The article analyzes the problem of stimulating students, having determined the essence of the rating system and, having analyzed educational success with the help of a rating system for monitoring and evaluating knowledge, it can be said with confidence that today the rating system for monitoring and evaluating knowledge provides a systematic, maximally stimulated work, as students as well as teachers. This is confirmed by the fact that the introduction of a rating system into the educational process creates the following benefits in learning: the stressful situation in the control process is reduced for both students and teachers; learning becomes student- centered; the rating system excludes any humiliation of the student's personality, allows him to evaluate his own abilities and capabilities, i.e. encourages him to conscientious work during the entire period of study.
The cobalt ferrite Fenton catalysts were obtained by the flow co-precipitation method. FTIR, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the spinel structure. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized sample is 12 nm, while the samples annealed at 400 and 600 °C have crystallite sizes of 16 and 18 nm, respectively. The as-synthesized sample has a grain size of 0.1-5.0 μm in size, while the annealed samples have grain sizes of 0.5 μm-15 μm. The degree of structure inversion ranges from 0.87 to 0.97. The catalytic activity of cobalt ferrites has been tested in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of caffeine. The annealing of the CoFe2O4 increases its catalytic activity in both model reactions, with the optimal annealing temperature being 400 °C. The reaction order has been found to increase with increasing H2O2 concentration. Electromagnetic heating accelerates the catalytic reaction more than 2 times. As a result, the degree of caffeine decomposition increases from 40% to 85%. The used catalysts have insignificant changes in crystallite size and distribution of cations. Thus, the electromagnetically heated cobalt ferrite can be a controlled catalyst in water purification technology.
In this work, NiWO4 was prepared by co-precipitation and modified by ultrasonic and laser irradiation. Its electrochemical properties were investigated by potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and impedance spectroscopy methods. The results show that NiWO4 ultrasonic-modified and exposed to laser irradiation for 420 s has the highest capacitance of 520 F/g at a discharge current of 1 mA. This capacitance value is 2.5 times higher than for NiWO4 ultrasonic-modified and 3.4 times higher than for NiWO4 obtained by co-deposition. The capacitance enhancement of NiWO4 modified by ultrasonic and laser irradiation is the result of stimulation of fast redox reactions, which is confirmed by impedance studies.
The synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with the use of microwave has become widespread in the last decade. Among many advantages of this synthesis, there are, such as short processing time, high reproducibility and purity of the synthesis products, and environmentally friendliness. Nanocrystalline NiMoO4 in the form of hydrate was obtained as a result of 2.5 min microwave irradiation. To study the properties of the non-hydrated form of nickel molybdate, the initial hydrate was subjected to thermal treatment. As a result, NiMoO4, which is a mixture of α and β phases, was obtained. The phase composition, crystal structure, and optical properties of the obtained materials were investigated using X-ray analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of nickel molybdates was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained NiMoO4 hydrate had a specific capacitance of 652 F/g, whereas the specific capacitance of NiMoO4 thermally treated was 372 F/g at a discharge current of 0.2 A/g. The impedance spectra of both nickel molybdates show a semicircular in the high-frequency range and a linear section in the low-frequency range, which is typical for battery-type materials. The high electrochemical activity of nickel molybdates obtained by microwave-assisted synthesis makes these materials promising for application as electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors.
In the second part of the study, we unified and codified the Ukrainian National nomenclature of the round-necked longhorn beetles (Cerambycinae). We analyzed published cases of the Ukrainian names using of the longhorn beetles during the last two centuries. This includes critical review of different taxa of the round-necked longhorn beetles, including species, genera and tribes. We found numerous uses of Russian tracings and Latin transliterations instead of the Ukrainian names. We proposed to remove them from using for scientific and popular publications wrote in Ukrainian, and replacing them with specific Ukrainian names and/or adapted translations from the latinized scientific names. In general, we found only 35 valid names of the round-necked longhorn beetles in Ukrainian. Other names are unsuitable due to non-binomial nomenclature and replacement from Russian or Latin. We proposed 122 taxa names for the first time in Ukrainian. In the Part II, we presented Ukrainian names for 157 taxa, including 1 subfamily, 1 supertribe, 19 tribes, 4 subtribes, 43 genera, 4 subgenera, 81 species and 4 species.
