Fully automated vehicles collect information about their road environments to adjust their driving actions, such as braking and slowing down. The development of artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) has improved the cognitive abilities of vehicles, allowing them to detect traffic signs, pedestrians, and obstacles for increasing the intelligence of these transportation systems. Three-dimensional (3D) object detection in front-view images taken by vehicle cameras is important for both object detection and depth estimation. In this paper, a joint channel attention and multidimensional regression loss method for 3D object detection in automated vehicles (called CAMRL) is proposed to improve the average precision of 3D object detection by focusing on the model’s ability to infer the locations and sizes of objects. First, channel attention is introduced to effectively learn the yaw angles from the road images captured by vehicle cameras. Second, a multidimensional regression loss algorithm is designed to further optimize the size and position parameters during the training process. Third, the intrinsic parameters of the camera and the depth estimate of the model are combined to reduce the object depth computation error, allowing us to calculate the distance between an object and the camera after the object’s size is confirmed. As a result, objects are detected, and their depth estimations are validated. Then, the vehicle can determine when and how to stop if an object is nearby. Finally, experiments conducted on the KITTI dataset demonstrate that our method is effective and performs better than other baseline methods, especially in terms of 3D object detection and bird’s-eye view (BEV) evaluation.
We demonstrate the beneficial effect of a pre-annealing step prior to the boron diffusion on passivation and contact resistivity of industrially LPCVD deposited poly-Si/SiOX hole-selective contacts. We investigate the influence of the pre-annealing temperature on passivation quality, measured as implied open-circuit voltage and recombination current density, and on changes in crystallinity, characterized by Raman spectroscopy. A clear increase in passivation quality is observed on planar and textured surfaces as well as for various poly-Si thicknesses (100–230 nm) and thermal SiOX growth temperatures (600–800 °C). On planar surfaces and without the use of atomic hydrogenation, we report an increase in iVOC of around 5 mV with every additional increase of pre-annealing temperature by 50 °C (>900 °C) leading to an iVOC of 720 mV (J0 = 9.3 fA/cm²). After atomic hydrogenation, the effect of the pre-annealing is less pronounced. Nevertheless a gain in iVOC (reduction in J0) of 5–10 mV (2–5 fA/cm²) is achieved when comparing samples without pre-annealing with samples after a pre-annealing at 1050 °C. On textured surfaces on the other hand, this trend is more pronounced after atomic hydrogenation, for which a pre-crystallisation at 1050 °C leads to an iVOC (J0) of 705 mV (16.8 fA/cm²), which is a gain (reduction) of 24 mV (21.7 fA/cm²) compared to samples without a pre-annealing step.
Pedestrian movement on stairs is a complex three-dimensional dynamic process. However, previous models are inherently limited in that they ignored the significant effect of stair configurations. This paper presents an extended three-dimensional force-based model to describe pedestrian movement and evacuation dynamics on stairs. By calibrating with previous real-human experiments, this unique model is able to accurately reproduce the velocity/density relation under a wide range of inclination stairways. Then, we explored the basic questions about pedestrian dynamics on complex stair configurations. The results demonstrated that: (1) this unique model shows good universality for simulating pedestrian dynamics on stairs; (2) under the combined effect of narrow exit and stairway, the stair part is the primary factor that affects the specific flow; (3) the optimal stair dimension is a set of tread depth and riser height; (4) pedestrian density and the geometric layout of the stairwell significantly influence pedestrian merging ratio at the merging zone.
