This chapter picks up from chapter one on the tension between ‘old’ Eurocentric and nationalistic verses ‘new’ global(ist)–multiculturalist historiography from World War Two down to the present, with emphasis on the problem of the continuing conflation and alleged supremacy of ‘Western’ and ‘White Civilization’ within Western and World History narratives. It highlights how academic and political efforts to revive the teaching of Western Civilization in colleges and universities do not explicitly identify nor necessarily intend their agendas as ‘white nationalist’ or ‘racist’, but they nonetheless coincide historically and share much in common by way of themes and concerns with parallel white nationalist and racist attempts to revive and promote ‘Western Civilization’ in recent decades.
Amidst the continuing atmosphere of post-Soviet revivalism, historiographical debates over Central Asian as well as broader world religious-cultural history and identity continue to be voiced among Kazakh scholars. In examining these debates through his own careful translations of key Kazakh-language sources, the author highlights the internal struggle between resurgent Muslim and Tengrist (i.e. ‘Native Turkic Religious’) positions developing in dynamic interface with lingering atheistic-Communist and rising Western-secular as well as Christian influence among the Turkic Central Asian peoples. These debates carry implications for not only Turkic Central Asian history and identity, but for interreligious, intercultural and international relations and dialogue between the Western and Central Asian as well as broader Western–Asian, Western–Islamic and Christian–Muslim worlds. They affirm the central importance of historical knowledge and historiographical (re)interpretation particularly within post-colonial and other revivalist settings and, likewise, help normalize our perceptions of Islam as a participant in such exchanges within the Kazakh as well as broader Central Asian and world communities.
Hyperuricemia is the second most prevalent metabolic disease to human health after diabetes. Only a few clinical drugs are available, and most of them have serious side effects. The human body does not have urate oxidase, and uric acid is secreted via the kidney or the intestine. Reduction through kidney secretion is often the cause of hyperuricemia. We hypothesized that the intestine secretion could be enhanced when a recombinant urate-degrading bacterium was introduced into the gut. We engineered an Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain with a plasmid containing a gene cassette that encoded two proteins PucL and PucM for urate metabolism from Bacillus subtilis, the urate importer YgfU and catalase KatG from E. coli, and the bacterial hemoglobin Vhb from Vitreoscilla sp. The recombinant E. coli strain effectively degraded uric acid under hypoxic conditions. A new method to induce hyperuricemia in mice was developed by intravenously injecting uric acid. The engineered Escherichia coli strain significantly lowered the serum uric acid when introduced into the gut or directly injected into the blood vessel. The results support the use of urate-degrading bacteria in the gut to treat hyperuricemia. Direct injecting bacteria into blood vessels to treat metabolic diseases is proof of concept, and it has been tried to treat solid tumors.
Background: Opioid agonist therapy with buprenorphine is an effective, evidence-based treatment for opioid use disorder. However, there has been increasing use of alternative substances which can still produce opioid-like effects. One of these substances is the herbal supplement kratom. The chemical composition of kratom, specifically mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, has partial mu-opioid receptor agonist and antagonist effects at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Due to its addictive potential, accessibility, and legal status, there have been increasing cases of kratom use disorder (KUD). Thus, it is important to consider effective treatment options for this nontraditional substance. Methods: Twenty-eight patients self-identified kratom as their primary substance of use. Length of kratom use ranged between 1 month and 25 years, with an average daily kratom dose of 92 g/d. Nine patients were inducted on a buprenorphine/naloxone dose between 1 and 6 mg, 18 patients between 8 and 16 mg, and 1 patient at 20 mg. Three patients were stabilized on a dose at 4 mg, 23 patients between 8 and 16 mg, 1 patient at 18 mg, and 1 patient at 20 mg. Results: There was no correlation between stabilizing dose of buprenorphine/naloxone and past daily dose of kratom. As of March 2020, 20 of the 28 patients were still receiving outpatient buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. Six patients were lost to follow-up due to missed appointments, 1 tapered down to 0.25 mg of buprenorphine/naloxone and self-discharged, and 1 moved out of town. The rest have remained in treatment from 5 to 22 months, with an average duration of 11 months. Of the 28 patients, 68%, 82%, and 82% had negative test results for mitragynine at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest case series exploring long-term buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for KUD. Our findings suggest buprenorphine/naloxone can be used as an effective treatment option for KUD.
