This chapter picks up from chapter one on the tension between ‘old’ Eurocentric and nationalistic verses ‘new’ global(ist)–multiculturalist historiography from World War Two down to the present, with emphasis on the problem of the continuing conflation and alleged supremacy of ‘Western’ and ‘White Civilization’ within Western and World History narratives. It highlights how academic and political efforts to revive the teaching of Western Civilization in colleges and universities do not explicitly identify nor necessarily intend their agendas as ‘white nationalist’ or ‘racist’, but they nonetheless coincide historically and share much in common by way of themes and concerns with parallel white nationalist and racist attempts to revive and promote ‘Western Civilization’ in recent decades.
Amidst the continuing atmosphere of post-Soviet revivalism, historiographical debates over Central Asian as well as broader world religious-cultural history and identity continue to be voiced among Kazakh scholars. In examining these debates through his own careful translations of key Kazakh-language sources, the author highlights the internal struggle between resurgent Muslim and Tengrist (i.e. ‘Native Turkic Religious’) positions developing in dynamic interface with lingering atheistic-Communist and rising Western-secular as well as Christian influence among the Turkic Central Asian peoples. These debates carry implications for not only Turkic Central Asian history and identity, but for interreligious, intercultural and international relations and dialogue between the Western and Central Asian as well as broader Western–Asian, Western–Islamic and Christian–Muslim worlds. They affirm the central importance of historical knowledge and historiographical (re)interpretation particularly within post-colonial and other revivalist settings and, likewise, help normalize our perceptions of Islam as a participant in such exchanges within the Kazakh as well as broader Central Asian and world communities.
Hyperuricemia is the second most prevalent metabolic disease to human health after diabetes. Only a few clinical drugs are available, and most of them have serious side effects. The human body does not have urate oxidase, and uric acid is secreted via the kidney or the intestine. Reduction through kidney secretion is often the cause of hyperuricemia. We hypothesized that the intestine secretion could be enhanced when a recombinant urate-degrading bacterium was introduced into the gut. We engineered an Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain with a plasmid containing a gene cassette that encoded two proteins PucL and PucM for urate metabolism from Bacillus subtilis, the urate importer YgfU and catalase KatG from E. coli, and the bacterial hemoglobin Vhb from Vitreoscilla sp. The recombinant E. coli strain effectively degraded uric acid under hypoxic conditions. A new method to induce hyperuricemia in mice was developed by intravenously injecting uric acid. The engineered Escherichia coli strain significantly lowered the serum uric acid when introduced into the gut or directly injected into the blood vessel. The results support the use of urate-degrading bacteria in the gut to treat hyperuricemia. Direct injecting bacteria into blood vessels to treat metabolic diseases is proof of concept, and it has been tried to treat solid tumors.
Background: Opioid agonist therapy with buprenorphine is an effective, evidence-based treatment for opioid use disorder. However, there has been increasing use of alternative substances which can still produce opioid-like effects. One of these substances is the herbal supplement kratom. The chemical composition of kratom, specifically mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, has partial mu-opioid receptor agonist and antagonist effects at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Due to its addictive potential, accessibility, and legal status, there have been increasing cases of kratom use disorder (KUD). Thus, it is important to consider effective treatment options for this nontraditional substance. Methods: Twenty-eight patients self-identified kratom as their primary substance of use. Length of kratom use ranged between 1 month and 25 years, with an average daily kratom dose of 92 g/d. Nine patients were inducted on a buprenorphine/naloxone dose between 1 and 6 mg, 18 patients between 8 and 16 mg, and 1 patient at 20 mg. Three patients were stabilized on a dose at 4 mg, 23 patients between 8 and 16 mg, 1 patient at 18 mg, and 1 patient at 20 mg. Results: There was no correlation between stabilizing dose of buprenorphine/naloxone and past daily dose of kratom. As of March 2020, 20 of the 28 patients were still receiving outpatient buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. Six patients were lost to follow-up due to missed appointments, 1 tapered down to 0.25 mg of buprenorphine/naloxone and self-discharged, and 1 moved out of town. The rest have remained in treatment from 5 to 22 months, with an average duration of 11 months. Of the 28 patients, 68%, 82%, and 82% had negative test results for mitragynine at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest case series exploring long-term buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for KUD. Our findings suggest buprenorphine/naloxone can be used as an effective treatment option for KUD.
