Wageningen University & Research
  • Wageningen, Netherlands
Recent publications
Ticks and the microbes they transmit have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major threat to veterinary and public health. Although progress has been made in detecting and identifying tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) across vast agroecologies of Kenya, comprehensive information on tick species infesting cattle and their associated pathogens in coastal Kenya needs to be updated and expanded. Ticks infesting extensively grazed zebu cattle in 14 villages were sampled and identified based on morphology and molecular methods and tested for the presence of bacterial and protozoan TBPs using PCR with high-resolution melting analysis and gene sequencing. In total, 3,213 adult ticks were collected and identified as Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (15.8%), R. evertsi (12.8%), R. microplus (11.3%), R. pulchellus (0.1%), Amblyomma gemma (24.1%), A. variegatum (35.1%), Hyalomma rufipes (0.6%), and H. albiparmatum (0.2%). Ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, Ehrlichia ruminantium, E. min-asensis, Theileria velifera and T. parva. Coxiella sp. endosymbionts were detected in the Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma ticks. Co-infections with two and three different pathogens were identified in 6.9% (n = 95/1382) and 0.1% (n = 2/1382) of single tick samples, respectively, with the most common co-infection being R. africae and E. ruminantium (7.2%, CI: 4.6-10.6). All samples were negative for Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. Our study provides an overview of tick and tick-borne microbial diversities in coastal Kenya.
Catchment-scale plastic pollution assessments provide insights in its sources, sinks, and pathways. We present an approach to quantify macroplastic transport and density across the Odaw catchment, Ghana. We divided the catchment into the non-urban riverine, urban riverine, and urban tidal zones. Macroplastic transport and density on riverbanks and land were monitored at ten locations in December 2021. The urban riverine zone had the highest transport, and the urban tidal zone had the highest riverbank and land macroplastic density. Water sachets, soft fragments, and foam fragments were the most abundant items. Our approach aims to be transferable to other catchments globally.
Beta‐blocker usage is inconsistently associated with increased fall risk in the literature. However, due to age‐related changes and interindividual heterogeneity in pharmacokinetics and dynamics, it is difficult to predict which older adults are more at risk for falls. Therefore, we wanted to explore whether elevated plasma concentrations of selective and nonselective beta‐blockers are associated with an increased risk of falls in older beta‐blocker users. To answer our research question, we analyzed samples of selective (metoprolol, n = 316) and nonselective beta‐blockers (sotalol, timolol, propranolol, and carvedilol, n = 179) users from the B‐PROOF cohort. The associations between the beta‐blocker concentration and time to first fall were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Change of concentration over time in relation to fall risk was assessed with logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for potential confounders. Our results showed that above the median concentration of metoprolol was associated with an increased fall risk (HR 1.55 [1.11–2.16], p = .01). No association was found for nonselective beta‐blocker concentrations. Also, changes in concentration over time were not associated with increased fall risk. To conclude, metoprolol plasma concentrations were associated with an increased risk of falls in metoprolol users while no associations were found for nonselective beta‐blockers users. This might be caused by a decreased β1‐selectivity in high plasma concentrations. In the future, beta‐blocker concentrations could potentially help clinicians estimate fall risk in older beta‐blockers users and personalize treatment.
  • S Mentzel
    S Mentzel
  • R Nathan
    R Nathan
  • P Noyes
    P Noyes
  • [...]