Background Over the last decade, cementless total knee arthroplasty has demonstrated improved outcomes and survivorship due to advances in technologies of implant design, manufacturing capabilities, and biomaterials. Due to increasing interest in cementless implant design for TKA, our aim was to perform a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the clinical outcomes and revision rates of the Triathlon Total Knee system over the past decade. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted following PRISMA guidelines for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty with cementless Triathalon Total Knee System implants. Patients had a minimum of two-year follow-up and data included clinical outcome scores and survivorship data. Results Twenty studies were included in the final analysis. The survivability of the Stryker Triathlon TKA due to all causes was 98.7%, with an aseptic survivability of 99.2%. The overall revision incidence per 1,000 person-years was 3.4. Re-revision incidence per 1,000 person-years was 2.2 for infection, and 1.3 for aseptic loosening. The average KSS for pain was 92.2 and the average KSS for function was 82.7. Conclusions This systematic review demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes and survivorship at a mean time of 3.8 years. Additional research is necessary to examine the long-term success of the Stryker Triathlon TKA and the use of cementless TKAs in obese and younger populations. Level of evidence III.
Although group-level service failures usually cause more adverse consequences than individual-level ones, existing literature on group service failures is scarce. Besides, almost all service failure and recovery studies suggest that customers hold consistent emotional reactions during a group service failure, which causes a lack of exploring inconsistent emotional responses. This research focuses on this under-explored area and investigates how and why perceived inappropriateness of collective emotion (PICE) influences customer participation in service recovery. The present work proposed a moderated mediation model and conducted three scenario-based experiments to validate the influence of PICE on customer participation in service recovery and the mediating path of cognitive reappraisal. The present research also unveils the moderating effects of protective face orientation and relationship norms on the relationship between PICE and cognitive reappraisal. These findings enriched theories on group service failure and recovery and offered tourism companies suggestions on utilizing PICE to facilitate favorable recovery outcomes.
Background Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a serious health condition that is effectively treated with buprenorphine. However, only a minority of people with OUD are able to access buprenorphine. Many access points for buprenorphine have high barriers for initiation and retention. Health care and drug treatment systems have not been able to provide services to all—let alone the majority—who need it, and many with OUD report extreme challenges starting and staying on buprenorphine in those care settings. We describe the design and protocol for a study of a rapid access buprenorphine program model in six Washington State communities at existing sites serving people who are unhoused and/or using syringe services programs. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a Community-Based Medication-First Program model. Methods We are conducting a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study of a rapid access buprenorphine model of care staffed by prescribers, nurse care managers, and care navigators. The Community-Based Medication-First model of care was designed as a 6-month, induction-stabilization-transition model to be delivered between 2019 and 2022. Effectiveness outcomes will be tested by comparing the intervention group with a comparison group derived from state records of people who had OUD. Construction of the comparison group will align characteristics such as geography, demographics, historical rates of arrests, OUD medication, and health care utilization, using restriction and propensity score techniques. Outcomes will include arrests, emergency and inpatient health care utilization, and mortality rates. Descriptive statistics for buprenorphine utilization patterns during the intervention period will be documented with the prescription drug monitoring program. Discussion Results of this study will help determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Given the serious population-level and individual-level impacts of OUD, it is essential that services be readily available to all people with OUD, including those who cannot readily access care due to their circumstances, capacity, preferences, and related systems barriers.
Although early causal reasoning has been studied extensively, inconsistency in the tasks used to assess it has clouded our understanding of its structure, development, and relevance to broader developmental outcomes. The current research attempted to bring clarity to these questions by exploring patterns of performance across several commonly used measures of causal reasoning, and their relation to scientific literacy, in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children from diverse backgrounds (N = 153). A longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis revealed that some measures of causal reasoning (counterfactual reasoning, causal learning, and causal inference), but not all of them (tracking cause–effect associations and resolving confounded evidence), assess a unidimensional factor and that this resulting factor was relatively stable across time. A cross-lagged panel model analysis revealed associations between causal reasoning and scientific literacy across each age tested. Causal reasoning and scientific literacy related to each other concurrently, and each predicted the other in subsequent years. These relations could not be accounted for by children’s broader cognitive skills. Implications for early STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) engagement and success are discussed.