Background NVX-CoV2373, a Covid-19 vaccine was developed in the USA with ∼90% efficacy. The same vaccine is manufactured in India after technology transfer (called as SII-NVX-CoV2373), was evaluated in this phase 2/3 immuno-bridging study. Methods This was an observer-blind, randomised, phase 2/3 study in 1600 adults. In phase 2, 200 participants were randomized 3:1 to SII-NVX-CoV2373 or placebo. In phase 3, 1400 participants were randomized 3:1 to SII-NVX-CoV2373 or NVX-CoV2373 (940 safety cohort and 460 immunogenicity cohort). Two doses of study products (SII-NVX-CoV2373, NVX-CoV2373 or placebo) were given 3 weeks apart. Primary objectives were to demonstrate non-inferiority of SII-NVX-CoV2373 to NVX-CoV2373 in terms of geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) ratio of anti-S IgG antibodies 14 days after the second dose (day 36) and to determine the incidence of causally related serious adverse events (SAEs) through 180 days after the first dose. Anti-S IgG response was assessed using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were assessed by a microneutralization assay using wild type SARS CoV-2 in participants from the immunogenicity cohort at baseline, day 22, day 36 and day 180. Cell mediated immune (CMI) response was assessed in a subset of 28 participants from immunogenicity cohort by ELISpot assay at baseline, day 36 and day 180. The total follow-up was for 6 months. Trial registration: CTRI/2021/02/031554. Findings Total 1596 participants (200 in Phase 2 and 1396 in Phase 3) received the first dose. SII-NVX-CoV2373 was found non-inferior to NVX-CoV2373 (anti-S IgG antibodies GMEU ratio 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.06). At day 36, there was more than 58-fold rise in anti-S IgG and nAb titers compared to baseline in both the groups. On day 180 visit, these antibody titers declined to levels slightly lower than those after the first dose (13–22 fold-rise above baseline). Incidence of unsolicited and solicited AEs was similar between the SII-NVX-CoV2373 and NVX-CoV2373 groups. No adverse event of special interest (AESI) was reported. No causally related SAE was reported. Interpretation SII-NVX-CoV2373 induced a non-inferior immune response compared to NVX-CoV2373 and has acceptable safety profile. Funding SIIPL, Indian Council of Medical Research, Novavax.
The EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan (FLEGT) adopted in 2003 includes bilateral trade agreements known as Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) signed between the EU and timber-supplying countries. The EU has invested more than 1.5 billion euros in VPAs; however, only one of the seven concerned countries has managed to complete all the necessary requirements to expire FLEGT licences. Since there is no research that comprehensively integrates the scientific evidence regarding the effects of this policy, this study systematically reviews all empirical scientific studies on the effects of VPAs. We found that almost all relevant studies are case reports that use qualitative data and focus on only one country at a time, mainly Ghana, Cameroon, or Indonesia. The evidence suggests that while VPAs have contributed to the establishment of governance structures, tools, and procedures they have not been able to solve social problems (i.e., inequality and injustice) and have potentially harmed the economies of EU timber suppliers. Evidence on the effects of VPAs on illegal logging and trade and the environment remains limited. Thus, future research should focus on more countries; use a greater range of methods, including comparative experimental designs; explore possible intended effects on under-researched categories; and systematically investigate unintended effects on other categories within and outside the forestry sector.
Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative ability of different interpretive front-of-pack food labels to alert consumers to both healthier and unhealthier options to inform their food choices. Methods One thousand Australians completed an online experiment where they rated the nutritional quality of sets of fictional products pre- and post-randomisation to one of five front-of-pack labels: Health Star Rating, Multiple Traffic Lights, Nutri-Score, Reference Intakes and Warning Label. Two sample z-tests were used to assess the ability of each label to facilitate the correct identification of the least and most healthy product options. Results The Nutri-Score was superior in assisting respondents to identify both the healthiest and unhealthiest options. The Health Star Rating ranked second for both outcomes, followed by the Multiple Traffic Lights. Conclusions Results reinforce the role of interpretive front-of-pack labels in assisting consumers to understand the nutritional quality of food products and suggest spectrum labels may provide superior utility in assisting consumers to identify both the most and least nutritious products from among available product options. Implications for public health The strongest performance of a highly interpretive front-of-pack label (Nutri-Score) featuring colour in a summary indicator suggests potential strategies for enhancing the performance of the Health Star Rating.
