respectively. Our data showed that the metabolic and productive performances of primi- and multiparous animals did not change considerably by diet grain type at prepartum, level of starch at postpartum or their interaction. We concluded that diet grain type or level of starch may not be an important factor for changing metabolic status or productive performance of periparturient cows when diets have similar net energy of lactation.
Exploring suitable alternatives for high-cost concentrate feeds is a critical factor for successful livestock production. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera silage and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (at 1% of total diet, DM basis) in a quintuplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design for milk production performance, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation in Damascus goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided into three groups to be fed a diet composed of a concentrate mixture and rice straw at 60:40 (DM basis) in the control group and fed for 30 days in each period. The concentrate mixture in the control treatment was replaced with M. oleifera silage and C. vulgaris microalgae at 20% (MA20 treatment) or 40% (MA40 treatment). Treatments did not affect total feed intake but increased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) and fiber intakes while decreasing nonstructural carbohydrates intake. The digestibility of CP and acid detergent fiber increased due to silage supplementation compared to the control treatment. Treatments increased (p < 0.05) ruminal pH and the concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetate, and propionate; however, they decreased (p < 0.05) the concentrations of ammonia-N. Treatments increased (p < 0.05) the concentrations of serum glucose and antioxidant capacity. Both MA20 and MA40 treatments increased the daily milk production, the concentrations of milk fat and lactose, and feed efficiency compared to the control treatment. Additionally, MA20 and MA40 treatments increased the proportions of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total conjugated linoleic acids. It is concluded that the concentrate feed mixture in the diet of lactating goats can be replaced up to 40% (equals to 24% of total diet) with M. oleifera silage to improve feed intake and nutrient utilization, and milk production performance.
A variety of drugs are administered orally to control parasitic diseases in aquaculture. This study assessed the effects of oral dose and dosage of an antiparasitic agent emamectin benzoate (EB) on the safety and kidney, liver, and intestine tissue histoarchitecture of Oreochromis niloticus. The EB-medication for 21 days at the recommended dose caused about 2% mortalities, 25% reduced feed intake, and 6.52% biomass reduction. The results revealed a dose-dependent hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and intestinal toxic potential of EB and the relationship between medication and the functioning of vital organs. Degeneration of the renal tubules and tubular epithelium, glomerulopathy, vacuolation, inflammation and necrotized renal interstitium were observed in the kidney. The liver tissues had glycogen-type vacuolation, cytoplasmic degeneration, and vacuolation. The intestine exhibited loss of absorptive vacuoles, mucinous degeneration, necrotized intestinal villi, inflammation, and necrotized absorptive region. Lamina propria swelling was noticed in the intestine of the higher dosed groups. With the termination of medication, the specific pathological changes were reduced significantly, indicating the ability of fish to mount adaptive responses to recoup. Though the EB at the recommended dose caused mortalities, reduced feed intake, and biomass during the extended EB-dosing as well as at the higher doses, it is unlikely to produce adverse and irrevocable effects on O. niloticus at the dose of 50 μg/kg biomass/day for 7 consecutive days. The inclusion of EB in the aquaculture medicine list for managing the external parasites would help boost the tropical freshwater fish health and production.
Tilapia is one of the most consumed farmed fish, which requires the use of antibiotics in certain phases of its production. This study assessed the safety of 30 days of oral florfenicol (FFC) dosing at 0–10 times the therapeutic dose (1 × : 10 mg/kg biomass/day) in Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Behavioural changes, feed consumption, mortality and biomass were evaluated. Besides, the levels of serum glucose, calcium, chloride, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood cell morphology were determined at scheduled intervals. The 30 days of oral FFC dosing caused 3.33% (1 ×) to 18.33% (10 ×) mortalities, reduced feed intake and biomass in a dose-dependent manner. The fish fed the therapeutic dose recorded 1.25-fold increase in biomass, while the control group recorded 1.45-fold increase in 30 days. No significant erythrocyte morphological alterations were observed in the 1 × group compared to the control. However, marked morphological alterations like tear-shaped, spindle-shaped and degenerative erythrocytes in higher dosing groups indicated FFC cytotoxicity. All the serum biomarkers of O. niloticus increased significantly on day 10 and day 30 FFC dosing in a dose-dependent manner, except for calcium and chloride, which reduced significantly during the dosing period. Within 2 weeks of suspension of FFC dosing, the serum biomarker levels became normal except for alkaline phosphatase and creatinine. The recovery of biomass, feed intake, serum biomarker levels and erythrocyte morphological changes suggested that the FFC-induced changes are reversible. This study has, thus, proclaimed the safety of FFC at the therapeutic dose in O. niloticus.
To understand the metabolic mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism by monensin, Afshari male lambs (n = 16) with 41.0 ± 2.4 kg body weight (BW, mean ± SD) at approximately 180 days of age were randomly assigned equally to two dietary treatments. After a 21-day pre-adaptation period, all animals in two groups continued to receive the basal diet, but one group received no monensin supplementation (control) while the other group received 30 mg/day of monensin per animal. Individual BW was recorded weekly to determine the average daily body weight gain (ADG). At the end of the 56-day experimental period, lambs were weighed and slaughtered. Monensin supplementation did not affect BW, ADG, and rumen fermentation characteristics. However, monensin significantly downregulated the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 gene expression in all sample tissues (p < 0.05). Also, monensin downregulated expressions of SREBP-1c and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in back fat tissues. Monensin increased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS)-2, but it decreased the mRNA abundance of HMGCS-1 in the rumen epithelial tissues (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that monensin downregulates cholesterol synthesis via inhibition of HMGCS-1 and impairment of the SREBP pathway, probably due to a crosstalk among different tissues to control energy metabolism.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ensiling of date palm leaves (DPL) with organic acids (lactic or malic acid) for 45 day as a feed for lactating ewes under desert conditions. Two weeks before expected parturition, 50 multiparous lactating Farafra ewes (mean ± SD: 2 ± 0.3 parity, 34 ± 1.9 kg bodyweight, 25 ± 2.4 months of age, and 555 ± 13.0 g/day of previous milk production) were equally divided into five treatments in a completely randomized design for 90 day. The ewes in the control treatment were offered a diet composed of a concentrate feed mixture and DPL at 60:40 on a dry matter (DM) basis ensiled without additive. In the other treatments, DPL (ensiled without organic acids) in the control treatment was replaced with DPL ensiled with lactic or malic acid (at 5 g/kg DM) at 50 or 100% levels. Organic acids linearly and quadratically increased (p < 0.01) DPL and total intakes and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, and nonstructural carbohydrates without affecting fiber digestibility. Malic and lactic acid treatment also increased the concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and ammonia-N. Additionally, malic and lactic acid-treated DPL increased serum glucose concentration and total antioxidant capacity. Without affecting daily actual milk production, treatments increased (p < 0.001) the daily production of energy-corrected milk (ECM), fat-corrected milk (FCM), milk energy output, milk contents of fats, and feed efficiency. Organic acid-treated DPL increased (p < 0.05) the proportions of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total conjugated linoleic acids and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in milk. It is concluded that feeding DPL ensiled with malic or lactic acid at 20 or 40% of total diet DM increased daily ECM and FCM production, nutrient utilization efficiency, and milk quality. No differences were observed between lactic and malic acid treatment of DPL during ensiling; therefore, both of them are recommended to treat DPL for silage preparation.
The intensification of aquacultural practices demands the regulated use of antibiotics to contain diseases. This study investigated the accrual and depletion of florfenicol (FFC) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in Oreochromis niloticus juveniles following dietary administration of 15 and 45 mg FFC/kg biomass/day for 10 days, the oxidative stress responses and histopathological alterations in the kidney and liver tissues. The therapeutic dose caused no mortalities but reduced the feed intake significantly. The induction of oxidative stress in the liver and kidney tissues upon FFC-dosing was revealed by the increase in malondialdehyde, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total nitric oxide, and decrease in glutathione-S-transferase on day 10. The dietary FFC caused degeneration of renal tubular epithelium, inflammation, mineralization, hydropic swelling and necrosis in the kidney and glycogen-type vacuolation, cytoplasmic degeneration, cellular hypertrophy, and nuclear abnormalities in the liver signifying its nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic potential. The elimination of FFC was rapid in the liver and kidney but it persevered in muscle for 3 weeks. The depletion of FFA was faster in the liver and muscle, while it persevered in the kidney, signifying the probable reaction between free radicals and FFC metabolites. The withdrawal period was computed to be 6 days. Within 3 weeks of termination of dosing, the changes in biomarkers and histoarchitecture were recuperated. Though the dietary FFC induced oxidative stress and alterations in the kidney and liver histoarchitecture, our findings suggested that FFC was well tolerated by O. niloticus and is practically safe at the therapeutic dose.
The original version of the chapter was previously published with incorrect chapter title. This change is now included in FM and the chapter and the book have been updated with the change.
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217 members
Tanmoy Rana
  • Veterinary Clinical Complex (V.M.E.J)
Joydip Mukherjee
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology
Ripan Biswas
  • Department of Veterinary Public Health
Dipak Banerjee
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology
Kalyani Ray
  • Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics
700037, Kolkata, West Bengal, India