While deprivation of dietary fiber has been associated with adverse health outcomes, investigations concerning the effect of dietary fiber on the gut microbiome have been largely limited to compositional sequence-based analyses or utilize a defined microbiota not native to the host. To extend understanding of the microbiome’s functional response to dietary fiber deprivation beyond correlative evidence from sequence-based analyses, approaches capable of measuring functional enzymatic activity are needed. In this study, we use an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach to identify sugar metabolizing and transport proteins in native mouse gut microbiomes that respond with differential activity to the deprivation or supplementation of the soluble dietary fibers inulin and pectin. We found that the microbiome of mice subjected to a high fiber diet high in soluble fiber had increased functional activity of multiple proteins, including glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, and sugar transport proteins from diverse taxa. The results point to an increase in activity of the Bifidobacterium shunt metabolic pathway in the microbiome of mice fed high fiber diets. In those subjected to a low fiber diet, we identified a shift from the degradation of dietary fibers to that of gut mucins, in particular by the recently isolated taxon “ Musculibacterium intestinale” , which experienced dramatic growth in response to fiber deprivation. When combined with metabolomics and shotgun metagenomics analyses, our findings provide a functional investigation of dietary fiber metabolism in the gut microbiome and demonstrates the power of a combined ABPP-multiomics approach for characterizing the response of the gut microbiome to perturbations.
Vast volumes of data are produced by today’s scientific simulations and advanced instruments. These data cannot be stored and transferred efficiently because of limited I/O bandwidth, network speed, and storage capacity. Error-bounded lossy compression can be an effective method for addressing these issues: not only can it significantly reduce data size, but it can also control the data distortion based on user-defined error bounds. In practice, many scientific applications have specific requirements or constraints for lossy compression, in order to guarantee that the reconstructed data are valid for post hoc analysis. For example, some datasets contain irrelevant data that should be isolated in particular and users often have intuition regarding value ranges, geospatial regions, and other data subsets that are crucial for subsequent analysis. Existing state-of-the-art error-bounded lossy compressors, however, do not consider these constraints during compression, resulting in inferior compression ratios with respect to user’s post hoc analysis, due to the fact that the data itself provides little or no value for post hoc analysis. In this work we address this issue by proposing an optimized framework that can preserve diverse constraints during the error-bounded lossy compression, e.g., cleaning the irrelevant data, efficiently preserving different precision for multiple value intervals, and allowing users to set diverse precision over both regular and irregular regions. We perform our evaluation on a supercomputer with up to 2,100 cores. Experiments with six real-world applications show that our proposed diverse constraints based error-bounded lossy compressor can obtain a higher visual quality or data fidelity on reconstructed data with the same or even higher compression ratios compared with the traditional state-of-the-art compressor SZ. Our experiments also demonstrate very good scalability in compression performance compared with the I/O throughput of the parallel file system.
Gasification of lignin in supercritical water is an efficient and clean way to convert biomass to high value-added fuel. The gasification mechanism of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer in supercritical water is investigated by using ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamic simulation in this study. The gasification process of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer, the effects of temperature and α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer/H2O ratio on the gasification of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer are investigated. The results indicated that the major products of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer are H2 and CO, and the yield of former is higher than that of latter. The first stage of the gasification process of α-O-4 chain lignin dimers under supercritical water conditions is the pyrolysis of α-O-4 chain lignin dimers, in which the α-O-4 bonds are broken to generate corresponding C5-C10 products. The conversion of C5-C10 and other C1-C4 products to H2 and CO is promoted by the H2O molecules. This work could provide an environmentally friendly, efficient and viable way for the conversion of lignin into high value-added fuel and relieve the stress of energy shortages and environmental pollution.
