Wayamba University of Sri lanka
  • Kuliyapitiya, North Western Province, Sri Lanka
Recent publications
The advanced oxidation process is a prominent method available to remove dyes released to normal water reservoirs to alleviate water scarcity. We report the fabrication of novel g-C3N4/Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3 using natural ilmenite sand as the precursor of the metallic semi-conductors exploration of a heterostructure for photodegradation of methylene blue under sunlight. Ternary composites were synthesized by varying g-C3N4 with respect to Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3 and varying Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3 with respect to g-C3N4 where the varying component was varied as 8, 24 and 40%, respect to the constant material. The hybridization of the three semi-conductors has been confirmed by the microscopic, chemical, and structural analyses. X-ray diffraction patterns show the presence of all three g-C3N4, Fe2TiO5 and α-Fe2O3 while the transmission electronic microscopic and scanning electronic microscopic images show the heterogeneous distribution of the metal oxide nanoparticles on g-C3N4 matrix forming the composite. HRTEM images further reveal the junction of Fe2TiO5 and α-Fe2O3. X-ray photoelectron spectra show the existence of s-triazine and heptazine rings in the composites with Fe³⁺ and Ti⁴⁺ as the only oxidation states of Fe and Ti. Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3/40% g-C3N4 with bandgap of 2.63 eV calculated by diffuse reflectance UV-Visible spectroscopy showed the highest photocatalytic activity (0.009 min⁻¹) being 1.3 times greater than the Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Enhanced photocatalytic activity over the fabricated composites was observed due to the increased visible light absorption, efficient charge separation and improved charge transportation. g-C3N4 coupled with 40% Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3 showed the highest antibacterial activity against gram-negative E.Coli. The synthesis of dual Z-scheme g-C3N4/Fe2TiO5/Fe2O3 ternary composite provides new sights in developing novel photocatalysts using natural ilmenite sand for environmental applications.
Despite the benefits of a diverse approach to crop pollination, global food production remains reliant on a low diversity of managed pollinators, especially the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). To facilitate more robust pollinator management and improve the resilience of the production system, it is necessary to understand regional variation in the pollination ecology of global food crops. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum & Nakai) is a highly insect pollinator‐dependent crop and even though it is grown globally across many different climate zones, little is known about its pollination ecology across the diverse growing regions of Australia, spanning from the tropics to the arid zone. We compared the species composition, visitation rates and effectiveness of the dominant floral visitors on 15 farms across five major watermelon‐growing regions of Australia. We found that insect species composition differed significantly among regions, but honey bees were the dominant watermelon flower visitor, with relative abundance varying from 73% to 94%. However, native bees (including stingless bees Tetragonula sp., and bees from families Megachilidae and Halictidae such as Lasioglossum, Homalictus and Lipotriches) and flies (particularly Syrphidae sp.) also visited and transferred pollen onto watermelon flowers. In particular, native stingless bees were common visitors in several growing regions and deposited similar amounts of pollen to honey bees. Our findings indicate that the Australian watermelon industry utilizes honey bees, but the diverse assemblage of available native pollinating taxa provides an additional opportunity for growers in specific growing regions. Pollination service delivery could be increased by deploying managed populations (e.g., native stingless bee colonies), employing pollinator‐safe land management practices as well as exploring methods for increasing the efficiency of managed honey bee colonies. Despite the benefits of a diverse approach to crop pollination, global food production remains reliant on a low diversity of managed pollinators, especially the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). To facilitate more robust pollinator management and improve the resilience of the production system, it is necessary to understand regional variation in the pollination ecology of global food crops. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum & Nakai) is a highly insect pollinator‐dependent crop and even though it is grown globally across many different climate zones, little is known about its pollination ecology across the diverse growing regions of Australia, spanning from the tropics to the arid zone. We compared the species composition, visitation rates and effectiveness of the dominant floral visitors on 15 farms across five major watermelon‐growing regions of Australia. We found that insect species composition differed significantly among regions, but honey bees were the dominant watermelon flower visitor, with relative abundance varying from 73% to 94%. However, native bees (including stingless bees Tetragonula sp., and bees from families Megachilidae and Halictidae such as Lasioglossum, Homalictus and Lipotriches) and flies (particularly Syrphidae sp.) also visited and transferred pollen onto watermelon flowers. In particular, native stingless bees were common visitors in several growing regions and deposited similar amounts of pollen to honey bees. Our findings indicate that the Australian watermelon industry utilizes honey bees, but the diverse assemblage of available native pollinating taxa provides an additional opportunity for growers in specific growing regions. Pollination service delivery could be increased by deploying managed populations (e.g., native stingless bee colonies), employing pollinator‐safe land management practices as well as exploring methods for increasing the efficiency of managed honey bee colonies. The abundance of the dominant floral visitors across five major watermelon‐growing regions in Australia. Although honey bees were the most abundant pollinators, native taxa including stingless bees and flies also visited flowers and transferred pollen. This highlights the value of using region‐specific pollinator management strategies that include both managed and native taxa.