We consider the problem of the R-matrix of the quantum toroidal algebra [Formula: see text] in the Fock representation. Using the connection between the R-matrix R( u) ( u being the spectral parameter) and the theory of Macdonald operators, we obtain explicit formulas for R( u) in the operator and matrix forms. These formulas are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of a certain Macdonald operator, which completely describe the functional dependence of R( u) on the spectral parameter u. We then consider the geometric R-matrix (obtained from the theory of K-theoretic stable bases on moduli spaces of framed sheaves), which is expected to coincide with R( u) and thus gives another approach to the study of the poles of the R-matrix as a function of u.
Training and riding directly effects horse welfare, highlighting the potential for training methods to improve both horse welfare and human safety. Learning theory is considered the most appropriate scientific foundation for horse training methods, yet equestrians’ knowledge of learning theory is reportedly low. The relationship between equestrians’ knowledge of learning theory terminology (LT) and horse welfare and rider safety was investigated to determine if rider knowledge of LT contributes to improved horse welfare and human safety. A sample of 394 Australian recreational and sport horse riders completed an online survey. Ridden horse welfare was assessed using validated husbandry and behavioral indicators. Rider safety was assessed by asking participants about ridden accidents and injuries. Rider knowledge of LT was assessed by asking participants to correctly identify scenarios that depicted three key operant conditioning terms: negative and positive reinforcement, and punishment. Only 24.6% of the sample correctly identified all three terms (the criteria for having a basic knowledge of LT), suggesting knowledge of LT has increased among equestrians but remains low. However, rider knowledge of LT was not significantly related to improved horse welfare or rider safety. It is uncertain why knowledge of LT remains so low among equestrians and why rider knowledge of LT did not translate to welfare and safety benefits as predicted. In facilitating the development of workable solutions to address the dual issues of poor horse welfare and human safety, we explore several possibilities, including a proposed new horse training framework that may enable learning theory to be leveraged more fully and deliver expected benefits.
Purpose To determine the amounts of time spent in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep in the Thai population, as well as their sociodemographic correlates and changes over time. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data collected in a population-representative, stratified random sample of 135,824 Thais aged 10 years and over as part of the two most recent Thai National time-use surveys (2009 and 2015). Daily activities reported by the participants were coded using the International Classification of Activities for Time-Use Statistics (ICATUS) and categorised as PA, SB, or sleep. Results In the latest survey, participants spent on average the largest amount of time sleeping (geometric mean [g] = 9.44 h/day; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.42, 9.47), followed by PA (g = 8.60 h/day; 95% CI: 8.55, 8.64) and SB (g = 5.96 h/day; 95% CI: 5.93, 6.00). The time spent in PA was higher on weekdays, while the amounts of SB and sleep were higher on weekends (p < 0.05). Males, older age groups, and unemployed people spent less time in PA and more time in SB, compared with other population groups (p < 0.05). We found a relatively large increase in SB (mean difference [d] = 39.64 min/day; 95% CI: 36.18, 42.98) and decrease in PA (d = 54.33 min/day; 95% CI: -58.88, -49.30) over time. These findings were consistent across most sociodemographic groups, with the most concerning shifts from active to sedentary lifestyle found among people with a higher education degree and on weekends. Conclusions Our findings revealed a shift to a more sedentary lifestyle in the Thai population. Public health interventions should focus on improving time use among males, older age groups, and unemployed people, while preventing the rapid decrease in PA and increase in SB among those with a higher education degree and on weekends.
