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ABSTRACT: Pentalonia nigronervosa (sensu Hardy 1931) samples from banana and from Zingiberaceae and Araceae species exhibit fixed differences in DNA sequence in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 ("DNA barcode") and in the nuclear gene elongation factor 1α, and have morphometric differences, including non-overlapping ranges in the length of the distal rostral segment. It is thus proposed that the name P. nigronervosa Coquerel be restricted to banana-feeding 'nigronervosa' specimens, and that the name Pentalonia caladii van der Goot be restored to full species status for specimens typically feeding on Zingiberaceae and Araceae.
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ABSTRACT: Male targeted harvest regimes of carnivores are now widely accepted to result in increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI). Male targeted harvest regimes of males should therefore result in increased sexually segregated habitat use in infanticidal carnivores. We tested the effects of low and high levels of male hunting mortality and associated SSI on sexually segregated habitat use in mountain lions. The "no effect of hunting" hypothesis predicts that no sexual segregation would occur or that all female mountain lions would segregate from males because of sexual dimorphism. The "hunting effect" hypothesis predicts that females with kittens would segregate from younger immigrant males in the heavily hunted population during summer when kittens are vulnerable to SSI. We rejected the "no effect" hypothesis and accepted the "hunting effect" hypothesis for mountain lions. Females with kittens avoided immigrant males in the heavily hunted population during summer-others did not. This sexual segregation corresponded with females with kittens selecting for food-poor, high elevations in the heavily hunted population but not in the lightly hunted population. Avoidance of males and selection for high elevations resulted in prey switching by females with kittens from abundant primary prey in lower elevations to rare, sensitive and threatened secondary prey at higher elevations. It appears that remedial sport hunting of mountain lions to reduce predation on declining prey actually caused sexual segregation and increased predation on declining prey. We suggest that excess mortality of male carnivores could result in unanticipated cascade effects including sexual segregation and prey switching to declining prey.
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ABSTRACT: During Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotic cells, the bacterial Cas9 enzyme cleaves DNA targets within chromatin. To understand how chromatin affects Cas9 targeting, we characterized Cas9 activity on nucleosome substrates in vitro. We find that Cas9 endonuclease activity is strongly inhibited when its target site is located within the nucleosome core. In contrast, the nu-cleosome structure does not affect Cas9 activity at a tar-get site within the adjacent linker DNA. Analysis of tar-get sites that partially overlap with the nucleosome edge indicates that the accessibility of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is the critical determinant of Cas9 activity on a nucleosome.
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