Virudhunagar Hindu Nadars' Senthikumara Nadar College
Recent publications
In rain-fed crop, after the first monsoon rain, the farmers plow their lands and sow seeds. Because of the lack of moisture in the soil, sown seeds fail to germinate and are eventually destroyed. As a result, the farmers suffer economic losses. To address this issue, seed encapsulation with seaweed powder was performed. Micro (Spirulina plantensis and Chlorella vulgaris) and macroalgae (Sargassum, Halimeda macrolaba, and Gracilaria) were collected from the southeast coast of India. The seaweeds were dried, powdered, and weighed about 1 g of each and were filled in a gelatin capsule. Soil profile (pH, EC, water percolation rate, moisture content, water holding capacity, capillary action, N, P, K, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) was characterized before cropping. Abelmoschus esculentus, Raphanus sativus, Helianthus annuus, and Capsicum annum cultivation were done. The plant growth and yield were analyzed. The texture was clay loamy soil with micro and macronutrients present in it. In Abelmoschus esculentus, the number of leaves, plant height, and branches were increased as compared to control. Sargassum treatment shows highest yield (285.6 g) of A. esculentus. The nutritional quality was enriched in Sargassum treatment followed by C. vulgaris and S. platensis. In Raphanussativus L. cultivation, the estimated yield is as follows: in Sargassum (5.95 kg), C. vulgaris (5.10 kg), S. platensis (3.95 kg), and control (3.15 kg). The yield of Helianthus annuus L. cultivation showed increased in Sargassum treatment of about 200.5-g total seed weight. The yield was higher in Sargassum treatment as compared to C. vulgaris and Gracilaria in Capsicum annum cultivation. Sown seeds in novel seed encapsulation remain undamaged in soil until favorable rainfall occurs. Another benefit is that a marine source biofertilizer enriched with macro/micronutrients and hormones was encapsulated around the seeds, promoting plant growth and yield. The application of fertilizer to a large area is both costly and time consuming. In contrast, applying to specific roots around the plant is both effective and cost effective in terms of plant growth. This novel seed encapsulation with marine source biofertilizer has two advantages: (i) it protects the seed from damage and (ii) it supplements plant nutrition. As a result, farmers lose less and profit more by using less biofertilizer. Graphical abstract (a) Powder of micro and macroalgae. (b) Seeds. (c) Encapsulation of seed with micro and macroalgae powder. (d) Encapsulated with macroalgae. (e) Encapsulated with microalgae. (f) Encapsulated with micro and macroalgae. (g) Dissolving of gelatin in soil. (h) Experimental field. (i) Capsule placing inside the soil. (j) Capsule in soil. (k) Seed germination. (l) Plant growth. (m) Ladies finger yield. (n) Sunflower yield. (o) Radish yield
Single metal atom oxide catalysts (SMAOs) have impressive catalytic efficiency because they maximize the use of atoms, and their unique electronic structures in the reactions. We developed a single tungsten/cobalt atom oxide anchored on the TiO2-rGO catalyst (TPWCoR) from TiO2 P25-rGO and heteropoly acid with tungsten and cobalt. Electron microscope characterization showed that a significant amount of single tungsten/cobalt atom oxide (ST/CAO) was uniformly deposited on TiO2 P25 nanoparticle. The transition metal atoms are equally spread throughout on TiO2 P25-rGO material, according to aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The hydrogen evolution reactions and oxygen evolution reactions (HER/OER) are crucial for electrochemical water splitting, and the TPWCoR nanocatalyst is extremely active and stable for these processes. The TPWCoR possessing a higher number of active sites, offers current densities of 10 mA cm⁻² at 144 mV for HER and 10 mA cm⁻² at 366 mV for OER in alkaline medium with a Tafel slope of 114.2 mV dec⁻¹ (HER) and 62.6 mV dec⁻¹ (OER), respectively. Superior cycling ability was also obtained throughout the alkaline HER and OER processes, showing its potential for use in real-world scenarios in the future. The simple synthetic strategy for producing efficient single tungsten/cobalt atom oxide (ST/CAO) based HER and OER electrocatalysts for electrochemical water splitting presents a cost-effective approach. Additionally, the prepared TPWCoR nanocatalyst achieves around 96.87 % ciprofloxacin (CF) photodegradation after 60 min of UV irradiation. Analytical definitions of the best catalyst photodegradation processes may be made as variables of catalysts, dosage, and pH of the reaction media. All of these discoveries reveal novel understanding of how to construct low cost, reusable electro-photocatalysts with high water splitting and photodegradation efficiency.
