It is well-established that appropriate hydration practices are essential in promoting health and optimizing performance and recovery. However, evidence-based hydration guidelines may not be adopted due to cultural differences across countries, such as religious beliefs, traditions, preferences, and beverage availability. Examples of hydration practices influenced by culture include beer consumption after sports in Western countries, consumption of sugarcane juice in India and Ramadan fasting among Muslims. For most cultural hydration practices, there is limited scientific evidence on their effects on rehydration, exercise performance, and recovery. Despite possible benefits of various hydration practices on exercise performance and recovery, they are inconsistent with current evidence-based hydration recommendations. More research on the impacts of cultural hydration differences on physiology, performance, and recovery is warranted to allow evidence-based guidelines and advisories. Abbreviations: ABV: alcohol by volume, ACSM: American College of Sports Medicine, NATA: National Athletic Trainers' Association, ROS: reactive oxygen species, TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine.
We propose a decision tree model that considers reverse and forward flows in a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC). Based on observations of three CLSCs, the model considers an environment where there is uncertainty in the quantity of returned used components (and new components from suppliers) with the decision being the incentive offered to each return source. Given that there are multiple suppliers, one must determine which supplier(s) to use and the corresponding capacity to reserve, in order to minimise total system costs. An example and a sensitivity analysis are presented to illustrate the model and to investigate multiple scenarios under various conditions. The analysis demonstrates that the supplier portfolio and returner incentive decisions are strongly linked to the supplier reliability, returned quantities, and the costs of not meeting the demand. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that understanding the behaviour of return sources relative to incentives is the most critical variable to implement the model.
Background Postprandial dysmetabolism, an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, can be improved by exercise. Further systematic review and meta-analysis is needed to compare the effects of accumulated exercise with a single session of energy-matched continuous exercise on postprandial glucose (PPG), insulin, and triglycerides in adults with or without diabetes. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched on August 28, 2020, and updated on April 27, 2021. Eligible studies were randomized, quasi-randomized, or non-randomized controlled or crossover trials that evaluated the acute or longitudinal effects of accumulated exercise compared with a single session of energy-matched continuous exercise on PPG, postprandial insulin, and triglycerides in diabetic and non-diabetic adults. Same-day and second-morning effects were assessed separately for acute intervention studies. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the number of exercise bouts (2–3 bouts or frequent brief bouts (e.g., 1–6 min) throughout the day at 20–60-min intervals (known as physical activity [PA] breaks, ≥ 5 bouts)), exercise intensity, and populations. Risk of bias was assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Pooled effects were reported as standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% CI using a random effects model. Results Twenty-seven studies (635 participants) were included. A significant difference was found for same-day PPG control, which favored accumulated exercise over one bout of energy-matched continuous exercise (SMD − 0.36 [95%CI: (− 0.56, − 0.17)], P = 0.0002, I² = 1%), specifically in accumulated exercise with PA breaks (SMD − 0.36 [95%CI: (− 0.64, − 0.08)], P = 0.01, I² = 30%), low-moderate intensity exercise (SMD − 0.38 [(95%CI: (− 0.59, − 0.17)], P = 0.0005, I² = 0%), and in non-diabetic populations (SMD − 0.36 [95%CI: (− 0.62, − 0.10)], P = 0.007, I² = 16%). No differences were found for same-day postprandial insulin and triglycerides, and second-morning effects (postprandial or fasting glucose, insulin, and triglycerides) between different exercise patterns. Conclusion Compared with one session of continuous exercise, accumulated exercise—specifically in subgroups of PA breaks, low-moderate intensity exercises—produced greater acute effects on same-day PPG control for non-diabetic adults. There were no differences between continuous and accumulated patterns of exercise in terms of same-day postprandial insulin and triglycerides, and second-morning effects on all previously mentioned markers. The findings provide additional PA options for PPG control for individuals with limited time or exercise capacity to engage in PA in one session. Registration: PROSPERO (identification code: CRD42021251325).