Maintaining the overall quality and shelf life of plant-based food and beverages is particularly important yet challenging to the food industry. Demand for natural preservation techniques has increased with the rising concerns over food safety and consumer awareness, e.g., health consciousness and food trends such as veganism and the demand for clean, labelled foods. Thus, a technique such as biopreservation has the potential to enhance food safety while fostering the quality, originality and naturalness of food. The application of probiotic microorganisms to foods and beverages provides various health benefits in addition to improved shelf life, stability and microbial safety of the food. The provision of probiotics is known to deliver various health benefits for the host’s gut health. Therefore, this review aims to investigate the importance of biopreservation and the role of probiotics in the food industry. An attempt was made to explore the various possibilities of shelf-life enhancement through the use of probiotic microorganisms as biopreservatives. Noticeable improvements in the shelf life of plant-based foods and beverages were observed due to the antimicrobial effects exerted by probiotics and potential probiotic strains which make them useful alternatives to artificially synthesized chemical preservatives.
This paper proposes a plasmonic ultrawide bandstop filter using a metal-insulator-metal waveguide cooperating with five symmetrical semi-circular-like resonators, including the silver nanorods (AgNDs). We calculated transmittance spectrum and electromagnetic field distribution employing the finite element method. The advantages of the design reveal the surface, cavity, and gap plasmon resonance effects that can simultaneously exist in the proposed device. Our design can achieve a tunable wide-bandgap by adding the AgNDs in resonators and attain an extensive stop wavelength range of 2104 nm, which is the highest bandgap width to our knowledge. Simulations results show that the AgNDs and coupling distance are pivotal factors influencing the bandgap formation, changing the resonators' resonance condition and effective refractive index. Besides, the designed filter can also serve as a nanosensor with an ultrahigh sensitivity of 7980 nm/RIU. Thus, the designed plasmonic filter can be a promising alternative candidate for optical trapping and tunable devices working in visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra.
Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural runoff which contains hazardous agrochemicals like pesticides and fertilizers threatens water bodies, posing a serious danger to aquatic ecosystems and drinking water resources. Use of agrochemicals in rice cultivation has rapidly increased in the last few decades in Sri Lanka. It has been reported that many agrochemicals contain toxic trace elements like As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Al, etc. To reduce the harmful effect of heavy metal containing agrochemicals, the Government of Sri Lanka has banned the use of several toxic agrochemicals in recent years. In this context, this study was conducted after posing these restrictions to assess the occurrence of heavy metals in surface water bodies in rice cultivation areas in Trincomalee district, Sri Lanka. Ninety-three (n = 93) sample locations were randomly selected for collection of water, before and after applying agrochemicals to rice fields. This include areas from rural farming communities having endemic (Padavi Sripura DS) and non-endemic (Kanthala DS and Seruvila DS) Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). Mean and standard error of mean of As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations (µg/L) before and after applying agrochemicals were as {0.048 ± 0.038 and 6.220 ± 0.912}, {0.014 ± 0.013 and 0.371 ± 0.192}, {not detected and 4.421 ± 0.712}, {1.583 ± 0.397 and 1.262 ± 0.165} and {not detected and 6.403 ± 0.366}, respectively. Findings revealed that concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn were significantly different (p < 0.001) before and after the application of agrochemicals. However, the observed heavy metal concentrations were far below the permissible levels for irrigation water set by Food and Agriculture Organization and United States Environmental Protection Agency, ambient water quality set by Central Environmental Authority, and drinking water quality set by World Health Organization. In addition, analyzed heavy metal concentrations in surface water samples from CKDu endemic areas were not significantly different from those from non-endemic areas (p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of heavy metal analysis after government ban of agrochemicals. Therefore, continuous detailed research is required to fully comprehend the behavior of agrochemicals in surface water bodies in Sri Lanka.