The effect of thermal treatment on the structural arrangement and pore size distribution in NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide composite materials has been studied using X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption technique. Composite materials have been successfully synthesized by the joint hydrothermal method using graphene oxide colloidal solution obtained by the modified Tour method. The electrical properties of the composite materials, as well as the pure component, have been studied in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz, in the temperature range from 25 to 175 °C using impedance spectroscopy. A synergetic increase in the electrical conductivity of composite materials compared to pure components has been observed. The activation energies of interparticle hopping of charge carriers have been calculated using Arrhenius-type conductivity plots.
The standard of living estimates the economic aspect of the quality of life. It is also a yardstick for social development with implications for society’s impact on the environment. This issue is of increasing practical significance in these troubled times. Here, we identify the key requirements for a modern standard of living, the main factors contributing to the change in the standard of living in Ukraine, the current quality of life in the country, and its impact on the environment. Unsurprisingly, war is diminishing the quality of life. We propose ways to improve this quality of life that may contribute to Ukraine’s socio-economic policy.
The legitimate task of the government and local self-government under the current conditions of martial law, in particular, against the background of a decrease in industrial potential, is to find ways to develop and effectively use the tourism and recreation potential of Ukraine and individual regions. At the scientific level, this task is transformed into a research question regarding the prospects of strengthening the socio-economic role of Ukraine's tourism and recreation potential in wartime. This work aimed to conceptualize the socio-economic vector of restoration of Ukraine's tourism and recreation potential during the war. Following the purpose of this study, the critical research results were obtained based on systemic, dialectical, and anthropocentric approaches using methods of critical analysis of scientific sources, structural-functional analysis, and phenomenological conceptualization. According to the results of the conducted research, it was established that, firstly, the restoration of the tourist and recreational potential would not aim so much at the intensification of the economic development of the territory (which seems to be expedient after the end of military operations) or of the state (which appears to be at least a dubious decision from the point of view of Ukraine's foreign partners, because it will not have the same effect as, for example, investments in industry, agriculture, and the fuel and energy complex), as investments in the restoration and preservation of the human potential of the state. Secondly, it has been proven that the emphasis on the social role of the tourist and recreational potential will allow for bypassing the restrictions imposed on the state's participation in economic processes under the market economy since economic issues. However, they will be solved in general. They will recede into the background against the background of solving the social problems of unemployment, migration, and cultural, spiritual, and physical restoration of the nation.
In the context of the global increase in pesticide applications, aquatic animals are constantly subjected to their action in natural reservoirs. Our research sought to determine the molecular and biochemical effects of an environmental exposure to commonly used chloro-s-triazine herbicide terbuthylazine and organophosphate insecticide malathion on zebrafish. To this aim, mature zebrafish were exposed to 2 and 30 µg L−1 terbuthylazine and 5 and 50 µg L−1 malathion alone and in combination for 14 days. Following exposure, induction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in the liver of treated zebrafish have been registered. Aside from the accumulation of oxidative lesions, a decrease in antioxidants and succinate dehydrogenase activity, an increase in oxidized glutathione, and enhanced apoptosis via Caspase-3 and BAX overexpression (in the case of terbuthylazine) were observed. Furthermore, terbuthylazine and malathion induced mitochondrial swelling and lactate dehydrogenase leakage in a concentrationdependent manner. Significant upregulation of ubiquitin expression and increasing cathepsin D activity were characteristics that appeared only upon terbuthylazine exposure, whereas induction of IgM was identified as the specific characteristic of malathion toxicity. Pesticides in the studied concentration didn’t provoke significant alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish. Co-exposure increased adverse effects of individual pesticides to zebrafish. This study should improve understanding of the mechanisms of pesticide toxicity that leads to fish impairment and biodiversity decline, as well as emphasize the importance of paying attention to pesticide traces in the environment and fish, which can have devastating effects on biota even at low concentrations.