Teeth are the primary tool used by most mammals to capture and process food. Over the lifetime of an individual, they progressively wear through contact with each other (attrition) and with food (abrasion), creating distinctive patterns that reflect function and diet. Unlike their terrestrial cousins, many marine mammals capture prey via suction, which so far has not been associated with a specific wear pattern. Here, we describe two new types of tooth wear across 18 species of modern marine mammal (beaked whales, belugas, killer whales, globicephalines, and various seals) that likely stem from this behaviour: “glossowear”, which primarily affects the lingual side of the crown and plausibly records piston-like tongue movements during suction feeding; and “hydrowear”, which wraps around the sides of the crown and occurs as water is expelled from the mouth. Both wear types differ from attrition and biting-related abrasion in their surface characteristics and location on the crown. Horizontal scratches suggest a physical wear process, rather than dental erosion (acid corrosion) and tooth abfraction (microfracture). Since suction specifically exploits the liquid properties of water, physical evidence of this behaviour may help to elucidate marine mammal feeding ecology and evolution. For example, glossowear is found in the toothed ancestors of baleen whales (mammalodontids, at least one aetiocetid, and likely Mystacodon), where it suggests an important role for suction in the emergence of filter feeding. By contrast, it is absent in most long-snouted toothed whales and dolphins, indicating that these animals mostly bite, rather than suck in, their prey.
The Australian monsoon delivers seasonal rain across a vast area of the continent stretching from the far northern tropics to the semi‐arid regions. This article provides a review of advances in Australian monsoon rainfall (AUMR) research and a supporting analysis of AUMR variability, observed trends, and future projections. AUMR displays a high degree of interannual variability with a standard deviation of approximately 34% of the mean. AUMR variability is mostly driven by the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO), although sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and north of Australia also play a role. Decadal AUMR variability is strongly linked to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), partially through the IPO's impact on the strength and position of the Pacific Walker Circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone. AUMR exhibits a century‐long positive trend, which is large (approximately 20 mm per decade) and statistically significant over northwest Australia. The cause of the observed trend is still debated. Future changes in AUMR over the next century remain uncertain due to low climate model agreement on the sign of change. Recommendations to improve the understanding of AUMR and confidence in AUMR projections are provided. This includes improving the representation of atmospheric convective processes in models, further explaining the mechanisms responsible for AUMR variability and change. Clarifying the mechanisms of AUMR variability and change would aid with creating more sustainable future agricultural systems by increasing the reliability of predictions and projections. This article is categorized under: Paleoclimates and Current Trends > Modern Climate Change
Objective: Patients with Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) commonly report poor understanding of their illness and high levels of psychological distress. Despite the potential benefits to CUP patients, there is a paucity of research exploring the reasons behind poor understanding of a CUP diagnosis. The aim of this study was to understand patients' experiences of communication with doctors, their understanding of diagnosis and the role of genomic testing, as well as their information needs. Methods: Semi-structured interviews explored CUP patients' perceptions of communication with their doctors, understanding of their illness, and their needs regarding medical information. Qualitative inductive thematic analysis of transcribed audio-recordings was employed. Setting: /Participants: Nineteen patients were recruited from within a prospective cohort study involving routine genomic testing of CUP patients. Results: CUP patients had varied perceptions of communication with doctors as well as different levels of need, readiness, and capacity for information. Some patients felt well understood and supported by their doctors while others did not. Many patients reported feeling overwhelmed and shocked when receiving their cancer diagnosis and emphasized the importance of family support in receiving and understanding medical information. While patients understood the implications of genomic testing for treatment and diagnosis, few had a detailed understanding of genomic testing. Conclusions: Patients' experience of communication and understanding of CUP could be potentially improved by clinicians' assessment of the communication style preferred by each patient and their family and the development of online resources to meet their evolving information needs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Objective: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. The pathophysiology of BPH is multifactorial and inflammation has been linked with progression of BPH and LUTS. The association between histological prostatitis found at transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and adverse post-operative urinary outcomes is not clearly defined. Our aim was to evaluate the association between histological prostatitis and adverse post-operative urinary outcomes following TURP procedure. Methods: Patients who had undergone TURP for BPH at a single institution between 2014 and 2018 were included. The study population was divided into three cohorts: those with no histological inflammation, those with any form of inflammation and those specifically with prostatic stromal inflammation. Functional outcomes were assessed by defining a series of measurable post-operative "LUTS events" and comparing these to time-to-event profile using a Kaplan-Meier estimator. Results: A total 198 patients were included (no inflammation n = 101; any inflammation n = 97, prostatic stromal inflammation n = 81). All three groups were comparable in terms of baseline characteristics. The any inflammation group had significantly more adverse post-operative outcomes after TURP compared to the no inflammation group, P = 0.0065. The stromal inflammation group had more LUTS events after surgery compared to the no inflammation groups in the first year of follow-up n = 0.011; over a 5-year follow-up period the results were not statistically significant, P = 0.244. Conclusion: Histological prostatitis is associated with worse urinary outcomes after TURP compared to no inflammation. These results are useful in improving prognostic discussions with patients after TURP.