The paradoxical action of insulin on hepatic glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism in the insulin-resistant state has been of much research interest in recent years. Generally, insulin resistance would promote hepatic gluconeogenesis and demote hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The underlying major drivers of these mechanisms were insulin-dependent, via FOXO-1-mediated gluconeogenesis and SREBP1c-mediated lipogenesis. However, insulin-resistant mouse models have shown high glucose levels as well as excess lipid accumulation. As suggested, the inert insulin resistance causes the activation of the FOXO-1 pathway promoting gluconeogenesis. However, it does not affect the SREBP1c pathway; therefore, cells continue de novo lipogenesis. Many hypotheses were suggested for this paradoxical action occurring in insulin-resistant rodent models. A “downstream branch point” in the insulin-mediated pathway was suggested to act differentially on the FOXO-1 and SREBP1c pathways. MicroRNAs have been widely studied for their action of pathway mediation via suppressing the intermediate protein expressions. Many in vitro studies have postulated the roles of hepato-specific expressions of miRNAs on insulin cascade. Thus, miRNA would play a pivotal role in selective hepatic insulin resistance. As observed, there were confirmations and contradictions between the outcomes of gene knockout studies conducted on selective hepatic insulin resistance and hepato-specific miRNA expression studies. Furthermore, these studies had evaluated only the effect of miRNAs on glucose metabolism and few on hepatic de novo lipogenesis, limiting the ability to conclude their role in selective hepatic insulin resistance. Future studies conducted on the role of miRNAs on selective hepatic insulin resistance warrant the understanding of this paradoxical action of insulin.
For most food crops the identity and efficiency of pollinators across key growing regions remains a significant knowledge gap that needs to be addressed before we can develop crop-specific approaches for pollination service delivery. Here, we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai)), a globally important fruit crop, to identify the floral visitors and their efficiency across different growing regions. We found that 265 insect species visit watermelon flowers (including 5 orders, 18 families and 75 genera) across 17 countries and 6 continents. Bees and flies were the most abundant flower visitors overall, but show distinct regional differences. Honey bees were the majority visitor in 53% of growing regions (range: 0 – 94%), whilst wild bee species were more abundant in 42% of regions (range: 3.4 – 100%). Honey bees and other bees were equally effective at depositing pollen on stigmas, but varied in effectiveness for fruit set and seed set. Pollination data from global studies appear to be limited for the largest-scale watermelon producers, namely: China, Turkey, and India, with the majority (56%) of data available from North America. This synthesis identified four key themes to improving pollination in watermelon: increasing honey bee densities on crops where local polices and environmental conditions are suitable; introducing other managed pollinators; identifying key wild pollinator taxa to encourage within crops; and improving local and landscape management practices to support pollinators.
MicroRNA(miRNA)s have been identified as an emerging class for therapeutic interventions mainly due to their extracellularly stable presence in humans and animals and their potential for horizontal transmission and action. However, treating Type 2 diabetes mellitus using this technology has yet been in a nascent state. MiRNAs play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus establishing the potential for utilizing miRNA-based therapeutic interventions to treat the disease. Recently, the administration of miRNA mimics or antimiRs in-vivo has resulted in positive modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Further, several cell culture-based interventions have suggested beta cell regeneration potential in miRNAs. Nevertheless, few such miRNA-based therapeutic approaches have reached the clinical phase. Therefore, future research contributions would identify the possibility of miRNA therapeutics for tackling T2DM. This article briefly reported recent developments on miRNA-based therapeutics for treating Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, associated implications, gaps, and recommendations for future studies.