  • J Stauber
    J Stauber
An understanding of the combined effects of climate change and other anthropogenic stressors, such as chemical exposures, is essential for improving ecological risk assessments of vulnerable ecosystems. In the Great Barrier Reef, coral reefs are under increasingly severe duress from increasing ocean temperatures, acidification and cyclone intensities associated with climate change. In addition to these stressors, inshore reef systems, such as the Mackay Whitsunday coastal zone are being impacted by other anthropogenic stressors, including chemical, nutrient and sediment exposures related to more intense rainfall events that increase catchment runoff of contaminated waters. To illustrate an approach for incorporating climate change into ecological risk assessment frameworks, we developed an adverse outcome pathway network to conceptually delineate effects of climate variables and PSII herbicide (diuron) exposures on scleractinian corals. This informed the development of a Bayesian network to quantitatively compare the effects of historical (1975‐2005) and future projected climate on inshore hard coral bleaching, mortality, and cover. This Bayesian network demonstrated how risk may be predicted for multiple physical and biological stressors including temperature, ocean acidification, cyclones, sediments, macroalgae competition, and crown of thorns starfish predation, as well as chemical stressors such as nitrogen and herbicides. Climate scenarios included an ensemble of 16 downscaled models encompassing current and future conditions based on multiple emission scenarios for two thirty‐year periods. It was found that both climate‐related and catchment‐related stressors pose a risk to these inshore reef systems, with projected increases in coral bleaching and coral mortality under all future climate scenarios. This modelling exercise can support the identification of risk drivers for the prioritisation of management interventions to build future resilient reefs.
  • Kathleen M Sturgeon
    Kathleen M Sturgeon
  • Dieuwertje E Kok
    Dieuwertje E Kok
  • Ian R Kleckner
    Ian R Kleckner
  • [...]
  • Kerri Winters-Stone
    Kerri Winters-Stone
Introduction The American College of Sports Medicine provided guidelines for exercise prescriptions in cancer survivors for specific cancer‐ and treatment‐related health outcomes. However, there was insufficient evidence to generate exercise prescriptions for 10 health outcomes of cancer treatment. We sought to update the state of evidence. Methods We conducted a systematic review of these 10 understudied health outcomes (bone health, sleep, cardiovascular function, chemotherapy‐induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), cognitive function, falls and balance, nausea, pain, sexual function, and treatment tolerance) and provided an update of evidence. Results While the evidence base for each outcome has increased, there remains insufficient evidence to generate exercise prescriptions. Common limitations observed across outcomes included: variability in type and quality of outcome measurement tools, variability in definitions of the health outcomes, a lack of phase III trials, and a majority of trials investigating breast or prostate cancer survivors only. Conclusion We identified progress in the field of exercise oncology for several understudied cancer‐ and treatment‐related health outcomes. However, we were not able to generate exercise prescriptions due to continued insufficient evidence base. More work is needed to prescribe exercise as medicine for these understudied health outcomes, and our review highlights several strategies to aid in research acceleration within these areas of exercise oncology.
  • Julian W. Bakker
    Julian W. Bakker
  • Hannah L. M. Begemann
    Hannah L. M. Begemann
  • Manoj Fonville
    Manoj Fonville
  • [...]
  • Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt
    Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt
Background Ixodes ricinus ticks are infected with a large diversity of vertically and horizontally transmitted symbionts. While horizontally transmitted symbionts rely on a vertebrate host for their transmission, vertically transmitted symbionts rely more on the survival of their invertebrate host for transmission. We therefore hypothesized horizontally transmitted symbionts to be associated with increased tick activity to increase host contact rate and vertically transmitted symbionts to be associated with higher tick weight and lipid fraction to promote tick survival. Methods We used a behavioural assay to record the questing activity of I. ricinus ticks. In addition, we measured weight and lipid fraction and determined the presence of ten symbiont species in these ticks using qPCR, of which six were vertically transmitted and four horizontally transmitted. Results Vertically transmitted symbionts (e.g. Midichloria mitochondrii) were associated with an increase in tick weight, whereas horizontally transmitted symbionts (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) were often associated with lower weight and lipid fraction of ticks. Moreover, horizontally transmitted symbionts (e.g. B. burgdorferi s.l.) were associated with increased tick activity, which may benefit pathogen transmission and increases tick-borne disease hazard. Conclusions Our study shows that horizontally and vertically transmitted symbionts differentially influence the behaviour and physiology of I. ricinus and warrants future research to study the underlying mechanisms and effects on transmission dynamics of tick-borne pathogens. Graphical abstract
  • Wahib Al-Qubatee
    Wahib Al-Qubatee
  • Henny A. J. Van Lanen
    Henny A. J. Van Lanen
  • Ghunaim Nasher
    Ghunaim Nasher
  • [...]