Successful engineering of heterojunction photocatalysts remains one of the most promising routes towards fabricating materials with improved photocatalytic properties. Herein, novel Nb2O5RGO/MoO3 ternary nanocomposites with varying MoO3 loadings (5, 10 and 15 wt%) were carefully prepared via a two-step method involving hydrothermal synthesis and ultrasonication assisted assembly. The fabricated photocatalysts were studied using FESEM, HRTEM, XRD, UV-Vis DRS, PL, EIS and XPS to reveal their morphology, phase composition, optical response, electrochemical behaviour and chemical composition and states. As anticipated, the ternary nanostructures showed improved photocatalytic activity towards ciprofloxacin (CIP) and sulfasalazine (SSZ) compared to the single or binary nanocomposites. Specifically, the highest activity was attained at 10 wt%MoO3 (Nb2O5-RGO/10 wt%MoO3), which reached 85.4% and 88.2% for CIP and SSZ removal in just 60 min, respectively. This corresponds to CIP and SSZ degradation rates that were 3.6 and 2.3 times, and 4.2 and 3.4 times higher than those over Nb2O5 and Nb2O5-RGO, respectively. The incorporated RGO functioned as a charge transfer bridge between Nb2O5 and MoO3, thereby ensuring efficient migration and separation of the charge carriers, which was confirmed by EIS, and PL. Radical scavenging tests revealed that the •OH radicals were the predominant active species, and this was further confirmed using the terephthalic acid test. Finally, a plausible charge transfer pathway was proposed, and the possible SSZ degradation route was detailed based on HPLC-MS studies. This work provides a rational design of a novel material with promising environmental applications towards pharmaceutical pollution mitigation.
The excellent biocompatible and osteogenesis ability of multifunctional three-dimensional (3D) polymeric scaffolds have a vital role in bone regeneration application. Our prime focus of the investigation is the synthesis of snail shell-derived hydroxyapatite coated poly[bis(carboxyphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCPP)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) 3D scaffold. Snail shells are utilized for hydroxyapatite (HAP) synthesis via a modified chemical precipitation method. The interconnected PCPP/PCL polymeric scaffold was fabricated by the conventional solvent-casting/particulate-leaching method. Bioceramic HAP was further coated on the scaffold by the dip-coating technique. The obtained natural HAP from Turritella duplicata has minerals and organic substituents which are essential for biomedical application. HAP reinforcement significantly increases the mechanical property, compressive strength, and porosity of the scaffolds. The SEM image depicted the homogenous dispersion of HAP over the scaffold surface. Mechanical studies of the 3D polymeric scaffold at the 2 % TSS-HAP content demonstrated a significant increase in compressive strength with desired porous structure. It showed increasing compressive strength from 1.52 MPa to 2.18 MPa and porosity of 82.26 % to 76.18 %. Snail shell HAP grafted polymeric scaffold shows mineralization with the formation of bone-like apatite. The HAP grafted bioceramic/polymeric scaffold surface helps in the attachment and proliferation of MG-63 cells. It also explored the biocompatible property and antibacterial against gram-positive/gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the fabricated 3D implant has improved mechanical strength, optimum pore size, and interconnected structure, which helps in mineralization and cancellous bone tissue engineering applications.
The present investigation is designed for the characterization and application of phytase from Aspergillus tubingensis by solid state and submerged fermentation techniques practice. Different parameters such as carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, mineral concentration, temperature, inoculum size, and inducer concentration were employed for the optimization of phytase and the maximum production was recorded in optimum condition. Afterwards, it was carried out for purification process by column chromatography using Sepharose gel extraction. Then, the enzyme was blended with fish feed at varying concentrations and their results showed that the phytase acted as an important growth factor for the growth improvement of fish. It was concluded that the phytase from fungal origin has played an important role to stimulate the fish growth without any side effects or any other complications. Hence, the upcoming research works should focus on the improvement of fish feed production with high quality achieved by low cost to increase our economic value.