Leptospirosis is considered a neglected tropical disease despite its considerable mortality and morbidity. Lack of prediction remains a major reason for underestimating the disease. Although many models have been developed, most of them focused on the districts situated in the wet zone due to higher case numbers in that region. However, leptospirosis remains a major disease even in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The objective of this study is to develop a time series model to predict leptospirosis in the Anuradhapura district situated in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Time series data on monthly leptospirosis incidences from January 2008 to December 2018 and monthly rainfall, rainy days, temperature, and relative humidity were considered in model fitting. The first 72 months (55%) were used to fit the model, and the subsequent 60 months(45%) were used to validate the model. The log-transformed dependent variable was employed for fitting the Univariate seasonal ARIMA model. Based on the stationarity of the mean of the five variables, the ARDL model was selected as the multivariate time series technique. Residuals analysis was performed on normality, heteroskedasticity, and serial correlation to validate the model. The lowest AIC and MAPE were used to select the best model. Univariate models could not be fitted without adjusting the outliers. Adjusting seasonal outliers yielded better results than the models without adjustments. Best fitted Univariate model was ARIMA(1,0,0)(0,1,1)12,(AIC-1.08, MAPE-19.8). Best fitted ARDL model was ARDL(1, 3, 2, 1, 0),(AIC-2.04,MAPE-30.4). The number of patients reported in the previous month, rainfall, rainy days, and temperature showed a positive association, while relative humidity was negatively associated with leptospirosis. Multivariate models fitted better than univariate models for the original data. Best-fitted models indicate the necessity of including other explanatory variables such as patient, host, and epidemiological factors to yield better results.
To transform the industry practices for addressing the evolving challenges/opportunities in the near-future circumstances, the construction education/training sector of many developing countries feels the requirement for new features in the job roles of construction engineers and project managers. This study aims to design a new training guide for the continuous professional development of engineers and project managers on performance and productivity improvement practices in construction. Based on identified efficacious tools/models/systems through literature review, an exhaustive functional mechanism was laid, which was the key to developing the training elements through a sequence of processes, including interviews/meetings/discussions/reviews with industry and academic experts. The developed training guide describes all the required elements of training, especially training aims/outcomes/contents/delivery/assessments/weights/etc. The validation of the proposed training guide was ensured through expert reviews and feedback. The study has constructed a new bridge that connects industrial and institutional practices for the implementation of constructive approaches and operative systems/practices towards the economic recovery, social development and sustainability of a nation. Though the study findings are limited to the construction field in a developing country like Sri Lanka, the study outcomes may contribute to other engineering fields as well as to other developing industry sectors within a similar scope.
Owing to rapid industrialization and urban development across the globe, the usage of non-degradable petroleum-based plastic materials has been drastically increased leading to accumulation of inert plastic waste which takes billions of years to naturally degrade. Therefore, this work focuses on producing and evaluating “green” multifunctional film materials based on a mixed eco-friendly thermoplastic starch (TPS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix compatibilized with phthalic acid. In this study, the blend films of gelatinized TPS/PVA thin films were prepared by means of solution casting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to evaluate the structure of the films while the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to examine the thermal behavior. The tensile, water absorption, and the biodegradability tests were carried out according to ASTM-D-882-02, ASTM-D-570-98, and aerobic compost environment test, respectively. Compatibilized blends exhibited enhanced thermal stability and homogeneity forming new hydrogen bonds in the presence of phthalic acid while possessing a dense molecular network. Moreover, the biodegradation was slowed by the incorporation of phthalic acid while the least water absorption capacity was demonstrated by the TPS/PVA (40/60 % w/w) blend compatibilized with 5 wt% phthalic acid (T4P6-5) valuing 43.8%, and 55.2% at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Besides, improved mechanical properties could be obtained by T4P6-5 blended film valuing 30.2 MPa and 221.6% for tensile strength and elongation at break, respectively. Therefore, enhanced mechanical and thermal properties, lower water absorption, non-toxicity, and low cost make the compatibilized cassava starch/PVA films beneficial for potential food packaging applications.KeywordsBiodegradable thin filmsCassava starch/PVA blendsCompatibilizationMechanical propertiesPhthalic acid
In this article, we are discussing various aspects of CPU scheduling. We first introduce the concept of CPU scheduling, different types of schedulers and the typical terminology used in relation to processes. Scheduling criteria, the optimization of which is the ultimate goal of a CPU scheduling algorithm, are also discussed. We then discuss various types of research studies that have been carried out with respect to CPU scheduling algorithms. Different CPU scheduling algorithms are examined with examples to highlight their characteristics. Advantages and disadvantages of each of these algorithms are also explored. The scheduling algorithms discussed are, first come first served, shortest job first, shortest remaining time first, priority based, round robin, multilevel queue, and multilevel feedback queue.