  • Petra Hellegers
    Petra Hellegers
This paper presents a simple water budget model that can be used to quantify present and to predict future groundwater depletion rates in areas where there is a lack of the comprehensive long-term data needed to develop sophisticated numerical groundwater models. This study applied the water budget model in Wadi Zabid, Yemen, a region where groundwater withdrawals have far exceeded replenishment rates for 50 years, resulting in falling groundwater levels. The findings indicate that the present groundwater use in the wadi is unsustainable, mainly due to the expansion of agricultural lands. The current average groundwater depletion rate was calculated as − 0.93 m/yr, which is in line with the observed average of − 1.11 m/yr (1972–2016). Scenario analysis shows that reducing the groundwater depletion rate by two-thirds of the current rate (from 0.93 to 0.32 m/yr) would require a one-third reduction in agricultural lands (from 435 to 305 km2) in the study region, combined with a one-third increase in surface water inflow from upstream (from 132 to 172 mm/yr, also necessitating a reduction of agriculture in the upstream region). Economic incentives to support alternative livelihoods with lower water requirements, alongside utilization of non-conventional water sources (e.g., exploring the feasibility of seawater desalination) could reduce groundwater depletion. The simple water budget approach proved to be a useful means for this type of analysis in data-scarce regions.
  • Gideon Lasco
    Gideon Lasco
This review article examines the meanings and materialities of human stature, from serving as a marker of human difference to shaping the socio‐spatial experiences of individuals. I introduce existing perspectives on height from various disciplines, including biomedical discourses on the factors (e.g. nutrition, genetics) that determine height, economic discourses on how the average heights of populations have changed over time, sociobiological and psychological discourses that assume a pre‐cultural, evolutionary “height premium”, and popular discourses on heightism and height discrimination. Drawing from a diverse range of scholarship since Saul Feldman called for a “sociology of stature” in the 1970s, I then present ways in which height and height differences have figured in various domains of human experience, from employment and education to sports and social relationships. Finally, I survey people's attempts to become taller or shorter, and the implicit values that inform such height‐making practices. What these figurations and practices show, I argue, is that height intersects with notions of race, class, gender, and beauty – but is irreducible to any of them, and is thus best viewed as a distinct, embodied form of distinction, difference, and inequality. I conclude by proposing a research agenda for future work.
  • Femke A. Hoefnagels
    Femke A. Hoefnagels
  • Olga N. Patijn
    Olga N. Patijn
  • Marieke J. G. Meeusen
    Marieke J. G. Meeusen
  • Marieke C. E. Battjes-Fries
    Marieke C. E. Battjes-Fries
Background Healthy and sustainable food environments are urgently needed, also in nursing and residential care homes. Malnutrition in care homes is becoming an increasing problem as populations worldwide are ageing and many older people do not consume sufficient protein, fibre, fruit, and vegetables. Nursing homes also often experience a lot of food waste. A transition in the food environment like a nursing home, involves the participation of facility management and food service staff members. This study aims to map out their perceived barriers and facilitators for this transition. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with food service staff members (n = 16), comprising of kitchen staff (n = 4), wait staff (n = 10), and facility management (n = 2) of two nursing homes in the Netherlands. Thematic analysis was used to derive content and meaning from transcribed interviews. Results Four main themes were identified. Theme 1: ‘Communication, transparency and accountability in the chain’, highlighting the lack of effective communication flows and a fragmented overview of the food service chain as a whole. Theme 2: ‘Understanding, knowledge and ability of the concepts healthy and sustainable’, revealing the gap in staff’s understanding of these abstract concepts, despite perceiving themselves as having sufficient knowledge and ability. Theme 3: ‘The pampering service mind-set’, highlighting the contradiction in the staff’s shared goal of proving the highest quality of life for residents while also pampering them in ways that may not align with promoting healthy and sustainable food choices. Theme 4: ‘Transition is important but hard to realize’, describing the barriers such as existing routines and a lack of resources as challenges to implementing changes in the food service. Conclusions Facilitators to transitioning nursing homes towards a healthy and sustainable food environment as perceived by staff members included transparent communication, accountability in the food supply chain, staff’s perceived ability and shared goal, while barriers included lack of understanding of the concepts healthy and sustainable, the current pampering mindset, and top-down decision-making. These findings provide valuable insights for nursing homes seeking to transition towards a healthier and more sustainable food environment.