We report an effective facile immobilization of noble nanoparticles (Mx = Ag, Au and Pd) assembled on g-C3N4 (g-CN) prepared via a simple ultra-sonication strategy. The Mx assembled g-CN nanocomposites were applied for the effective conversion of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). As prepared nanocomposites were characterized by techniques of XRD, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS, and FT-IR analysis to gain crystallographic structural, and morphological insights. The [email protected]3N4 ([email protected]) nanocomposite exhibited best catalytic performance (kapp = 1.141 min⁻¹) toward the conversion of 4-NP to 4-aminophenol (4-AP), almost 100% within 4 min using aqueous sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The higher catalytic efficiency of [email protected] could be attributed to the surface electron density on the Pd and rapid electron transfer capacity. Interestingly, g-CN not only role as a stabilizer but also provided compatibility for noble metal deposition, which improves the chemical and morphological stability of noble metal nanoparticles. Different reaction parameters including concentrations of 4-NP, and catalyst amount were studied. These unique combinations make noble metal nanoparticles anchored g-CN nanosheets an ideal platform for catalysis applications and environmental remediation.
The main objective of extracting natural dyes from natural sources is to avoid the environmental pollution. The flower of Tagetes erecta is used for the extraction of dye using alkaline extraction method. There are four different mordants (CuSo4, FeSo4, NaCl, K2Cr2O7) are used in cotton and polyester fabric by simultaneous mordanting method. The dye fixation is carried out at room temperature and also at 100°C. The result revealed that, different shades of yellow, brown and green were obtained from the dye when subjected to mordant. The dye at 100°C showed dark colours and excellent fastness properties when compared to dye fixed at room temperature. The dye extract of Tagetes erecta had a great antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi and the FT-IR was carried out to identify compounds.
The speedy growth of human population, the issues arising out of pollution, demand of invertase yield and dumping of wastes from agro-industry have been influenced to find new solutions for microbial enzymes. In this study, an attempt was made to produce the invertase by yeast isolated from honey bees. Influence of various process parameters like nutritional sources and environmental conditions was studied using waste material. The enzyme was precipitated by using the acetone to get the product for further experimental analysis. Subsequently, it was carried out for further purification by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography and dialysed. At that moment, optimization of culture conditions for the yield of invertase with agro waste was determined by process parameters. It was followed by the immobilization of microbial cells for increasing the yield of invertase by various matrices. In order to check the bioactive potential of invertase, the bread was prepared with and without the amendment of enzyme. The existing result could be supportive to future researchers for industrial applications of microbial invertase by immobilization approach.
The effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) iron oxide nanoparticles (nano-Fe) on the effectiveness, growth, antioxidant capacity, and immunological response of Trichogaster trichopterus (Blue gourami) fingerlings was investigated. UV–Visible, Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Zeta Potential spectroscopy were used to evaluate the biologically synthesized nano-Fe. Characterization revealed the hexagonal and spherical morphology with an average diameter of 114 nm. Six different experimental diets were supplied to the fish in duplicate for 60 days. The first diet served as a control (no nano-Fe supplementation), whereas the remaining five diets contained nano-Fe at concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg (D1 to D5). The results indicated that fish fed a nano-Fe diet at a concentration of 40 mg/kg had improved growth performance, biochemical constituents, hematological parameters, and antioxidant activity in T. trichopterus, implying that it might be used as a vital feed supplement in ornamental fish culture.
