Wabash College
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Recent publications
The first Kennedy-Nixon debate did not occur in the Fall of 1960, but rather in the Spring of 1947 when the Junto, a community group in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, hosted a forum on the Hartley bill, controversial legislation pending in Congress that substantively curtailed the power of labor unions. The freshman legislators selected to headline the event, Representatives John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts and Richard M. Nixon of California, would later become the 35th and the 37th presidents of the United States. The newspaper account of the McKeesport Junto, published the next day in the McKeesport Daily News, employed a content frame that focused on the substance of the debate. Later accounts of the Junto, published after the advent of television, shifted to a mediated frame that emphasized physical appearance and argumentative style. By highlighting the difference between the two analytical frames, this analysis explores the impact television had on the format for political debates, the history of the McKeesport Junto, and the famous presidential debates of 1960.
What colors do you use in class when teaching electromagnetism? For many physics educators we simply use what we learned or what is used in the textbook. Browsing through a large collection of introductory physics textbooks reveals that the vast majority use red for the electric field, blue for the magnetic field, and some shade of green for the electric potential. These color choices, although common, may be confusing to students with color vision deficiency. Color vision deficiency (CVD), often incorrectly referred to as color blindness, affects roughly 6% of physics majors (calculated from Refs. 2–4). For people with red/green CVD, the fall colors (red, orange, yellow, green) collapse into shades of yellow. In addition to yellows, those with red/green CVD can perceive blues (and blacks and whites), hence they are not color “blind.” Using an alternative color palette when teaching electromagnetism is a quick and easy way to facilitate the learning of students with CVD.
Throughout this article, we focus on the lives and experiences of residents in the Sun Valley public housing project in Denver. During the stay-at-home orders, the Sun Valley residents – an economically impoverished yet diverse community that includes refugees, Black and LatinX families, single-parent households, and individuals who are permanently disabled – faced extremely precarious conditions. COVID exposed and exacerbated the already failed infrastructures in Sun Valley, but within this failure, radical openings emerged, new connections surfaced and alternative practices developed among the residents leading to vernacular infrastructures of care. To understand and highlight these vernacular infrastructures, we utilized a combination of photography and interviews to understand 17 residents’ and key community support actors’ experiences during the initial stay-at-home orders from March to June 2020. From this data, we argue that, through community practices and relationships, Sun Valley residents’ and community support networks addressed the crisis and uncertainty by developing vernacular infrastructures of care.
Biochemistry is a data‐heavy discipline, yet teaching students to work with large datasets is absent from many undergraduate Biochemistry programs. Ensuring that future generations of students arevbv confident in tackling problems using big data first requires that educators become comfortable teaching big data skills. The activity described herein introduces educators to working with big data and a framework for generating sequence similarity networks using JupyterLab and Python. This article reports a session from the virtual international 2021 IUBMB/ASBMB workshop, “Teaching Science with Big Data.”
Scholars and the public alike have questioned the benefits of obtaining an undergraduate education. Although research has extensively examined short-term outcomes associated with college experiences, relatively few studies have investigated non-economic outcomes beyond graduation. This paper explored the link between college experiences and post-college outcomes among 21,716 bachelor’s degree recipients from 68 private institutions. Although some variation across demographics was observed, good teaching, academic challenge, and diversity experiences were consistently—and often strongly—related to alumni’s perceptions of intellectual and civic growth.
Anti-exceptionalism about logic is the thesis that logic is not special. In this paper, I consider, and reject, a challenge to this thesis. According to this challenge, there are basic logical principles, and part of what makes such principles basic is that they are epistemically exceptional. Thus, according to this challenge, the existence of basic logical principles provides reason to reject anti-exceptionalism about logic. I argue that this challenge fails, and that the exceptionalist positions motivated by it are thus unfounded. I make this case by disambiguating two senses of `basic' and showing that, once this disambiguation is taken into account, the best reason we have for thinking that there are basic principles actually implies that those principles do not require a special epistemology. Consequently, the existence of basic logical principles provides reason to accept, rather than reject, anti-exceptionalism concerning the epistemology of logic. I conclude by explaining how an abductivist, anti-exceptionalist approach to the epistemology of logic can accommodate the notion of basic logical principles.
This study used a newly developed coding system for measuring the quality of parenting behavior to examine associations with children’s social-emotional development. The Risky Interaction Support and Challenge Scale (RISCS) measures the extent to which parents engage in behaviors that present physical and regulatory challenges to children, as well as parents’ tendency to allow children to pursue action goals autonomously. These behaviors were observed while parents (n = 57 fathers; n = 55 mothers; n = 50 pairs) interacted with their 1-year-olds who played on a structure that included a slide, a small climbing wall, and a tunnel. Trained raters reliably used the RISCS to measure several dimensions of parent behaviors related to children’s exploration, and all but one of the dimensions captured adequate variability in parent behavior. Although mothers and fathers did not differ in any of the dimensions, the associations between parent behavior and children’s social-emotional development did not overlap. Fathers who engaged in greater autonomy allowance and lower overprotection had toddlers with lower levels of internalizing behavior, whereas mothers who challenged children’s regulatory competence had toddlers with lower levels of externalizing behavior and greater competence. We discuss the implications of the findings for the literature on attachment theory and father-child relationships.
Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode worm, is a model multicellular organism for the study of development and disease. Current methods of controlling essential and pleiotropic gene product levels in C. elegans suffer from limitations, including incomplete penetrance, false negatives, and the inability to differentially control multiple genes with the same system simultaneously. Genetic control methods such as loss-of-function alleles and CRISPR-Cas9 targeted genes have proved successful at deducing the relationship between gene function and phenotype; but they lack the ability to investigate genes essential for viability, fertility, and pleiotropic genes that have dissimilar roles in different tissues during the nematode's lifespan. RNAi is an effective method for studying gene function in C. elegans, it is easy to deliver, can target virtually any sequence, and can be administered at any time during development. However, RNAi suffers from several limitations including: a significant portion of genes cannot be adequately silenced, RNAi cannot enter equally into all tissues, there is a risk of off-target effects, and the observation that RNAi phenotypes may be delayed if existing proteins persist for long periods of time. Protein degradation methods can overcome many limitations of the genetic methods by genetic fusion of the gene of interest to an inducible protein degradation domain. Some protein control methods lack the ability to target control of protein degradation to specific tissues, while all current methods are limited by the use of a single input signal to control degradation. The overarching goal of this study is to develop a system for complex control of protein function in nematodes using the Latching Orthogonal Cage/Key pRoteins (LOCKR) system, a de novo-designed protein Switch comprised of a Cage and a Latch that is capable of caging any linear protein sequence. To conditionally control protein levels in nematodes, we will fuse target genes to LOCKR with a cODC degron sequence encoded in the Latch. The interaction of the Cage with the Latch blocks the accessibility of the degron. Introducing a peptide Key releases the Latch, resulting in exposure of the degron sequence and degradation of fused proteins. Here we describe the development of a bacterially-expressed LOCKR system suitable for in vitro degron optimization. The mEGFP-degronLOCKR fusion expresses in bacteria and can be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We hypothesize that when Switch is activated by the Key and the degron is exposed, the mEGFP-degronLOCKR construct will be degraded in C. elegans lysate. We further predict that various mutations in the degron will affect the rate of target protein degradation. This study will allow more detailed and complex studies of development and disease in C. elegans and may be applicable to other multicellular organisms.
The 'Latching Orthogonal Cage/Key pRoteins' (LOCKR) system is a de novo designed protein Switch and Key. The Switch functions to cage a functional protein sequence, such as a degron, in the off or "locked" state. Upon Key addition, the Switch is turned on or "unlocked," which exposes the degron, simultaneously degrading the Switch and any proteins fused to the Switch via the proteasome. Key expression can be tailored for tissue-specific expression, which gives LOCKR exquisite spatial protein control. LOCKR provides novel post-translational control over a protein of interest but has not yet been applied to a multicellular organism. We are developing the LOCKR technology for conditional protein depletion in the model organism C. elegans. Although genetic RNAi and similar gene editing techniques benefit from ease of delivery and can target essentially any gene, they have various limitations, including 1) slow protein turnover can prohibit use of RNAi; 2) genetic perturbation of essential genes via genetic deletion prevents characterization of later functions. The degronLOCKR system requires two parts: 1) a gene fused to the 'degronSwitch' and 2) an inducer peptide (the Key). The Switch can be fused to any gene of interest using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. We fused degronSwitch to dhc-1 (dynein heavy chain), an essential cytoplasmic motor protein along with mScarlet and a 3xFLAG tag to aid in protein quantitation via microscopic and Western analysis. We also cloned a negative control, which lacks degronSwitch, to analyze the effect of inserting the Switch in vivo. To complement the degronSwitch, we designed six tissue-specific Keys for Mos-Single Copy Insertion (MosSCI), which allows for spatial control of degronSwitch protein degradation. We predict that ubiquitous expression of Key with the degronSwitch fused to dhc-1 will result in embryonic lethality, whereas germline-specific Key will permit viability but result in meiotic defects. These phenotypes are easily identifiable and serve as effective proof of concept. Future work includes expanding the LOCKR system to incorporate temporal control of the degronSwitch fusion protein by toggling the Key on and off using heat-shock promoters and RNAi against the Key. This work establishes a novel and tissue-specific method for regulating protein function in an animal model.