  • L. van Dam
    L. van Dam
  • R. Terink
    R. Terink
  • M. Mensink
    M. Mensink
  • [...]
  • J. Zwerver
    J. Zwerver
Background Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common problem in jumping athletes. Management can be challenging and treatment outcome is not always successful. In combination with tendon loading exercises, hydrolyzed collagen/vitamin C supplementation appears to have a promising effect on the recovery of tendinopathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the use of oral supplementation of hydrolyzed collagen and vitamin C in combination with progressive tendon loading exercises (PTLE) is superior to PTLE and placebo on VISA-P score (which rates pain, function, sports participation) after 24 weeks for athletes with PT. Methods The JUMPFOOD study is a double-blinded, two-armed randomized controlled trial, in which the effectiveness of oral supplementation of hydrolyzed collagen/vitamin C combined with PTLE compared to PTLE with placebo on pain and recovery of function in athletes with PT will be investigated. Seventy-six athletes aged 16–40 years, with symptoms of PT for at least 12 weeks, who play sports at least once a week will be included. All participants will receive education, advice with regard to load management and a PTLE program according to the Dutch guidelines for anterior knee pain. In addition, the intervention group will receive daily 10 g hydrolyzed collagen and 40 mg vitamin C supplementation for 24 weeks whereas the control group receives 10 g maltodextrin placebo supplementation. Measurements will take place at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks’ follow-up. Primary outcome is the VISA-P score, which evaluates pain, function, and sports participation. For secondary outcome measures, data with regard to pain during functional tests, flexibility measurements, blood withdrawals, imaging characteristics of the tendon, and health questionnaires will be collected. During the follow-up period, participants will register sports participation, amount of training and tendon load, pain during sports, co-medication, and side-effects in a digital weekly diary. Discussion The JUMPFOOD study is the first large RCT to study the effectiveness of hydrolyzed collagen/vitamin C supplementation in combination with the PTLE program in athletes with patellar tendinopathy. If supplementation of collagen/vitamin C appears to be effective, this treatment can be implemented in daily sports medicine practice to improve the treatment outcome of patients with PT. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05407194. Registered on 7 June 2022.
  • A. Mireille Baart
    A. Mireille Baart
  • Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma
    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma
  • Hanne B. T. de Jong
    Hanne B. T. de Jong
  • [...]
  • Edith J. M. Feskens
    Edith J. M. Feskens
Background Dietary indices are useful measures to investigate associations between dietary intake and disease development. The Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD2015-index), a measure of diet quality, assesses adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines. We assessed the DHD2015-index in the Lifelines cohort study, and compared calculations from basic and detailed dietary intake data. This article replaces the retracted article that was published on 16 May 2022 [1]. Methods Dietary intake was assessed with a specially developed Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) called Flower-FFQ, which consists of one main questionnaire (heart-FFQ), which asks for intakes of major food groups, and three complementary questionnaires (petal-FFQs), which ask for detailed information on food types within major food groups of the heart-FFQ. The DHD2015-index was assessed using data from the total Flower-FFQ (for 56,982 participants), and using data from the heart-FFQ only (for 129,030 participants). Agreement between the two indices was assessed with correlation and cross-classification. Results The median (25th–75th percentile) DHD2015-index score was 75 (65–85) for men and 81 (70–91) for women based on the Flower-FFQ, and 68 (58–77) for men and 73 (63–82) for women based on the heart-FFQ. The Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient between the two scores was 0.67 for men and 0.66 for women. Cross-classification into quartiles of the DHD2015-index showed that 59–60% of participants were classified in the same quartile, 36–37% in the adjacent, and 4% in the non-adjacent. Conclusion Dietary data from the Flower-FFQ provide the most optimal information to assess the DHD2015-index. However, the DHD2015-index from the heart-FFQ showed good agreement with the index from the Flower-FFQ of ranking participants according to diet quality, and can be used when the DHD2015 index from the Flower-FFQ is not available.