Over the past few years, synthetic dye-contaminated wastewater has attracted considerable global attention due to the low biodegradability and the ability of organic dyes to persist and remain toxic, causing numerous health and environmental concerns. As a result of the recalcitrant nature of those complex organic dyes, the remediation of wastewater using conventional wastewater treatment techniques is becoming increasingly challenging. In recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to treat organic dyestuffs discharged from industries. The most widely employed AOPs include photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, catalytic heterogeneous oxidation, and ultrasound irradiation. These processes involve the generation of highly reactive radicals to oxidize organic dyes into innocuous minerals. However, many conventional AOPs suffer from several setbacks, including the high cost, high consumption of reagents and substrates, self-agglomeration of catalysts, limited reusability, and the requirement of light, ultrasound, or electricity. Therefore, there has been significant interest in improving the performance of conventional AOPs using biopolymers and heterogeneous catalysts such as metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs). Biopolymers have been widely considered in developing green, sustainable, eco-friendly, and low-cost AOP-based dye removal technologies. They inherit intriguing properties like biodegradability, renewability, nontoxicity, relative abundance, and sorption. In addition, the immobilization of catalysts on biopolymer supports has been proven to possess excellent catalytic activity and turnover numbers. The current review provides comprehensive coverage of different AOPs and how efficiently biopolymers, including cellulose, chitin, chitosan, alginate, gelatin, guar gum, keratin, silk fibroin, zein, albumin, lignin, and starch, have been integrated with heterogeneous AOPs in dye removal applications. This review also discusses the general degradation mechanisms of AOPs, applications of biopolymers in AOPs and the roles of biopolymers in AOPs-based dye removal processes. Furthermore, key challenges and future perspectives of biopolymer-based AOPs have also been highlighted.
The enormous usage of plastic over the last seven decades has resulted in a massive quantity of plastic waste, much of it eventually breaking down into microplastic (MP) and nano plastic (NP). The MPs and NPs are regarded as emerging pollutants of serious concern. Both MPs and NPs can have a primary or secondary origin. Their ubiquitous presence and ability to sorb, desorb, and leach chemicals have raised concern over their presence in the aquatic environment and, particularly, the marine food chain. MPs and NPs are also considered vectors for pollutant transfer along with the marine food chain, and people who consume seafood have began significant concerns about the toxicity of seafood. The exact consequences and risk of MP exposure to marine foods are largely unknown and should be a priority research area. Although several studies have documented an effective clearance mechanism by defecation, significant aspect has been less emphasized for MPs and NPs and their capability to translocate in organs and clearance is not well established. The technological limitations to study these ultra-fine MPs are another challenge to be addressed. Therefore, this chapter discusses the recent findings of MPs in different marine food chains, their translocation and accumulations potential, MPs as a critical vector for pollutant transfer, toxicology impact, cycling in the marine environment and seafood safety. Besides, the concerns and challenges that are overshadowed by findings for the significance of MPs were covered.
Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf disease) in sugarcane crops is caused by a phytoplasma transmitted by leafhopper vectors. White leaf disease (WLD) occurs predominantly in some Asian countries and is a devastating global threat to sugarcane industries, especially Sri Lanka. Therefore, a feasible and an effective approach to precisely monitoring WLD infection is important, especially at the early pre-visual stage. This work presents the first approach on the preliminary detection of sugarcane WLD by using high-resolution multispectral sensors mounted on small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and supervised machine learning classifiers. The detection pipeline discussed in this paper was validated in a sugarcane field located in Gal-Oya Plantation, Hingurana, Sri Lanka. The pixelwise segmented samples were classified as ground, shadow, healthy plant, early symptom, and severe symptom. Four ML algorithms, namely XGBoost (XGB), random forest (RF), decision tree (DT), and K-nearest neighbors (KNN), were implemented along with different python libraries, vegetation indices (VIs), and five spectral bands to detect the WLD in the sugarcane field. The accuracy rate of 94% was attained in the XGB, RF, and KNN to detect WLD in the field. The top three vegetation indices (VIs) for separating healthy and infected sugarcane crops are modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and excess green (ExG) in XGB, RF, and DT, while the best spectral band is red in XGB and RF and green in DT. The results revealed that this technology provides a dependable, more direct, cost-effective, and quick method for detecting WLD.