Background Over the last decade, cementless total knee arthroplasty has demonstrated improved outcomes and survivorship due to advances in technologies of implant design, manufacturing capabilities, and biomaterials. Due to increasing interest in cementless implant design for TKA, our aim was to perform a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the clinical outcomes and revision rates of the Triathlon Total Knee system over the past decade. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted following PRISMA guidelines for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty with cementless Triathalon Total Knee System implants. Patients had a minimum of two-year follow-up and data included clinical outcome scores and survivorship data. Results Twenty studies were included in the final analysis. The survivability of the Stryker Triathlon TKA due to all causes was 98.7%, with an aseptic survivability of 99.2%. The overall revision incidence per 1,000 person-years was 3.4. Re-revision incidence per 1,000 person-years was 2.2 for infection, and 1.3 for aseptic loosening. The average KSS for pain was 92.2 and the average KSS for function was 82.7. Conclusions This systematic review demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes and survivorship at a mean time of 3.8 years. Additional research is necessary to examine the long-term success of the Stryker Triathlon TKA and the use of cementless TKAs in obese and younger populations. Level of evidence III.
Although group-level service failures usually cause more adverse consequences than individual-level ones, existing literature on group service failures is scarce. Besides, almost all service failure and recovery studies suggest that customers hold consistent emotional reactions during a group service failure, which causes a lack of exploring inconsistent emotional responses. This research focuses on this under-explored area and investigates how and why perceived inappropriateness of collective emotion (PICE) influences customer participation in service recovery. The present work proposed a moderated mediation model and conducted three scenario-based experiments to validate the influence of PICE on customer participation in service recovery and the mediating path of cognitive reappraisal. The present research also unveils the moderating effects of protective face orientation and relationship norms on the relationship between PICE and cognitive reappraisal. These findings enriched theories on group service failure and recovery and offered tourism companies suggestions on utilizing PICE to facilitate favorable recovery outcomes.
Background Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a serious health condition that is effectively treated with buprenorphine. However, only a minority of people with OUD are able to access buprenorphine. Many access points for buprenorphine have high barriers for initiation and retention. Health care and drug treatment systems have not been able to provide services to all—let alone the majority—who need it, and many with OUD report extreme challenges starting and staying on buprenorphine in those care settings. We describe the design and protocol for a study of a rapid access buprenorphine program model in six Washington State communities at existing sites serving people who are unhoused and/or using syringe services programs. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a Community-Based Medication-First Program model. Methods We are conducting a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study of a rapid access buprenorphine model of care staffed by prescribers, nurse care managers, and care navigators. The Community-Based Medication-First model of care was designed as a 6-month, induction-stabilization-transition model to be delivered between 2019 and 2022. Effectiveness outcomes will be tested by comparing the intervention group with a comparison group derived from state records of people who had OUD. Construction of the comparison group will align characteristics such as geography, demographics, historical rates of arrests, OUD medication, and health care utilization, using restriction and propensity score techniques. Outcomes will include arrests, emergency and inpatient health care utilization, and mortality rates. Descriptive statistics for buprenorphine utilization patterns during the intervention period will be documented with the prescription drug monitoring program. Discussion Results of this study will help determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Given the serious population-level and individual-level impacts of OUD, it is essential that services be readily available to all people with OUD, including those who cannot readily access care due to their circumstances, capacity, preferences, and related systems barriers.
Although early causal reasoning has been studied extensively, inconsistency in the tasks used to assess it has clouded our understanding of its structure, development, and relevance to broader developmental outcomes. The current research attempted to bring clarity to these questions by exploring patterns of performance across several commonly used measures of causal reasoning, and their relation to scientific literacy, in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children from diverse backgrounds (N = 153). A longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis revealed that some measures of causal reasoning (counterfactual reasoning, causal learning, and causal inference), but not all of them (tracking cause–effect associations and resolving confounded evidence), assess a unidimensional factor and that this resulting factor was relatively stable across time. A cross-lagged panel model analysis revealed associations between causal reasoning and scientific literacy across each age tested. Causal reasoning and scientific literacy related to each other concurrently, and each predicted the other in subsequent years. These relations could not be accounted for by children’s broader cognitive skills. Implications for early STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) engagement and success are discussed.