  • Franshelis K. Garcia
    Franshelis K. Garcia
  • Bob C. Mulder
    Bob C. Mulder
  • Eric J. Hazebroek
    Eric J. Hazebroek
  • [...]
  • Kirsten T. Verkooijen
    Kirsten T. Verkooijen
Aims To explore the experiences and consequences of bariatric surgery stigma from the perspective of bariatric surgery patients and to identify knowledge gaps in the literature. Design A scoping review. Data Sources Studies published between December 2002 and January 2022 were identified from the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and MEDLINE. Review Methods We screened 3092 records and included 28 studies. Findings were grouped thematically using the health stigma discrimination framework. Results Patients experienced several types of stigmas, including perceived, experienced, anticipated and internalized stigma, related to undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients were confronted with negative comments and judgement from others when they disclosed their decision to have surgery or when they revealed that they had undergone surgery. These experiences led to conflicts in the decision‐making process, such as delaying the choice for surgery, seeking surgery abroad or opting out. Patients who internalized stigma often reported feelings of shame and embarrassment for choosing surgery and felt the need for secrecy or selective disclosure. Stigma experiences were influenced by gender and differed between different subgroups of patients. Conclusion The stigma surrounding bariatric surgery has detrimental consequences for eligible individuals and bariatric surgery patients. However, the evidence from patients' perspective remains limited. More research into patient's experiences is needed to improve patient care and further educate healthcare professionals. In addition, to better understand the nature and implications of bariatric surgery stigma, future research should be founded on stigma theories and distinguish between the different types of stigmas. Impact This scoping review contributes to a better understanding of the implications the stigma surrounding bariatric surgery has for bariatric surgery patients before and after surgery. The knowledge generated by this review can inform improvements in the education and management of people living with obesity and bariatric surgery patients. Reporting Method The scoping review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. Patient or Public Contribution No Patient or Public Contribution. Protocol Registration A protocol was not registered for this scoping review.
  • Abraham L van Eijnatten
    Abraham L van Eijnatten
  • Mark G Sterken
    Mark G Sterken
  • Jan E Kammenga
    Jan E Kammenga
  • [...]
  • Basten L Snoek
    Basten L Snoek
Regulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in developmental processes and adaptation to changing environments. eQTL mapping is a technique used to study the genetic regulation of gene expression using the transcriptomes of recombinant inbred lines. Typically, the age of the inbred lines at the time of RNA sampling is carefully controlled. This is necessary because the developmental process causes changes in gene expression, complicating the interpretation of eQTL mapping experiments. However, due to genetics and variation in ambient micro-environments, organisms can differ in their “developmental age”, even if they are of the same chronological age. As a result, eQTL patterns are affected by developmental variation in gene expression. The model organism C. elegans is particularly suited for studying the effect of developmental variation on eQTL mapping patterns. In a span of days, C. elegans transitions from embryo through four larval stages to adult while undergoing massive changes to its transcriptome. Here we use C. elegans to investigate the effect of developmental age variation on eQTL patterns and present a normalization procedure. We used dynamical eQTL mapping, which includes the developmental age as a co-factor, to separate the variation in development from genotypic variation and explain variation in gene expression levels. We compare classical single marker eQTL mapping and dynamical eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data of ∼200 multi-parental recombinant inbred lines of C. elegans. The results show i) that many eQTLs are caused by developmental variation, ii) most trans-bands are developmental QTLs and iii) dynamical eQTL mapping detects additional eQTLs not found with classical eQTL mapping. We recommend that correction for variation in developmental age should be strongly considered in eQTL mapping studies given the large impact of processes like development on the transcriptome.