BioMolViz is a community of educators, assessment experts, and biomolecular visualization enthusiasts dedicated to improving biomolecular visual literacy. A central goal of the project is to create a repository of validated assessments that instructors can use in their classrooms to gauge students' visual literacy. Through three-day workshops, we convene faculty to craft and peer review biomolecular visualization assessments in teams. These workshops are often the first step in our assessment development process. In this presentation, we will describe a five-step model for designing and validating assessments that consists of: 1. Item creation 2. Item revision 3. Expert panel review 4. Field testing and 5. Dissemination through the online BioMolViz repository. Results from the first three phases of the process will be reported, and our plan for field testing and disseminating assessments will be discussed. In 2020, our workshops and assessment development model moved online, which opened up new pathways for sustained engagement with workshop participants. In particular, we will share how a new working group emerged when we established our remote workflow. A subset of the group, The BioMolViz Fellows, continued working with our community for several semesters and has become integral to the iterative assessment revision process. Alongside our validation process, we will highlight insights for building online communities, establishing remote workflows, and sustaining long-term participant engagement.
Neurons in the cortex typically respond best to elongated stimuli, or gratings, whereas neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) typically prefer circular stimuli, or spots. Further, neural mechanisms specifically tuned for non-cardinal colors largely do not emerge until the cortex; therefore, the use of gratings should better reveal non-cardinal color mechanisms. This hypothesis has been tested in the isoluminant color plane in macaque monkeys (Stoughton, Lafer-Sousa, Gagin, & Conway, 2012) and in the L-M versus L+M color plane in human subjects (Gegenfurtner & Kiper, 1992). Here, this hypothesis was tested in the third color plane, S versus L+M, in human subjects in two experiments. Experiment 1 tested 10 subjects across four directions in this color plane; Experiment 2 tested three subjects in eight to twelve color directions. Consistent with data from the other two color planes, in both experiments in the S versus L+M color plane, gratings revealed the presence of non-cardinal mechanisms more strongly than did spots.
Dioctophyme renale has a worldwide distribution and has been diagnosed in several wild and domestic animals as well as in humans. As numerous reports in the literature exist concerning the presence of D. renale in different animal species, as well as its diagnosis, treatment, and confirmation in new geographic areas, we reviewed existing information to contribute to the knowledge of the etiology, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of D. renale. Results of dioctophymosis may range from asymptomatic infection to even death of the host. Diagnosis is based on data from morphology, imaging, and antibody testing, with surgical treatment being the most effective. A high potential for infection of pets exists when there is overlap with wild parasitized animals; given common risk factors for infections in humans, D. renale should be considered as having zoonotic potential.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) processes cardinal colors but not non-cardinal, while non-cardinal color perception occurs in the visual cortex. As LGN receptive fields are circular, spot stimuli are processed better in the LGN, whereas grating stimuli are processed exclusively in the cortex, where receptive fields are elongated. We thus tested whether gratings better reveal non-cardinal mechanisms. Stoughton et al. (2012) tested this question in the isoluminance plane in macaques, and Gegenfurtner & Kiper (1992) in the red-green/luminance plane in humans. We tested all three color planes, all in humans. The current experiment is an extension of Rodriguez, Dunigan, Powell & Gunther (OSA FVM 2018), testing a larger number of directions in color space. In each color plane, three participants performed noise masking with stimuli in 8 or 12 directions in color space, presented in four masks (two cardinal, two 45 deg non-cardinal). Our data support the hypothesis that gratings better reveal non-cardinal mechanisms than spots do. The data are particularly strong in the tritan/luminance plane, the color plane where this has not yet been tested.
This paper examines the symmetric and asymmetric effects of oil price changes on stock prices using the linear and non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and error-correction modeling. For the country-level analysis, monthly data from Brazil, Canada, Chile, Japan, S. Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, the U.K., and the U.S. have been considered. The results show that oil price changes have asymmetric effects on stock prices mostly in the short run. To dig deeper into the asymmetric relationship between oil and stock prices, I disaggregate data at the sectoral level by focusing on eleven U.S. sectoral stock indices to investigate the performance of different sectors. This helps solve the problem of aggregation bias that is associated with country-level data. The findings show that changes in oil price have significant asymmetric effects in nine out of the eleven sectors in the short run. In most of these sectors, the short run asymmetric relationship translates into the long run.
Despite its fame among critics and historians of Portuguese literature, the revised second version of Diogo do Couto’s O Soldado Prático has presented significant challenges to scholars seeking to establish a definitive edition of the dialogue. While the most recent edition, that of García Martín (2009), is a welcome improvement over earlier editions by Brasil (1988), Lapa (1937), and Amaral (1790), there remain a handful of passages in which the text can be further improved by a closer study of the Spanish books that Couto used as sources for the dialogue’s many classical anecdotes. This article proposes a number of corrections and emendations to García Martín’s edition by comparing the readings of the most reliable manuscript, BNP 463, with four 16th-century books that Couto consulted as sources of ancient sayings for his own dialogue.
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