Morphological profiling is an omics-based approach for predicting intracellular targets of chemical compounds in which the dose-dependent morphological changes induced by the compound are systematically compared to the morphological changes in gene-deleted cells. In this study, we developed a reliable high-throughput (HT) platform for yeast morphological profiling using drug-hypersensitive strains to minimize compound use, HT microscopy to speed up data generation and analysis, and a generalized linear model to predict targets with high reliability. We first conducted a proof-of-concept study using six compounds with known targets: bortezomib, hydroxyurea, methyl methanesulfonate, benomyl, tunicamycin, and echinocandin B. Then we applied our platform to predict the mechanism of action of a novel diferulate-derived compound, poacidiene. Morphological profiling of poacidiene implied that it affects the DNA damage response, which genetic analysis confirmed. Furthermore, we found that poacidiene inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi, implying applications as an effective antifungal agent. Thus, our platform is a new whole-cell target prediction tool for drug discovery.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Background Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common sports related injury. Altered foot kinematics can be a risk factor for the injury. Since foot segments can move independently, intersegment coordination is important for proper foot function. This study aimed to compare the foot intersegmental coordination pattern and single segment kinematics between female lacrosse players with and without a history of medial tibial stress syndrome during drop jump. Methods Twelve players with a medial tibial stress syndrome history and 12 players with no history were enrolled. Foot kinematics, including angle at landing and peak angle and excursion at the rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot during single-leg drop jumps were analysed. Each segment motion data from landing to leaping was time-scaled to 100% to analyse the intersegmental coordination with a modified vector coding technique. Instant intersegmental coordination of every 1% was classified into four patterns (in-phase, two segments rotate in the same direction with similar amplitudes; anti-phase, two segments rotate in opposite directions; proximal phase, proximal segment dominantly rotates in the same direction compared to the distal segment; and distal phase, distal segment dominantly rotates in the same direction compared to the proximal segment). The percentage of intersegmental coordination pattern and kinematics in each segment were compared between the groups using the Student’s t test. Results Groups with a history of medial stress syndrome showed a significantly higher percentage of proximal phase between the rearfoot and midfoot in the sagittal (Mean ± SD; history, 52.2 ± 17.9%, no history, 29.3 ± 16.7%; p = 0.004) and coronal planes (history, 40.3 ± 22.0%, no history, 15.9 ± 9.1%; p = 0.004). Dorsiflexion excursion (history, 34.5 ± 4.5°, no history, 29.6 ± 2.1°; p = 0.003) were significantly larger in a history of medial tibial stress syndrome group compared to no history group. Conclusions Rearfoot dominant motion pattern relative to the midfoot may be related to medial tibial stress syndrome. Intersegmental coordination analysis may be useful for detecting abnormal foot coordination patterns. Also, stabilization for the rearfoot may be required rather than the midfoot for intervention.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
The state with effective total moment J eff = 1/2 stabilized by the spin-orbit coupling is known to suppress Jahn-Teller distortions and may induce a strong exchange anisotropy. This in turn may lead to the formation of an elusive spin-liquid state in real materials. While recent studies have demonstrated that such a situation can be realized in 3 d transition-metal compounds such as those based on Co ²⁺ and Cu ²⁺ , diagnosis of J eff = 1/2 state remains challenging. We show that resonant inelastic X-ray scattering is an effective tool to probe this state and apply it to CuAl 2 O 4 , material where Cu ²⁺ ions were previously proposed to be in the J eff = 1/2 state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that, contrary to previous expectations, a competitive (to J eff = 1/2) Jahn-Teller state realizes in this compound.
Background We aimed to investigate the association of age-related differences in the intracellular-to-total water ratio with explosive strength of the plantar flexors. Methods A total of 60 young (21–33 years) and older (64–83 years) individuals were recruited. Intracellular- (ICW) and total-water (TW) content within the right leg was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as indicators of muscle cell mass and whole muscle mass within the segment, respectively. ICW divided by TW (ICW/TW) was calculated as an index of the occupancy of muscle cells within whole muscle. Rate of torque development (RTD) and electromyography (EMG) activity during maximal voluntary isometric plantar flexion were measured as indicators of explosive muscle strength and neuromuscular activity, respectively. RTD was calculated from three time windows of 0–50, 50–100, and 100–200 ms. Time-to-peak torque (TPT) was assessed from evoked twitch contraction. Results Compared with young participants, older participants showed lower ICW/TW (−7%, P < 0.001), RTD (−25 to −40%, P = 0.003 to 0.001), and longer TPT (+11%, P < 0.001). ICW/TW associated positively with RTD ( r = 0.377 to 0.408, P = 0.004 to 0.001) and negatively with TPT ( r = −0.392, P = 0.002), but not with EMG activity. RTD was associated positively with EMG for each time window ( r = 0.527 to 0.607, P < 0.001). Conclusions These results indicate that ICW/TW may be a useful predictor of the age-related decrease in RTD, and that the decrease in ICW/TW with age may reflect age-associated changes in intrinsic contractile properties.