This study examined the extent to which adolescent peer victimization predicted acute inflammatory responses to stress, and whether both resting parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity and PNS stress reactivity moderated this association. 83 adolescents (Mage = 14.89, SDage = 0.52, 48% female) reported their history of peer victimization and were exposed to a standardized social stress task before and after which dried blood spot samples were collected to assay inflammatory markers. Inflammatory responses to the stress task were assessed with a latent inflammatory change factor using the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). PNS functioning, indexed by high-frequency heart rate variability, was measured at rest and during the stressor. Contrary to hypotheses, analyses revealed no direct relation between peer victimization and acute inflammatory responses, and resting PNS activity did not moderate this association. However, peer victimization predicted stronger inflammatory responses among adolescents with weaker PNS reactivity to the stress task (b = 0.63, p = .02). This association was not observed among adolescents with stronger PNS reactivity, for whom a negative but non-significant trend was found. Weaker PNS reactivity may thus indicate victimized adolescents’ vulnerability for acute inflammatory responses, whereas stronger PNS reactivity may indicate adolescents’ resilience to a social stressor.
  • Xiaoxue Weng
    Xiaoxue Weng
  • George C. Schoneveld
    George C. Schoneveld
  • Benno Pokorny
    Benno Pokorny
  • [...]
  • Selma van der Haar
    Selma van der Haar
Inclusive businesses (IBs) resonate with policymakers seeking to leverage private capital in support of poverty alleviation and sustainable development. In the agri‐food sector, which represents the largest segment of the base‐of‐the‐pyramid (BOP) market and a key source of livelihood for the rural poor, there is limited evidence on their diversity and social value creation mechanisms. This prevents practitioners from identifying impactful IB types and design features. A statistical analysis of 46 cases in Tanzania and Ghana identified four IB types: (1) self‐reliant agribusinesses, (2) domestic plantation companies, (3) social enterprises, and (4) locally‐embedded Small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). Our findings suggest that socially‐driven and localized IBs hold high impact potential but require significant external support, while more self‐sufficient IBs adopt less socially innovative designs. This study demonstrates the utility of a data‐driven approach to capture the complexity of real‐world IBs, which yielded practical insights for more effective poverty alleviation through business means.
  • Sam W. van Es
    Sam W. van Es
  • Aitor Muñoz‐Gasca
    Aitor Muñoz‐Gasca
  • Francisco J. Romero‐Campero
    Francisco J. Romero‐Campero
  • [...]
  • Pilar Cubas
    Pilar Cubas
The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor BRANCHED1 (BRC1) plays a pivotal role in the control of shoot branching as it integrates environmental and endogenous signals that influence axillary bud growth. Despite its remarkable activity as a growth inhibitor, the mechanisms by which BRC1 promotes bud dormancy are largely unknown. We determined the genome‐wide BRC1 binding sites in vivo and combined these with transcriptomic data and gene co‐expression analyses to identify bona fide BRC1 direct targets. Next, we integrated multi‐omics data to infer the BRC1 gene regulatory network (GRN) and used graph theory techniques to find network motifs that control the GRN dynamics. We generated an open online tool to interrogate this network. A group of BRC1 target genes encoding transcription factors (BTFs) orchestrate this intricate transcriptional network enriched in abscisic acid‐related components. Promoter::β‐GLUCURONIDASE transgenic lines confirmed that BTFs are expressed in axillary buds. Transient co‐expression assays and studies in planta using mutant lines validated the role of BTFs in modulating the GRN and promoting bud dormancy. This knowledge provides access to the developmental mechanisms that regulate shoot branching and helps identify candidate genes to use as tools to adapt plant architecture and crop production to ever‐changing environmental conditions.