Comprehensive theoretical models for the dynamic response of slender cantilevered beams immersed in fluid have been widely reported, while the distinct behavior of wide cantilevered plates has received comparatively little attention. In this article, we develop an exact analytical theory for the resonant response of rectangular cantilevered plates of zero length-to-width aspect ratio that are immersed in unbounded viscous fluids. Unlike the opposite slender limit of large aspect ratio, the hydrodynamic load experienced by zero-aspect-ratio cantilevered plates is inherently non-local, which can strongly affect the individual mode shapes of the plate. In addition, finite-element-method simulations are reported for two- and three-dimensional cases of zero and finite aspect ratio, respectively. Accuracy of the present theory and that of Atkinson and Manrique de Lara [J. Sound Vib. 300, 352 (2007)] for small viscosity and zero aspect ratio is assessed using the former simulations. The latter simulations are used to clarify the regime of validity of the present theory as a function of aspect ratio, along with that of existing theory for slender (large aspect ratio) beams. The results of this study are expected to be of practical importance to micro- and nano-electromechanical system design and their applications.
Historically, birdsong research has been biased towards song of male birds at dawn and during the day, even though some diurnal birds sing at night. To address this gap, we studied how song in the willie wagtail, Rhipidura leucophrys— a diurnal species with prolific male-specific nocturnal song during the breeding season—varies with time of day, breeding status and simulated intrusions. We recorded male nocturnal and dawn song over three breeding seasons and examined how this related to fertile and non-fertile breeding stages of females. To test whether song functions for ter-ritory defence, we simulated territorial intrusion experimentally in both sexes with daytime and nighttime playback of male and female song. To test whether nocturnal song could function for mate guarding or post- pairing mate attraction, we describe the mating system of willie wagtails using molecular genetic methods. We showed that both nocturnal and day song of male willie wagtails has roles in mate attraction and territory defence, while day song by females functioned primarily for territorial defence. Males increased song behaviour during fertile periods of resident females, suggesting possible roles in mate stimulation and mate guarding. Males and females responded similarly to simulated daytime intrusions and no differences were seen in male responses dependent on the time of day. We found 10%–14% of offspring were fathered by extra- pair males, suggesting song may also function for mate guarding and post- pairing mate attraction. In a species with small repertoires and simple songs like the willie wagtail, differences between males in overall song output achieved through nocturnal singing may be important in mate attraction and territory defence.
Purpose: This prospective observational study aimed to establish the frequency of postoperative nocturnal respiratory abnormalities among patients undergoing major surgery who received ward-level care. These abnormalities may have implications for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). Methods: Eligible patients underwent blinded noninvasive continuous capnography with pulse oximetry using the Capnostream™ 20p monitor over the first postoperative night. All patients received oxygen supplementation and patient-controlled opioid analgesia. The primary outcome was the number of prolonged apnea events (PAEs), defined as end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) ≤5 mmHg for 30-120 seconds or EtCO2 ≤5 mmHg for >120 seconds with oxygen saturation (SpO2) <85%. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of recorded time that physiological indices were aberrant, including the apnea index (AI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), integrated pulmonary index (IPI), and SpO2. Exploratory analysis was conducted to assess the associations between PAEs, PPCs, and pre-defined factors. Results: Among 125 patients who had sufficient data for analysis, a total of 1800 PAEs occurred in 67 (53.4%) patients. The highest quartile accounted for 89.1% of all events. Amongst patients who experienced any PAEs, the median (IQR) number of PAE/patient was four (2-12). As proportions of recorded time (median (IQR)), AI, ODI, and IPI were aberrant for 12.4% (0-43.2%), 19.1% (2.0-57.1%), and 11.5% (3.1-33.3%) respectively. Only age, ARISCAT, and opioid consumption/kg were associated with PPCs. Conclusions: PAE and aberrant indices were frequently detected on the first postoperative night. However, they did not correlate with PPCs. Future research should investigate the significance of detected aberrations.