While deprivation of dietary fiber has been associated with adverse health outcomes, investigations concerning the effect of dietary fiber on the gut microbiome have been largely limited to compositional sequence-based analyses or utilize a defined microbiota not native to the host. To extend understanding of the microbiome’s functional response to dietary fiber deprivation beyond correlative evidence from sequence-based analyses, approaches capable of measuring functional enzymatic activity are needed. In this study, we use an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach to identify sugar metabolizing and transport proteins in native mouse gut microbiomes that respond with differential activity to the deprivation or supplementation of the soluble dietary fibers inulin and pectin. We found that the microbiome of mice subjected to a high fiber diet high in soluble fiber had increased functional activity of multiple proteins, including glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, and sugar transport proteins from diverse taxa. The results point to an increase in activity of the Bifidobacterium shunt metabolic pathway in the microbiome of mice fed high fiber diets. In those subjected to a low fiber diet, we identified a shift from the degradation of dietary fibers to that of gut mucins, in particular by the recently isolated taxon “ Musculibacterium intestinale” , which experienced dramatic growth in response to fiber deprivation. When combined with metabolomics and shotgun metagenomics analyses, our findings provide a functional investigation of dietary fiber metabolism in the gut microbiome and demonstrates the power of a combined ABPP-multiomics approach for characterizing the response of the gut microbiome to perturbations.
Gasification of lignin in supercritical water is an efficient and clean way to convert biomass to high value-added fuel. The gasification mechanism of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer in supercritical water is investigated by using ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamic simulation in this study. The gasification process of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer, the effects of temperature and α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer/H2O ratio on the gasification of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer are investigated. The results indicated that the major products of α-O-4 linkage lignin dimer are H2 and CO, and the yield of former is higher than that of latter. The first stage of the gasification process of α-O-4 chain lignin dimers under supercritical water conditions is the pyrolysis of α-O-4 chain lignin dimers, in which the α-O-4 bonds are broken to generate corresponding C5-C10 products. The conversion of C5-C10 and other C1-C4 products to H2 and CO is promoted by the H2O molecules. This work could provide an environmentally friendly, efficient and viable way for the conversion of lignin into high value-added fuel and relieve the stress of energy shortages and environmental pollution.
Background: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections in companion animals are increasing and are difficult to treat. Environmental contamination with MRSP in small animal primary care hospitals may pose an exposure risk to animal patients. Methods: This longitudinal study assessed the genotypic relationships of MRSP isolated from 39 environmental samples collected from six private small animal primary care hospitals, in the north-eastern United States, between August 2018 and April 2019. Results: Of the 39 bacterial isolates, 18 unique pulsotypes were identified based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, including six clusters of two or more indistinguishable isolates. Single pulsotypes were frequently detected from multiple hand-contact and animal-contact surfaces within a hospital during a single sampling event, but detection of a single pulsotype within the same hospital on subsequent visits was infrequent. However, one pulsotype was recovered from three separate hospitals, which suggests that either MRSP transmission between hospitals may have occurred via people, animals, or fomites or that there was a dominant community strain. Conclusions: Single strains of MRSP were isolated from various hand-contact and animal-contact surfaces within hospitals, indicating the important role of humans, animals and the environment in MRSP transmission. Additionally, the detection of a single strain between hospitals and over time suggests that either MRSP transmission between hospitals may have occurred via people, animals or fomites or that there was a dominant community strain.
Pollution of phenolic effluent from spice and plastics factories has become increasingly serious. Thus, developing a green and highly efficient adsorbent to remove phenolic compounds from wastewater is of urgent need. In this study, cellulose graft copolymer was synthesized through grafting 4-vinylpyridine monomer and polyethylene glycol methacrylate to a molecular skeleton of cellulose by free radical polymerization. The supramolecular hydrogel was successfully synthesized by physical cross-linking of cellulose graft copolymer and α-cyclodextrin. These supramolecular hydrogels were thoroughly characterized and the adsorption performance (adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics) of phenol on the supramolecular hydrogel were investigated in batch operation. The supramolecular hydrogel not only exhibited excellent adsorption of phenol, but also demonstrated increased mechanical strength due to the introduction of a modified cellulose base material. The adsorption kinetics of phenol on the supramolecular hydrogel followed a quasi-second-order reaction, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909. The adsorption isotherm conformed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacity of phenol can reach 80.71 mg∙g⁻¹, which was 2–3 times higher than traditional carbon-based materials. The results demonstrate the great promise of the waste-derived supramolecular hydrogel to be used as an efficient adsorbent in wastewater treatment.
Hopf bifurcations can occur in power systems when a system mode experiences low damping because of changes in system operating conditions and they can lead to the emergence of limit cycles and oscillations. There are two types of Hopf bifurcations, namely, supercritical and subcritical, and they are determined by the sign of a cubic normal form coefficient. This paper discusses the two types of Hopf phenomena in test power system models where both types could be seen under changes in system and control parameters. The paper proposes an efficient computational method for carrying out the higher-order center manifold and normal form calculations for a general power system model and discusses the implications of the normal form coefficients for power system dynamics. Distinguishing between subcritical versus supercritical is important since they lead to very different types of oscillatory phenomena, divergence versus sustained oscillations, respectively.