  • George Philippidis
    George Philippidis
  • Robert M'barek
    Robert M'barek
  • Willem‐Jan van Zeist
    Willem‐Jan van Zeist
The European Commission's Green Deal sets out a bold vision to meet the challenges of biodiversity protection and net‐zero emissions, whilst forging a pathway for a circular model of competitive growth and job creation. To achieve these multiple challenges, the bioeconomy has a key role to play, particularly in the deployment of biomass in higher value‐added industrial applications. To support evidence‐based policy modelling, the EU H2020 funded project BioMonitor represents a first step toward both improving data transparency, particularly in bio‐industrial activities, and the creation of a single toolbox for the purpose of performing integrated modelling assessments of the bioeconomy. Comparing with a baseline, this study presents results from a series of medium to long‐term bio‐based industry focused transition narratives. In particular, the focus is on the EU bio‐based chemicals sector employing results from an economy‐wide simulation model from the toolbox, called MAGNET. Publicly backed fiscal support policies, costing between 0.22–0.25% of EU GDP by 2050, generate notable improvements in EU bio‐based chemical sector production and employment generation, as well as synergetic production increases in advanced generation biofuels. There is evidence of decarbonisation in the EU bio‐based chemicals sector, although more tangible improvements are achieved with the implementation of accompanying climate‐ and sustainable bio‐energy policies.
  • Shanshan Yang
    Shanshan Yang
  • Xin Huang
    Xin Huang
  • Shuxian Li
    Shuxian Li
  • [...]
  • Guangliang Liu
    Guangliang Liu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a pig coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in piglets, threatening the global pig industry. Clinically effective medicines against this virus are still not available. To find an optional natural feed compound, viral titers were detected, and the intestinal contents of specific pathogen-free pigs more effectively blocked PEDV invasion than those of the other two breeds investigated. Based on proteomic and metabolic analyses of the intestinal content, 10 metabolites were selected for further investigation, and linoleic acid (LA) was the most promising according to the selectivity index. By detecting viral gene expression, LA inhibited viral replication and release from Vero-E6 cells, mainly by influencing the PI3K pathway and, in particular, inhibiting AKT phosphorylation. In addition, LA bound to viral NSP5 and attenuated NSP5-activated AKT phosphorylation. In the in vivo pig experiment, oral administration of the higher dose of LA protected two-thirds of pigs from death, both of which completely recovered from the infection, while the lower dose of LA protected one-third of pigs from death but with the induction of severe diarrhea. In conclusion, LA can be used as a candidate medicine for the clinical prevention and treatment of PEDV, and its mechanism of inhibiting the PI3K signaling pathway provides some data support for the subsequent exploration of antiviral drugs for coronavirus infections. IMPORTANCE Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a pig coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in piglets, but as no effective drugs are available, this virus threatens the pig industry. Here, we found that the intestinal contents of specific pathogen-free pigs effectively blocked PEDV invasion. Through proteomic and metabolic analyses of the intestinal contents, we screened 10 metabolites to investigate their function and found that linoleic acid (LA) significantly inhibited PEDV replication. Further investigations revealed that LA inhibited viral replication and release mainly by binding with PEDV NSP5 to regulate the PI3K pathway and, in particular, inhibiting AKT phosphorylation. In vivo experiments illustrated that orally administered LA protected pigs from PEDV challenge and severe diarrhea. These findings provide strong support for exploring antiviral drugs for coronavirus treatment.
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14,823 members
Bart Vermeulen
  • Department of Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management
Kasper Kok
  • Department of Environmental Systems Analysis
Willem B. Van Muiswinkel
  • Department of Cell Biology and Immunology
Nikos Kalogeras
  • Commoditidy Risk Management Expertise Center (CORMEC), Dept. of Marketing & Consumer Behaviour
Wageningen, Netherlands