Ocimum sanctum L. flowers have been reported to have various health benefits owing to its phenolic composition. However, the available phenolic compounds should be effectively extracted to efficiently utilize these flowers. This study was aimed to make use of response surface methodology (RSM), to simultaneously optimize the process parameters to obtain maximum yield of phenolics and anthocyanins along with maximum DPPH radical scavenging activity from O. sanctum flowers. Central composite design (CCD) was employed with four independent variables; solid:liquid ratio (XA), ethanol concentration (XB), temperature (XC) and time (XD) which were found to affect the response variables significantly and fit to the second order polynomial model. The results showed that the polynomial models for all responses were significant (p < 0.05) and did not show lack of fit and presented acceptable coefficients of determination. This indicates the suitability of the models for prediction purposes. The desirability function approach in the scale of 0–1 was used to determine the optimized conditions. The optimum process parameters obtained were XA; 1:35 (w/v), XB; 55%, XC; 44 °C and XD; 32 min. The experimental values obtained based on optimum extraction parameters agreed with the predicted values. The findings suggests the application of optimized parameters to acquire functionally active phenolics and anthocyanins from O. sanctum flowers using ethanol and make use of them in food and pharmaceutical industry.
Background Anopheles stephensi was first recorded in the coastal area of Mannar District, Sri Lanka, in December 2016. Since then, this vector has been isolated from other districts in the Northern and Eastern Provinces of Sri Lanka. Chemical control is the main arm of vector control that can be used to reduce the vector densities within a short period. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using selected insecticides for the control of An. stephensi larvae. Method The third and fourth instar larval stages of An. stephensi (F2 generation) of field mosquitoes that were caught using cattle baited net trap collections from Columbuthurai, Kurunagar, and Navanthurai areas in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka, were obtained from the laboratory colony established at Jaffna. Batches of 100 larvae were taken for experiments and introduced separately to a concentration series of temephos and novaluron (0.04–400 ppm). A control test was also performed at each setup without introducing insecticides. The mortality rates of An. stephensi larvae exposed to different concentrations of larvicides were recorded at 1, 24 and 48-h intervals. The experiment was replicated five times at individual concentrations for each selected chemical. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) and Probit analysis. Results The highest mortality rate (100%) at a 1-h exposure period was observed from temephos at >100 ppm. The mortality rates varied significantly for different concentrations and larvicides (p < 0.05). At 24-h of the exposure period, the 100% mortality of An. stephensi larvae were observed from both temephos and novaluron even at 0.04 ppm. Conclusion Both temephos and novaluron reported 100% mortality rates in An. stephensi larvae at 1-h and 24-h exposure periods. Based on the findings, temephos and novaluron can be recommended as effective larvicides for chemical-based control of An. stephensi in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Further, it is recommended to conduct a field-based study, where habitat types and water quality are highly heterogeneous and may affect the residual activity.
Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium that lives in human and animal intestines. Shiga toxin-producing strains of E. coli STECs are responsible for most food-related E. coli infections. Pathogenic E. coli transmits to human bodies due to the consumption of contaminated, raw, or undercooked food. is study was conducted to identify the prevalence of E. coli contamination in edible poultry meat and meat organs in the North Western Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 250 samples consisting of chicken meat (n � 144) and edible organs (n � 106) were collected from retail shops (n � 181) and supermarkets (n � 69), in both Kurunegala and Puttlam districts. e prevalence of E. coli from 250 chicken meat samples was 66.80% (167/250); E. coli prevalence at retail shops (66.85%) was higher than that at supermarkets (66.67%) and was not statistically significant. E. coli prevalence in chicken meat and edible organs was 65.73% and 69.16%, respectively. Molecular confirmation for the positive samples was done through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using previously designed primers. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed according to CLSI using nine antibiotics: ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline. Most isolates were resistant to erythromycin (80.84%) and amoxicillin (76.05%), while the least resistance was observed for gentamicin (4.79%). is study indicates the potential public health risk associated with chicken sold at retail and supermarket levels in the North Western Province of Sri Lanka.
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514 members
Krishanthi Premarathne
  • Livestock and Avian Science
Kapila Yakandawala
  • Horticulture and Landscape Gardening
Anoma Chandrasekara
  • Applied Nutrition
Jagath Chaminda Edirisinghe
  • Agribusiness Management
Ananda Chandrasekara
  • Department of Applied Nutrition
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Lional Jayathilake Mawatha, 60200, Kuliyapitiya, North Western Province, Sri Lanka
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