Discarded plastics can be converted to various fuels and chemicals to generate positive economic value instead of polluting the environment. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted much attention in the industrial and scientific communities as a promising versatile platform to convert plastic waste into valuable resources. However, it is still difficult to fine-tune an efficient and selective pyrolysis process to narrow the product distribution for a feasible commercial production. Furthermore, traditional plastic-to-fuels technology looks like another expensive way to burn fossil fuels, making no contribution to the plastic circular economy. By learning from the developed plastic-to-fuels technology, achieving the conversion of plastic waste into naphtha or plastic monomers that can be used for new plastic manufacturing in a closed-loop way is a more promising resource recovery pathway. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about achieving plastic waste recycling/upcycling by pyrolysis. This article will provide a critical review about the recovery pathways of plastic pyrolysis based on the various products (fuels, naphtha, hydrogen, and light olefins). It will overview the recent advances regarding plastic pyrolysis process and reactor design, introduce various recovery pathways based on the pyrolysis process, summarize process optimization and catalyst development, discuss the present challenges for plastic pyrolysis, highlight the importance and significance of creating a plastics’ circular economy, discuss the economic feasibility, the environmental impact, and outlook for future development for plastic pyrolysis. This review presents useful information to further develop and design an advanced pyrolysis process, with an improved efficiency, desirable product selectivity, and minimum environmental impacts. It is helpful to encourage more circular economy-oriented research aimed at converting waste plastics to naphtha and plastic monomers instead of simply producing fuels from the scientific communities of chemistry, energy, and the environment.
The original hygiene hypothesis proposed that certain diseases derive from low levels of early-life microbial exposure. Since then, the hypothesis has been applied to numerous inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic conditions. The changes in hygiene linked to these diseases include numerous changes in biotic exposure and lifestyle. To this end, some scholars have called for abandonment of the term or have suggested alternate labels, e.g., the old friends hypothesis. However, neither of these terms encompasses the complexity of plasticity in immune response and host–parasite/commensal interactions that influence these conditions. Here, I review this complexity, with particular regard to the factors affecting immunological strategies, the development of tolerance, immune dysfunction, and ecological interactions among organisms. I discuss the biotic factors that affect immune plasticity and how these interact with abiotic factors such as nutrition, as well as how transgenerational exposures may affect immune plasticity. Finally, I review the general features of diseases linked to biotic exposures. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Anthropology Volume 51 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Wildfire is a natural phenomenon with substantial economic consequences, and its management is complex, dynamic, and rife with incentive problems. This article reviews the contribution of economics to our understanding of wildfire and highlights remaining knowledge gaps. We first summarize economic impacts to illustrate scale and trends. We then focus on wildfire management in three phases: mitigation before fires occur, response during fires, and response after fires. The literature highlights economic interdependencies and spillover effects across fire-prone landscapes as the source of economic inefficiencies and motivation for public institutional response. The literature illustrates the complexity of this problem with its myriad threads, including the trade-offs of living in fire-prone environments, the prospects for using controlled fire and mechanical fuel removal for reducing wildfire severity, the decision-making environment that firefighters face, and the economic consequences of wildfire smoke on health. Economics provides valuable insights, but fundamental questions remain unanswered. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Resource Economics, Volume 14 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Creation of a dry soil mulch to maintain near-surface moisture in dry environments is an ancient practice that is still used in many regions of the world for timely establishment of crops after long fallow. Before availability of herbicides, the first tillage during fallow was timed to kill weeds, but now the optimum timing for tillage depends only on the interplay of evaporation and infiltration of rain. The goal is to maximize total root zone water storage and seed-zone water at seeding time. Our objective was to measure the effect of delaying soil mulch creation progressively later in the spring and summer on weed-free fallow for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Mediterranean inland Pacific Northwest drylands of the United States. Over a period of six years and a total of 12 site-years, four to seven tillage timings were compared to an untilled treatment. Soil water was measured at seeding time in the seed zone and total root zone. Seed-zone water and total stored water produced by different tillage timings was surprisingly constant, with few statistically significant or substantial differences. On average, only 2% of stored water was lost in the top 1.0 m of soil over 80 days during the hot, dry period towards the end of fallow. Responses to late spring rain could be seen, and tillage near the end of June (early summer) often produced maximum soil water content.
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