The design and synthesis of visible light driven heterojunction photocatalyst of a novel In2S3/xNd2O3 nanocomposites (where x = 5, 10 and 15 wt% Nd2O3) were constructed via simple two-step process, involving hydrothermal and ultrasonication. The prepared materials were characterized extensively to reveal information about their morphology, optical properties, phase composition, chemical states and electrochemical properties. Consequently, the efficient photocatalyst were studied double role photooxidation of sulfasalazine (SSZ) and photoreduction of Cr(VI) in environmental modal water pollutants under visible light illumination. The catalytic activity of In2S3/Nd2O3 nanocomposite was found to be dependent an optimal In2S3/10wt%Nd2O3 and dose, contact time and concentration of the pollutant. The maximum efficiency attainment of the Cr(VI) reduction was 95.23% and SSZ degradation was 96.19% within 35 and 80 min, respectively, which was multi-fold times greater than the efficiency of pristine In2S3 and Nd2O3. The enhanced efficiency pointed out the proper band alignment and intimate interfacial contact in the In2S3/10 wt% Nd2O3 p-n heterojunction, which facilitate the better charge separation and transfer between In2S3 and Nd2O3 photocatalyst. The photocatalyst have superior photostability and better recyclability, after the fifth run the activity was only reduced 4% for Cr(VI) and 7% for SSZ. Finally, a plausible band alignment and favourable charge transfer pathway for the generation oxidative species were proposed depends upon the scavenger study. This study reveals the versatile nature of In2S3/xNd2O3 heterojunction and its efficient photocatalysis of both emerging pharmaceutical contaminant and heavy metal in water.
A novel two-dimensional 2D/2D Bi2WO6@g-C3N5 ([email protected]) step-scheme (S-scheme) heterojunction was designed and fabricated via simple wet chemical approach. The crystal structure, morphology, composition, and optical properties were systematically investigated by multiple techniques. Apparently, [email protected] heterojunction when compared to bare g-C3N5 and Bi2WO6 has remarkable light-harvesting capability and exhibits better photocatalytic performance toward tetracycline degradation. The excellent enhancement activity of the [email protected] is due to the formation of S-scheme heterojunction, which not only promotes the spatial charge separation but also endows the reduction power of photogenerated electrons. Notably, the S-scheme charge transfer mechanism was explored by quenching experiments, electron spin resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Finally, the study proposes possible TC degradation pathways by identifying the transformation products. This research provides a new platform for efficient 2D/2D S-scheme heterojunctions for environmental water pollution treatments.
The interest on single, stoichiometric ABO3 perovskites for heterogeneous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has grown in recent years, owing to their remarkable catalytic properties and versatile applicability. This review is devoted to highlighting and discussing the most recent developments and applications of ABO3 perovskites and their derived nanocomposites in water treatment and disinfection via AOPs. A brief overview of perovskites, with emphasis on ABO3 materials, their synthesis strategies, structure, and properties has been presented. More significant, the recent applications of ABO3 materials in photocatalysis, Fenton/photo-Fenton, persulphate activation, sonocatalysis/sonophotocatalysis, catalytic/photocatalytic ozonation, piezocatalysis/piezophotocatalysis and photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, has been well reviewed. Specifically, the catalytic activity of the ABO3 perovskites could be modulated through selection of the synthesis protocol and controlling the synthesis conditions, doping and codoping of metal and non-metal ions, incorporation of carbon nanomaterials and heterojunction formation with other semiconducting materials. Furthermore, the use of ABO3 materials in conjunction with oxidants such as persulphate, H2O2 and O3 yielded boosted activity of the hybrid processes compared to single processes. Details on the mechanisms of the charge carriers’ formation and transfer in the different ABO3 mediated AOPs, have been discussed to enhance the understanding of the degradation mechanism. Finally, some concluding remarks and outlook are detailed in terms of the general pitfalls and how they can be mitigated in order to provide guidance for future research and improve the exploitation of ABO3 perovskites in water treatment and environmental remediation applications.