During the initial stages of software development, the primary goal is to define precise and detailed requirements without concern for software realizations. Security constraints should be introduced then and must be based on the semantic aspects of applications, not on their software architectures, as it is the case in most secure development methodologies. In these stages, we need to identify threats as attacker goals and indicate what conceptual security defenses are needed to thwart these goals, without consideration of implementation details. We can consider the effects of threats on the application assets and try to find ways to stop them. These threats should be controlled with abstract security mechanisms that can be realized by abstract security patterns (ASPs) , that include only the core functions of these mechanisms, which must be present in every implementation of them. An abstract security pattern describes a conceptual security mechanism that includes functions able to stop or mitigate a threat or comply with a regulation or institutional policy. We describe here the properties of ASPs and present a detailed example. We relate ASPs to each other and to Security Solution Frames, which describe families of related patterns. We show how to include ASPs to secure an application, as well as how to derive concrete patterns from them. Finally, we discuss their practical value, including their use in “security by design” and IoT systems design.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) /p35 is involved in many developmental processes of the central nervous system. Cdk5/p35 is also implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Several lines of conditional Cdk5 knockout mice (KO) have been generated and have shown different outcomes for learning and memory. Here, we present our analysis of p35 conditional KO mice (p35cKO) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons or forebrain GABAergic neurons using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. In the fear conditioning task, CamKII-p35cKO mice showed impaired memory retention. Furthermore, NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (LTD) induction by low-frequency stimuli in hippocampal slices from CamkII-p35cKO mice was impaired compared to that in control mice. In contrast, Dlx-p35cKO mice showed no abnormalities in behavioral tasks and electrophysiological analysis in their hippocampal slices. These results indicated that Cdk5/p35 in excitatory neurons is important for the hippocampal synaptic plasticity and associative memory retention.
Although dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have been so far classified according to the difference in their fibers (Aβ, Aδ, and C), this classification should be further subdivided according to gene expression patterns. We focused on oxytocin (OXT) and its related receptors, because OXT plays a local role in DRG neurons. We measured the mRNA levels of OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), and piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (Piezo2) in single DRG neurons by using real-time PCR, and then performed a cluster analysis. According to the gene expression patterns, DRG neurons were classified into 4 clusters: Cluster 1 was characterized mainly by Piezo2, Cluster 2 by TRPV1, Cluster 4 by OXTR, and neurons in Cluster 3 did not express any of the target genes. The cell body diameter of OXT-expressing neurons was significantly larger in Cluster 1 than in Cluster 2. These results suggest that OXT-expressing DRG neurons with small cell bodies (Cluster 2) and large cell bodies (Cluster 1) probably correspond to C-fiber neurons and Aβ-fiber neurons, respectively. Furthermore, the OXT-expressing neurons contained not only TRPV1 but also Piezo2, suggesting that OXT may be released by mechanical stimulation regardless of nociception. Thus, mechanoreception and nociception themselves may induce the autocrine/paracrine function of OXT in the DRG, contributing to alleviation of pain.
We propose a two-stage reward allocation method with decay using an extension of replay memory to adapt this rewarding method for deep reinforcement learning (DRL), to generate coordinated behaviors for tasks that can be completed by executing a few subtasks sequentially by heterogeneous agents. An independent learner in cooperative multi-agent systems needs to learn its policies for effective execution of its own responsible subtask, as well as for coordinated behaviors under a certain coordination structure. Although the reward scheme is an issue for DRL, it is difficult to design it to learn both policies. Our proposed method attempts to generate these different behaviors in multi-agent DRL by dividing the timing of rewards into two stages and varying the ratio between them over time. By introducing the coordinated delivery and execution problem with an expiration time, where a task can be executed sequentially by two heterogeneous agents, we experimentally analyze the effect of using various ratios of the reward division in the two-stage allocations on the generated behaviors. The results demonstrate that the proposed method could improve the overall performance relative to those with the conventional one-time or fixed reward and can establish robust coordinated behavior.
Photoperiodic responses are observed in many organisms living in the temperate zones. The circadian clock is involved in photoperiodic time measurement; however, the underlying molecular mechanism for detection of the day length remains unknown. We previously compared the expression profiles of the Cryptochrome(Cry) genes in the zebrafish eye and reported that Cry1ab has a double peak with variable expression duration depending on the photoperiod. In this study, to understand commonalities and differences in the photoperiodic responses of ocular Cry genes, we identified Cryptochrome genes in two other teleost species, goldfish and medaka, living in temperate zones, and measured ocular Cry mRNA levels in all of the three species, under different photoperiods (long-day [14 h light: 10 h dark] and short-day [10 h light: 14 h dark] and in constant darkness. Cry1ab mRNA levels did not show dual peaks in goldfish or medaka under the examined conditions; however, the mRNA expression profiles of many Cry s were altered in all three species, depending on the day length and light condition. Based on their expression profiles, Cry mRNA peaks were classified into three groups that better synchronize to sunrise (light-on), midnight/midday (middle points of the dark/light periods), or sunset (light-off). These results suggest the presence of multiple oscillators that oscillate independently or a complex oscillator in which Cry expression cycles change in a photoperiod-dependent manner in the eye.