Introduction: Second-line pharmacotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ('diabetes') is necessary for optimal glycaemic control and preventing longer-term complications. We aimed to describe temporal trends in, and associations of, Australian general practitioner (GP) registrars' prescription, and initiation, of 'new' second-line oral agents (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists) compared to sulphonylureas. Materials and methods: A longitudinal analysis (2010-2018) of data from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training project. Analysis included any diabetes problem/diagnosis that involved prescription of sulphonylureas or 'new' oral agents. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were fitted within the generalised estimating equations framework. Results: 2333 registrars recorded 6064 diabetes problems/diagnoses (1.4%). 835 problems/diagnoses involved sulphonylurea or 'new' medication prescription. Of these, 61.0% [95% CI:57.4-64.4] involved 'new' medication prescription. 230 problems/diagnoses involved sulphonylurea or 'new' medication initiation, with 77% [95%CI:70.8-82.1] involving a 'new' medication. There was a significant 52% per year increase in prescribing (OR = 1.52[95% CI:1.38-1.68],p<0.001), and a 77% per (two-to-three-year) time-interval increase in initiation (OR = 1.77,[95% CI:1.30-2.43],p = <0.001) of 'new' medications compared to sulphonylureas. 'New' medications were prescribed less for non-English-speaking patients. There was some regional variation in prescribing. Conclusion: Registrar uptake of 'new' oral agents compared to sulphonylureas has increased rapidly.
Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamental to the delivery of high-quality, safe and effective health care. Naprapaths, manual therapy providers that specialize in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction, became a Swedish licensed health profession in 1994. This study investigated the attitudes, skills and implementation of EBP among licensed naprapaths in Sweden. Methods Licensed naprapaths (n = 950) of Svenska Naprapatförbundet (the Swedish Naprapathy Association) were invited by email to take part in this cross-sectional anonymous online study using the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude and Utilisation Survey in February 2019. Results Fourteen percent (137/950) of invited naprapaths completed the survey. There was an approximately equal gender divide among responders; most were in the mid-career age range, practiced in city areas, and had a university or college certificate/diploma as their highest qualification. The majority of naprapaths agreed or strongly agreed that EBP was necessary in the practice of naprapathy, assisted them in making care decisions, and improved the quality of patient care. Naprapaths’ self-reported skills in EBP were mostly in the moderate to moderate-high range. The majority of participating naprapaths reported infrequent implementation of EBP. Perceived minor or moderate barriers to EBP uptake included a lack of colleague support for EBP and a lack of relevant resources. Access to the internet and free online databases were reported as very useful enablers to improving EBP uptake. Conclusions The licensed naprapaths participating in this survey reported positive attitudes toward EBP, moderate levels of EBP skills, and infrequent implementation of EBP.
The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) reduces hamstring injury incidence. Compliance to large exercise volumes of the NHE is poor, with exercise related soreness often seen as a contributing factor. We investigated the dose‐response of NHE exposure with delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and non‐DOMS pain. Forty males were randomized to a six‐week intervention of four different NHE dosages: Group 1: very low volume; Group 2: low volume; Group 3: initial high to low volume; Group 4: low to high volume. Group 4 experienced more DOMS (P<0.05) and non‐DOMS pain (P=0.030) than other groups. High volumes of NHE increase DOMS and non‐DOMS pain while lower volume protocols have lesser DOMS and non‐DOMS pain responses.
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