In this scenario, the Pd doped MnO2nanocatalysts were constructed by hydrothermal route. As-synthesized Pd loaded α-MnO2 nanocomposites were systematically characterized by various characterization techniques, respectively. The FESEM and TEM results reveal the surface morphology, the rose flower-like Pd was evenly decorated on the MnO2 surface. The elemental compositions of the presenting elements Pd, Mn and O are confirmed by XPS spectroscopic analysis. The photocatalytic activity of 2% Pd loaded α-MnO2 for crystal violet (CV) degradation was very high compared to immaculate α-MnO2 under visible light embellishment. Moreover, the radical trapping experiment substantiates that O2•− and •OH plays a vital role in CV abatements. This work will provide new in-depth insights into other photocatalytic nanomaterials with potential applications in the field of environmental compensation. Besides, the electron density distributions analysis was carried out for this catalyst to explain the bond length value between the atoms.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were isolated from Decidua Basalis (DB) and studied for their final cellular product measures, such as safety, purity, quality, quantity, and integrity that are ascribed as cellular products. This research aimed to isolate MSCs for expansion under the clinical scale level with potency, secretion of cytokines, growth factors secreted by DB-MSCs, and their role in wound healing. Placentas isolated from DB were expanded up to the 10th passage, and their characteristics were assessed by phenotypic characterization using a flow cytometer and analyzed for trilineage differentiation by cytochemical staining. Growth factors (GF), interleukins (IL), chemokines, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The harvested cells from the placenta yield 1.63–2.45 × 10⁴cells/cm² at P(0), 3.66–5.31 × 10⁴cells/cm² at P(1), 4.01–5.47 × 10⁴cells/cm² at P(2), and 3.94–5.60 × 10⁴cells/cm² at P(10) accordingly; up to 4.74 × 10⁹ P(2) DB-MSCs were harvested within 9–11 days. The viability of the freshly harvested cells was greater than 90% in all cases. It is able to differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteogenic cells, proving their ability to differentiate into a trilineage. Thus, this study put an insight into a secure and conventional approach toward their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages and secrete factors related to immune regulation, making DB-MSCs a potential source in various therapeutic applications.
In present work, the Erythrina variegata leaves extract acts as a reducing agent for the green synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The characterization of the extracted TiO2 nanoparticles were confirmed by ultraviolet spectral studies (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV-Vis absorption spectrum exhibited maximum absorbance peak at 317.6 nm,w hich supports the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy value has been determined as 2.35 eV. Further characterization by XRD supports the crystallinity and the incidence of peak at 25.28 ºC corresponds to 101 anatase form. The anatase phase TiO2 sample having tetragonal structure with mean crystalline size was found to be 7.91 nm. Scanning electron microscope image supports the shape of the nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are having effective dye degradation ability with various time intervals. The green synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibits interesting photocatalytic efficacy on methylene blue dye under UV irradiation (using multi-lamp photo reactor) and antibacterial activity against pathogenic organisms like Streptococci, Staphylococci, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) belonging to the polyhydroxyalkanoates family is a natural polyester used as a biodegradable plastic for various commercial applications. In this study, soil samples from the vegetable oil processing industry were used to screen for PHB-producing bacteria using Sudan black B staining. Among the isolated bacteria, PHB positive PSR-2 isolate was chosen as a potent PHB producer. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the PSR-2 isolate has a high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9% with Bacillus tequilensis. The PHB content of 2.8 ± 0.09 g/L was produced by PSR-2 isolate in 48 h in a nutrient broth medium containing 1% glucose compared to the PHB production of 1.6 ± 0.08% by the reference strain, Bacillus circulans. Taguchi method was used to optimize PHB production using the alkali-pretreated spent mushroom substrate of sugarcane bagasse (SMS-SB) as an additional carbon substrate along with other energy sources. The optimized factors in the contribution of PHB production from the highest- to the lowest-ranking are as follows: alkali-pretreated SMS-SB, glucose, glycerol, peptone, ammonium chloride, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate at 30 ºC, pH 7.0, which resulted in the production of 12.4 ± 0.95 g/L PHB was higher than the predicted value of 11.59 g/L. The synthesized PHB was characterized using Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results revealed the presence of hydroxyl (–OH), methyl (–CH3), methine (=CH–), methylene (–CH2–) and ester carbonyl (>C=O) groups, which confirmed the PHB structure. Thus, alkali-pretreated SMS-SB plays a significant role as an energy substrate for the production of PHB. This gives the knowledge to utilize cost-effective lignocellulosic agro-waste materials as a feedstock for the sustainable production of biodegradable PHB for many biomedical applications. Graphic Abstract
Green mediated biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles utilising Rosa indica flower petal extracts (RIFP-FeONPs) was used in this investigation. The RIFP-FeONPs were evaluated by the UV–Visible Spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX, XRD, Zeta potentials, and DLS, and been engaged than for the elimination of Cr (VI) from the contaminated environments. At 269 nm, the RIFP-FeONPs surface plasmon vibration bands were observed, which attributed to the Fe³⁺. XRD patterns of RIFP-FeONPs depicted the intense diffraction peak of face-centered cubic (fcc) iron at a 2θ value of 45.33° from the (311) lattice plane indisputably revealed that the particles are constituted of pure iron. The fabricated nanomaterials are spherical and polydisperse with a diameter of 70–120 nm, and various agglomeration clusters are attributable to intermolecular interaction. Zeta potential measurement and particle size distribution of RIFP-FeONPs showed a mean average size of 115.5 ± 29 nm and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.420. The study aims to analyse the appropriateness of RIFP-FeONPs for removing hexavalent chromium from the aqueous environment and the application of adsorption isotherm and statistical models in the experiment. The sorption of Cr (VI) on RIFP-FeONPs was observed to fit well with the isothermal models (R² = 0.98). The linear correlation between processing parameters and time demonstrated that the adsorption efficiency of Cr (VI) well correlated with the pseudo-first order kinetic model and isothermal adsorption with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models, so that the RIFP-FeONPs could be a prospective nanosorbent for hexavalent chromium removal from industrial waste.