Background: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections in companion animals are increasing and are difficult to treat. Environmental contamination with MRSP in small animal primary care hospitals may pose an exposure risk to animal patients. Methods: This longitudinal study assessed the genotypic relationships of MRSP isolated from 39 environmental samples collected from six private small animal primary care hospitals, in the north-eastern United States, between August 2018 and April 2019. Results: Of the 39 bacterial isolates, 18 unique pulsotypes were identified based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, including six clusters of two or more indistinguishable isolates. Single pulsotypes were frequently detected from multiple hand-contact and animal-contact surfaces within a hospital during a single sampling event, but detection of a single pulsotype within the same hospital on subsequent visits was infrequent. However, one pulsotype was recovered from three separate hospitals, which suggests that either MRSP transmission between hospitals may have occurred via people, animals, or fomites or that there was a dominant community strain. Conclusions: Single strains of MRSP were isolated from various hand-contact and animal-contact surfaces within hospitals, indicating the important role of humans, animals and the environment in MRSP transmission. Additionally, the detection of a single strain between hospitals and over time suggests that either MRSP transmission between hospitals may have occurred via people, animals or fomites or that there was a dominant community strain.
Zeolite is considered a promising catalyst for plastic cracking because of its well-defined acid sites, high product selectivity, and outstanding stability. The relationship between zeolite structure and catalytic performance is still not well understood. Therefore, on either as prepared or purposely modified ZSM-5 zeolites, we made a systematic investigation of how acid density and pore structure affect catalytic performance in this work. Our results demonstrate that Brønsted acid site density had profound impact on the catalyst lifetime and aromatic selectivity. The relationship between Brønsted acid site density and catalyst lifetime displays a tendency that catalyst lifetime declines with acid site density at the beginning, then rises up, instead of a linear correlation. Also, the increase of mesoporosity extends the catalyst lifetime to some extent. This information can give us a better understanding of how to design higher-performance catalysts for chemical upcycling of waste plastics.
Online commercial friendship (OCF) is a type of social platform-mediated relational exchange that combines business relationships with friendships. We identify-two OCF types based on their unique relationship formation processes and examine the interaction effects of OCF type and strength on customer perceptions and behavioral intentions following a service failure in industries that provide relational or transactional services. Findings from three studies show that OCF type and strength affect customers’ tendency for revenge. Perceptions of fairness or betrayal mediate the interaction effects of OCF type and strength on customers’ subsequent behavioral intentions. However, the influence mechanisms are completely different in the relational and transactional service industries. In relational services, perceived betrayal mediates the effect between OCFs and behavioral intentions; whereas in transactional services, perceived fairness plays an intermediary role.
To maintain high efficiency, electric utility providers aim to minimize energy losses between points of generation and customer distribution. A significant share of these losses is nontechnical, such as losses from energy theft. One prevalent method of energy theft involves tampering with electricity meters by means of strong magnetic fields. In this study, different shielding structures were developed to protect the electric energy meters’ pulse current transformers from external magnetic fields, with respect to the allocation and orientation of these sensitive elements. Several shielding geometries, solid and multilayer shields were modeled and compared in terms of their efficiency for flux shunting. Based on the obtained results, recommendations for effective shielding against tampering were driven.
Aggregate stability is a commonly used indicator of soil health because improvements in aggregate stability are related to reduced erodibility and improved soil–water dynamics. During the past 80 to 90 years, numerous methods have been developed to assess aggregate stability. Limited comparisons among the methods have resulted in varied magnitudes of response to soil health management practices and varied influences of inherent soil properties and climate. It is not clear whether selection of a specific method creates any advantage to the investigator. This study assessed four commonly used methods of measuring aggregate stability using data collected as part of the North American Project to Evaluate Soil Health Measurements. The methods included water stable aggregates using the Cornell Rainfall Simulator (WSACASH), wet sieved water stable aggregates (WSAARS), slaking captured and adapted from SLAKES smart-phone image recognition software (STAB10), and the mean weight diameter of water stable aggregates (MWD). Influence of climate and inherent soil properties at the continental scale were analyzed in addition to method responses to rotation diversity, cash crop count, residue management, organic nutrient amendments, cover crops, and tillage. The four methods were moderately correlated with each other. All methods were sensitive to differences in climate and inherent soil properties between sites, although to different degrees. None measured significant effects from rotation diversity or crop count, but all methods detected significant increases in aggregate stability resulting from reduced tillage. Significant increases or positive trends were observed for all methods in relation to cover cropping, increased residue retention, and organic amendments, except for STAB10, which expressed a slightly negative response to organic amendments. Considering these results, no single method was clearly superior and all four are viable options for measuring aggregate stability. Therefore, secondary considerations (e.g., cost, method availability, increased sensitivity to a specific management practice, or minimal within-treatment variability) driven by the needs of the investigator, should determine the most suitable method.
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