The surface tension of a molten sample can be evaluated based on its resonant frequency with various levitation techniques. Under a 1-G condition, the use of levitation forces to counteract gravity will cause the levitated sample’s resonant frequency to differ from that under microgravity. A mathematical relationship to correct for this deviation is not available for a sample levitated with aerodynamic levitation (ADL), which raises issues on the validity of surface tension measurements done with ADL. In this study, we compared the surface tension of molten Al 2 O 3 obtained using the front tracking (FT) simulation method, the drop-bounce method with ADL, and the oscillating drop method with ADL. The drop-bounce method simulates microgravity by allowing the sample to free-fall over a period of tens of milliseconds. Based on the results of this comparison, we determined that the surface tension of molten materials measured with ground-based ADL with the oscillating drop method, calculated using the resonant frequency of the l=2 m=0 mode, only shows a small deviation from that obtained under microgravity.
In the present paper, we introduce the concepts of Jacobi polynomials and intersection enumerators of codes over Fq and Zk for arbitrary genus g. We also discuss the interrelation among them. Finally, we give the MacWilliams type identities for Jacobi polynomials.
In particular, this study aims to investigate the effect of aluminosilicate nanoparticle in the mixture of anionic (Sulfonated Alkyl Ester) and nonionic (Fatty Ester Oleate) surfactants on the interfacial tension and wettability related to EOR processes. Various experiments were conducted such as measuring interfacial tension between oil and brine using spinning drop tensiometer, measuring contact angle between surfactant-NPs-brine solution and Buff Berea core using optical tensiometer, conducting spontaneous imbibition, and core flooding tests. It is observed that the more anionic surfactant in the mixture the more significant aluminosilicate reduces contact angle and increases interfacial tension (IFT), which promotes contradicting effect on oil recovery. In this study, the IFT prevails and eventually reduces ultimate oil recovery. At spontaneous imbibition tests the ultimate oil recovery is decreased from 58% to 47% and from 63% to 46% for SAE-01A and SAE-01B, respectively. The ultimate oil recovery is reduced from 54% to 35% and from 50% to 39% at core flooding tests (Figure 16) for SAE-01A and SAE-01B, respectively. The aluminosilicate nanoparticle contributes positively as the ratio of SAE and FEO becomes smaller. At surfactant formulation ratio of 1:2 (SAE-01C), the IFT is decreased slightly from 4.36 x 10⁻³ mN/m to 2.36 x 10⁻³ mN/m and contact angle is also slightly reduced from 41.9° to 40.3° by adding 250 ppm NPs. The results show that ultimate oil recovery is increased 52% to 61% and from 47% to 49% at spontaneous imbibition tests and core flooding tests, respectively.
Birnessite (δ-Mn(IV)O2) is a great manganese (Mn) adsorbent for dissolved divalent metals. In this study, we investigated the coprecipitation mechanism of δ-MnO2 in the presence of Zn(II) and an oxidizing agent (sodium hypochlorite) under two neutral pH values (6.0 and 7.5). The mineralogical characteristics and Zn–Mn mixed products were compared with simple surface complexation by adsorption modeling and structural analysis. Batch coprecipitation experiments at different Zn/Mn molar ratios showed a Langmuir-type isotherm at pH 6.0, which was similar to the result of adsorption experiments at pH 6.0 and 7.5. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed triple-corner-sharing inner-sphere complexation on the vacant sites was the dominant Zn sorption mechanism on δ-MnO2 under these experimental conditions. A coprecipitation experiment at pH 6.0 produced some hetaerolite (ZnMn(III)2O4) and manganite (γ-Mn(III)OOH), but only at low Zn/Mn molar ratios (< 1). These secondary precipitates disappeared because of crystal dissolution at higher Zn/Mn molar ratios because they were thermodynamically unstable. Woodruffite (ZnMn(IV)3O7•2H2O) was produced in the coprecipitation experiment at pH 7.5 with a high Zn/Mn molar ratio of 5. This resulted in a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET)-type sorption isotherm, in which formation was explained by transformation of the crystalline structure of δ-MnO2 to a tunnel structure. Our experiments demonstrate that abiotic coprecipitation reactions can induce Zn–Mn compound formation on the δ-MnO2 surface, and that the pH is an important controlling factor for the crystalline structures and thermodynamic stabilities.
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