The presented article considers the essence and content of the most common defect in legal science—“legal gaps”. This study presents various scientific approaches to the definition of legal gaps. Considering various scientific approaches, the authors of this study formulated their original version of this concept considering its absence from the theory of penitentiary law. The study analyses the main conceptual approaches to the problem of the progressiveness of law in the historical context. The main features of legal gaps are named to become able to distinguish them from conflicts of law. The authors outlined a set of features indicating the presence of a legislative gap in a particular case and provided a scientifically sound classification of gaps. The article also focused on the main types of legal gaps. In addition, the authors addressed the presence of legal gaps in Ukrainian legislation. The originality of this study lies in the formulation of new theoretical conclusions and generalizations that will help identify, eliminate, and overcome gaps in civil procedural law.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most discussed and actively researched areas in medicine, psychiatry, neurophysiology, biochemistry and rehabilitation over the last decades. Multiple causes can trigger post-traumatic stress disorder. Humans subjected to violence, participants in hostilities, victims of terrorist attacks, physical or psychological persecution, witnessing scenes of cruelty, survival of natural disasters, and more, can strongly affect both children and adults. Pathological features of post-traumatic stress disorder that are manifested at molecular, cellular and whole-organism levels must be clearly understood for successful diagnosis, management, and minimizing of long-term outcomes associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. This article summarizes existing data on different post-traumatic stress disorder causes and symptoms, as well as effects on homeostasis, genetic instability, behavior, neurohumoral balance, and personal psychic stability. In particular, we highlight a key role of mitochondria and oxidative stress development in the severity and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Excessive or prolonged exposure to traumatic factors can cause irreversible mitochondrial damage, leading to cell death. This review underlines the exceptional importance of data integration about the mechanisms and functions of the mitochondrial stress response to develop a three-dimensional picture of post-traumatic stress disorder pathophysiology and develop a comprehensive, universal, multifaceted, and effective strategy of managing or treatment post-traumatic stress disorder.
The brain is an organ that consumes a lot of energy. In the brain, energy is required for synaptic transmission, numerous biosynthetic processes and axonal transport in neurons, and for many supportive functions of glial cells. The main source of energy in the brain is glucose and to a lesser extent lactate and ketone bodies. ATP is formed at glucose catabolism via glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) within mitochondria being the main source of ATP. With age, brain's energy metabolism is disturbed, involving a decrease in glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction. The latter is accompanied by intensified generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ETC leading to oxidative stress. Recently, we have found that crucial changes in energy metabolism and intensity of oxidative stress in the mouse brain occur in middle age with minor progression in old age. In this review, we analyze the metabolic changes and functional causes that lead to these changes in the aging brain.
In the article, the built picture of the four-vector phenomenology of voluntary activity (heroic, victim, transformative, life-affirming) can serve as a kind of “ethical map” for measuring the motivation for participation in volunteering. In addition, it can serve as the basis for determining the goals and mission of building educational and socio-pedagogical work in various volunteer associations. The problem of the formation of social activity of student youth in the conditions of reforming Ukrainian society is analyzed, the criteria of social activity, the importance of social activity for the further development of society and the professional development of students are considered. The concept of volunteering as a segment of civil society, the main directions of volunteering in modern Ukraine, the impact of hostilities in the East of the country on the development of volunteering have been studied. The thesis about the dialectical relationship between social activity and students' participation in volunteer activities is substantiated, where volunteer activity is considered as a manifestation of social activity and as a factor in its formation. An example of the activities of a higher educational institution regarding the involvement of students in volunteer practice as an important factor in the formation of students' social activity is given.
The activity of the Jesuits in Ternopil and Lviv in the years 1852–1914 The ban on the activity of the Society of Jesus in the Russian Empire made some Jesuits come to Galicia. Ternopil became the first city in the archdiocese of Lviv in which the Jesuits founded a religious centre after the restoration of the Society and leaving the Russian Empire. In Ternopil, in accordance with Kaiser’s decree, they began to engage in educational activities from 1820. In 1836 Lviv became the second Jesuit centre in the archdiocese of Lviv. After the revolution of 1848, the Society of Jesus was banned, but in 1852 it resumed its activity in these two cities. The article presents the main features of the order in the archdiocese of Lviv, and the specificity of its pastoral work in the region. The paper focuses on Ternopil and Lviv, because they were the two cities of the archdiocese where the Society was most active in the years 1852–1914.
The aim of the article is to highlight the problems of the functioning of AI in the Asia and Pacific region. