# Wellesley College

• Wellesley, United States
Recent publications
How does art from what have been culturally peripheral countries that were not former colonies of Western powers scale shift or find its way to the global center? What can the Korean case tell us about the circulation of contemporary literature in a “small language?” The scholarly literature offers many answers to these questions: the role of intermediaries, the power dynamics within the world system of translation, the topographies of literary circulation, and a range of other political, cultural, economic, and social factors. We propose that the Korean case sheds new light on these discussions in several important ways loosely subsumed under the umbrella of infrastructures—the platforms, passageways, containers, and gates that organize the writing, reading, publishing, and marketing of the literature. We see three kinds of infrastructures as catalysts of Korean literary success including infrastructures of export and promotion, infrastructures of discovery and consecration, and infrastructures of connection and vernacularization.
Rabinovitch showed in 1978 that the interval orders having a representation consisting of only closed unit intervals have order dimension at most 3\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$3$$\end{document}. This article shows that the same dimension bound applies to two other classes of posets: those having a representation consisting of unit intervals (but with a mixture of open and closed intervals allowed) and those having a representation consisting of closed intervals with lengths in 0,1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\left\{ 0,1 \right\}$$\end{document}.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Online interventions have the potential to reduce risk factors for suicide, such as hopelessness, social isolation, social rejection, and poor self-esteem. The present study aimed to analyze the impact of engagement with CATCH-IT, an Internet-based depression prevention intervention, on risk factors for suicide. Participants were 369 adolescents aged 13–18 with subclinical levels of depression who were randomized to two conditions: the CATCH-IT modules and time-matched Health Education modules. For adolescents in both conditions, as suicide risk factors (social isolation and social rejection) decreased, hopelessness scores also significantly decreased (p = .021 and p < .001, respectively). There was no main effect of condition on any of the three suicide risk factors. Greater engagement with CATCH-IT (measured by the number of modules completed) was significantly related to a greater reduction in levels of hopelessness (p = .02). Adolescents who identified as African American or Black, Hispanic/Latinx, older, or male spent fewer minutes on the website (all ps < .001). Adolescents who were highly engaged with CATCH-IT were shown to have a greater reduction in suicide risk factors. This relationship varied by demographic characteristic and these findings can support future changes to CATCH-IT to be more engaging to a wider audience. Future efforts should aim to reduce the engagement disparities in adolescents utilizing an online depression prevention program.
Limitations in the accuracy of brain pathways reconstructed by diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography have received considerable attention. While the technical advances spearheaded by the Human Connectome Project (HCP) led to significant improvements in dMRI data quality, it remains unclear how these data should be analyzed to maximize tractography accuracy. Over a period of two years, we have engaged the dMRI community in the IronTract Challenge, which aims to answer this question by leveraging a unique dataset. Macaque brains that have received both tracer injections and ex vivo dMRI at high spatial and angular resolution allow a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of tractography accuracy on state-of-the-art dMRI acquisition schemes. We find that, when analysis methods are carefully optimized, the HCP scheme can achieve similar accuracy as a more time-consuming, Cartesian-grid scheme. Importantly, we show that simple pre- and post-processing strategies can improve the accuracy and robustness of many tractography methods. Finally, we find that fiber configurations that go beyond crossing (e.g., fanning, branching) are the most challenging for tractography. The IronTract Challenge remains open and we hope that it can serve as a valuable validation tool for both users and developers of dMRI analysis methods.
The United States is often conceptualized as a country of immigrants, with an origin story of multicultural, multilingual, diverse foreign-born populations coming together to create the fabric of the nation. This narrative emerges through many domains of American society, frequently depicting an image of opportunity for all. Yet historically and contemporarily, immigration has been racialized and wrought with oppressive practices and policies. Research has shown that white Americans tend to define “American” as synonymous with “white” and subsequently perceive those who appear phenotypically not white (e.g., darker skin tones) as “less American”. This phenomenon is reflected in immigration policy and lived experiences of minoritized immigrants. Vast theoretical and empirical literature documents the deleterious consequences of discrimination across domains of physical (e.g., hypertension, compromised immune functioning) and psychological health (e.g., ethno-racial trauma, depression). While it is critical to highlight the harmful effects of racism and xenophobia on immigrant well-being, the intent of this article is to also explore how indigenous, restorative healing practices may help communities and individuals heal from xenophobia and discrimination. Thus, the aim of this piece is twofold; (1) briefly discuss and contextualize the systems of oppression impacting immigrants, specifically Latinx communities in the United States, and (2) provide a framework for restoration and radical healing for Latinx immigrants.
Projecting the future distributions of commercially and ecologically important species has become a critical approach for ecosystem managers to strategically anticipate change, but large uncertainties in projections limit climate adaptation planning. Although distribution projections are primarily used to understand the scope of potential change ‐ rather than accurately predict specific outcomes ‐ it is nonetheless essential to understand where and why projections can give implausible results and to identify which processes contribute to uncertainty. Here, we use a series of simulated species distributions, an ensemble of 252 species distribution models, and an ensemble of three regional ocean climate projections, to isolate the influences of uncertainty from earth system model spread and from ecological modeling. The simulations encompass marine species with different functional traits and ecological preferences to more broadly address resource manager and fishery stakeholder needs, and provide a simulated true‐state with which to evaluate projections. We present our results relative to the degree of environmental extrapolation from historical conditions, which helps facilitate interpretation by ecological modelers working in diverse systems. We found uncertainty associated with species distribution models can exceed uncertainty generated from diverging earth system models (up to 70% of total uncertainty by 2100), and that this result was consistent across species traits. Species distribution model uncertainty increased through time and was primarily related to the degree to which models extrapolated into novel environmental conditions but moderated by how well models captured the underlying dynamics driving species distributions. The predictive power of simulated species distribution models remained relatively high in the first 30 years of projections, in alignment with the time period in which stakeholders make strategic decisions based on climate information. By understanding sources of uncertainty, and how they change at different forecast horizons, we provide recommendations for projecting species distribution models under global climate change.
Forty-one percent of all undergraduates in the United States attend community colleges. These institutions serve students historically underrepresented in higher education including individuals who are BIPOC, LGBTQ+, women, living with disabilities, and first-generation college students. Researchers identify students from these same demographics at higher risk for trauma. While well documented in K-12, research into how trauma impacts attention, self-regulation, stress management, and interpersonal skills in the post-secondary setting is much less developed. Naming the violence, adversity, and trauma present in higher education—systemically, in lived experiences, and also institutional practices—constitutes a critical step in building inclusive, responsive postsecondary learning communities that foster academic resilience and success.
This article discusses novel research methods used to examine how Augmented Reality (AR) can be utilized to present “omic” (i.e., genomes, microbiomes, pathogens, allergens) information to non-expert users. While existing research shows the potential of AR as a tool for personal health, methodological challenges pose a barrier to the ways in which AR research can be conducted. There is a growing need for new evaluation methods for AR systems, especially as remote testing becomes increasingly popular. In this article, we present two AR studies adapted for remote research environments in the context of personal health. The first study (n = 355) is a non-moderated remote study conducted using an AR web application to explore the effect of layering abstracted pathogens and mitigative behaviors on a user, on perceived risk perceptions, negative affect, and behavioral intentions. This study introduces methods that address participant precursor requirements, diversity of platforms for delivering the AR intervention, unsupervised setups, and verification of participation as instructed. The second study (n = 9) presents the design and moderated remote evaluation of a technology probe, a prototype of a novel AR tool that overlays simulated timely and actionable environmental omic data in participants' living environment, which helps users to contextualize and make sense of the data. Overall, the two studies contribute to the understanding of investigating AR as a tool for health behavior and interventions for remote, at-home, empirical studies.
Inspired by crystal structures, we designed and achieved a catalyst-free Michael reaction for the preparation of an N1-alkyl pyrazole in a high yield (>90%) with excellent regioselectivity (N1/N2 > 99.9:1). The scope of this protocol has been extended to accomplish the first general regioselective N1-alkylation of 1H-pyrazoles to give di-, tri-, and tetra-substituted pyrazoles in a single step. The resulting pyrazoles bear versatile functional groups such as bromo, ester, nitro, and nitrile, offering opportunities for late-stage functionalization. This efficient methodology will have an impact on drug discovery, as several Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are pyrazole derivatives. A working hypothesis for the regioselectivity is proposed. X-ray crystal structures of the products that highlight the attractive interactions are discussed. This report provides a rare source for the further elucidation of the attractive interactions because the isomeric ratios and the crystal structures are directly related.
This book investigates multiple facets of the emerging discipline of Tangible, Embodied, and Embedded Interaction (TEI). This is a story of atoms and bits. We explore the interweaving of the physical and digital, toward understanding some of their wildly varying hybrid forms and behaviors. Spanning conceptual, philosophical, cognitive, design, and technical aspects of interaction, this book charts both history and aspirations for the future of TEI. In the book’s pages, we examine and celebrate diverse trailblazing works, and provide wide-ranging conceptual and pragmatic tools toward weaving the animating fires of computation and technology into evocative tangible forms. We also chart a path forward for TEI engagement with broader societal and sustainability challenges that will profoundly (re)shape our children and grandchildren’s futures. We invite you all to join this quest.
Upslope shifts in plant distributions are often attributed to warming climate and lengthening of the growing season; however, biotic interactions may also contribute. The impacts of pests and pathogens are often sensitive to climate change and can vary along the climatic gradient associated with elevation. American beech (Fagus grandifolia) has moved upslope throughout the northeastern United States. Meanwhile, beech growth and longevity have decreased as a result of beech bark disease (BBD), a decline disease caused by the introduced European felted beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and native fungi from the genus Neonectria. Within a forested landscape spanning 250-1150 m elevation, we examined the relationships between elevation, beech demography and BBD to explore whether release from BBD at higher elevation may contribute to the upslope expansion of beech. Beech has shifted upslope at a rate of 1m per year coincident with lower mortality, higher recruitment, faster growth, lower BBD severity and higher sapling densities at higher elevations. We suggest that climatic constraints on the beech scale insect at high elevations has led to a lower impact of BBD, which contributed to higher rates of beech growth, survival, and recruitment and in turn facilitated the regional upslope shift of beech.
Characters in fighting videogames¹ such as Street Fighter V and Tekken7 typically reveal a phenomenon that we define as virtual enfreakment: their bodies, costumes, and fighting styles are exaggerated (1) in a manner that emphasizes perceived exoticism and (2) to enable them to be easily visually and conceptually distinguishable from one another. Here, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, including crowd-sourced surveys and analyses of game mechanics, we report on the contours of virtual enfreakment in those games. We specifically examine differences in character design across gender, national-origin, and skin-color lines. Disappointingly but not surprisingly, we find racism and sexism manifest as stark differences in character design by gender and skin color. This has strong implications because taking on the roles of these characters can have impacts on users in the physical world, e.g., performance and engagement, behavior, and understandings of others (Lim and Harrell 2015; Şengün 2015; Yee et al. 2012, Şengün et al. 2022a; Harrell and Veeragoudar Harrell 2012; Kao and Harrell 2015; Şengün 2014; Kocur et al. 2020). Although the differences are not always straightforward, female characters and darker-skinned characters (typically, characters of color) are enfreaked differently than their light-skinned male counterparts. Our results also reveal the strategic use of “unknown” as a country of origin for villainous characters. Through our mixed-methods analysis, we examine in detail how virtual enfreakment is influenced by sexism and racism, and our findings are compatible with information about the development history of the Street Fighter and Tekken franchises. However, we also find that recent characters designed in dialogue with developers from their regions of origin are some of the least enfreaked and most positively portrayed—suggesting the possibility of designing and deploying such characters for implementing anti-bias character designs within popular videos..
Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) promotes tree species diversity by reducing recruitment near conspecific adults due to biotic feedbacks from herbivores, pathogens, or competitors. While this process is well‐described in tropical forests, tests of temperate tree species range from strong positive to strong negative density dependence. To explain this, several studies have suggested that tree species traits may help predict the strength and direction of density dependence: for example, ectomycorrhizal‐associated tree species typically exhibit either positive or weaker negative conspecific density dependence. More generally, the strength of density dependence may be predictably related to other species‐specific ecological attributes such as shade tolerance, or the relative local abundance of a species. To test the strength of density dependence and whether it affects seedling community diversity in a temperate forest, we tracked the survival of seedlings of three ectomycorrhizal‐associated species experimentally planted beneath conspecific and heterospecific adults on the Prospect Hill tract of the Harvard Forest, in Massachusetts, USA. Experimental seedling survival was always lower under conspecific adults, which increased seedling community diversity in one of six treatments. We compared these results to evidence of CNDD from observed sapling survival patterns of 28 species over approximately 8 years in an adjacent 35‐hectare forest plot. We tested whether species‐specific estimates of CNDD were associated with mycorrhizal association, shade tolerance, and local abundance. We found evidence of significant, negative conspecific density dependence (CNDD) in 23 of 28 species, and positive conspecific density dependence in two species. Contrary to our expectations, ectomycorrhizal‐associated species generally exhibited stronger (e.g. more negative) CNDD than arbuscular mycorrhizal‐ associated species. CNDD was also stronger in more shade tolerant species but was not associated with local abundance. Conspecific adult trees often have a negative influence on seedling survival in temperate forests, particularly for tree species with certain traits. Here we found strong experimental and observational evidence that ectomycorrhizal‐associating species consistently exhibit CNDD. Moreover, similarities in the relative strength of density dependence from experiments and observations of sapling mortality suggest a mechanistic link between negative effects of conspecific adults on seedling and sapling survival and local tree species distributions.
DUNE is a dual-site experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies, neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. ProtoDUNE Dual Phase (DP) is a 6 $$\times$$ × 6 $$\times$$ × 6 m $$^3$$ 3 liquid argon time-projection-chamber (LArTPC) that recorded cosmic-muon data at the CERN Neutrino Platform in 2019–2020 as a prototype of the DUNE Far Detector. Charged particles propagating through the LArTPC produce ionization and scintillation light. The scintillation light signal in these detectors can provide the trigger for non-beam events. In addition, it adds precise timing capabilities and improves the calorimetry measurements. In ProtoDUNE-DP, scintillation and electroluminescence light produced by cosmic muons in the LArTPC is collected by photomultiplier tubes placed up to 7 m away from the ionizing track. In this paper, the ProtoDUNE-DP photon detection system performance is evaluated with a particular focus on the different wavelength shifters, such as PEN and TPB, and the use of Xe-doped LAr, considering its future use in giant LArTPCs. The scintillation light production and propagation processes are analyzed and a comparison of simulation to data is performed, improving understanding of the liquid argon properties.
Electromagnetic Field (EMF) influences melanoma in various ways. EMF can be classified into extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field, low-frequency magnetic field, static moderate magnetic field, strong electromagnetic field, alternating magnetic field, and magnetic nanoparticles. Each type of EMF influences melanoma development differently, and the detailed influence of each specific type of EMF on melanoma is reviewed. Furthermore, EMF influences melanoma cell polarity and hence affects drug uptake. In this review, the impacts of EMF on the effectiveness of drugs used to treat melanoma are listed according to drug types, with detailed effects according to the types of EMF and specific melanoma cell lines. EMF also impacts clinical therapies of melanoma, including localized magnetic hyperthermia, focalized thermotherapy, proton radiation treatment, nanostructure heating magnetic hyperthermia, radiation therapy, Polycaprolactone-Fe3O4 fiber mat-based bandage, and optune therapy. Above all, EMF has huge potential in melanoma treatment.
The rate of modern drug discovery using experimental screening methods still lags behind the rate at which pathogens mutate, underscoring the need for fast and accurate predictive simulations of protein evolution. Multidrug-resistant bacteria evade our defenses by expressing a series of proteins, the most famous of which is the 29-kilodalton enzyme, TEM β-lactamase. Considering these challenges, we applied a covalent docking heuristic to measure the effects of all possible alanine 237 substitutions in TEM due to this codon’s importance for catalysis and effects on the binding affinities of commercially-available β-lactam compounds. In addition to the usual mutations that reduce substrate binding due to steric hindrance, we identified two distinctive specificity-shifting TEM mutations, Ala237Arg and Ala237Lys, and their respective modes of action. Notably, we discovered and verified through minimum inhibitory concentration assays that, while these mutations and their bulkier side chains lead to steric clashes that curtail ampicillin binding, these same groups foster salt bridges with the negatively-charged side-chain of the cephalosporin cefixime, widely used in the clinic to treat multi-resistant bacterial infections. To measure the stability of these unexpected interactions, we used molecular dynamics simulations and found the binding modes to be stable despite the application of biasing forces. Finally, we found that both TEM mutants also bind strongly to other drugs containing negatively-charged R-groups, such as carumonam and ceftibuten. As with cefixime, this increased binding affinity stems from a salt bridge between the compounds’ negative moieties and the positively-charged side chain of the arginine or lysine, suggesting a shared mechanism. In addition to reaffirming the power of using simulations as molecular microscopes, our results can guide the rational design of next-generation β-lactam antibiotics and bring the community closer to retaking the lead against the recurrent threat of multidrug-resistant pathogens.
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• Department of Chemistry
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• Department of Biological Sciences
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