Utilization of environmentally friendly and effective synthesis methods to fabricate visible light responsive photocatalysts with impressive catalytic performance is desirable in photocatalytic water treatment. Herein, we employed the powerful and environmentally benign ultrasonic synthesis to hybridize hydrothermally prepared NiNb2O6 with varying amounts of RGO (5, 10 and 15 wt%) obtained via a modified Hummers' method. The samples were characterized extensively using analytical techniques such as XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, PL, XPS, M-S and EIS, and subsequently employed for the degradation of doxycycline (DOX) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in water under visible light exposure. The binary nanocomposites displayed enhanced activity compared to NiNb2O6, with the highest activity attained over the 10 wt% RGO sample (NiNb2O6/10 wt% RGO) which achieved 89.2% and 94.1% DOX and TC removal in 80 min, respectively. This was ascribed to improved visible light response, and charge separation and transfer. Furthermore, the influence of pH, pollutant initial concentration and photocatalyst dose was investigated. The hydroxyl radicals and holes were identified as the predominant reactive species responsible for degradation of both DOX and TC. Finally, a feasible charge transfer pathway was proposed to explain the formation of the reactive species and GC-MS analysis was employed to track the degradation route of DOX. This work presents a simple and effective route for coupling RGO and NiNb2O6 nanoparticles for antibiotic pollution abatement which is currently a major environmental concern. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
The design and fabrication of environmentally benign, visible light-responsive heterojunction photocatalysts remain a viable route towards sustainable exploitation of photocatalysis for water treatment. In this contribution, binary nanostructures consisting of varying ratios of In2S3 and Yb2O3 (In2S3/Yb2O3) were obtained via a two-step method involving hydrothermal synthesis and ultrasonic treatment. The prepared materials were characterised extensively to reveal information about their morphology, optical properties, phase composition, chemical states and electrochemical properties. Subsequently, the nanocomposite photocatalysts were investigated for their dual role of photooxidation of the emerging pollutant; norfloxacin (NFX) and photoreduction of the toxic heavy metal; Cr(VI) in spiked water samples. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites was found to be dependent on the photocatalyst composition (ratio of In2S3:Yb2O3) and dose, contact time and initial concentration of the pollutant. Under optimised conditions, Cr(VI) reduction efficiency reached 96.4% in just 45 min of visible light irradiation and the degradation rate is 28.84 times and 3.90 times higher than that of Yb2O3 and In2S3, respectively. Equally, over 95.0% NFX degradation was achieved in 50 min, under optimal conditions. The enhanced activity is credited to efficient visible light absorption, remarkable charge separation and transfer, leading to increased lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers. Moreover, the possible degradation route for NFX was crafted based GC-MS analysis. Finally, the photostability and recyclability of the composite photocatalyst was probed and a plausible charge transfer mechanism was proposed. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonication method for preparing binary nanostructures and the versatility of the photocatalysts towards detoxification of both organic and inorganic pollutants in water.
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190 members
Muthuramkumar Sankaralingam
  • Department of Botany
Jeyakumaran Natarajan
  • Department of Physics
Dr J. Pandiarajan
  • Department of Physics
  • Department of Zoology
Muthuraj Velluchamy
  • Department of Chemistry
Virudunagar, India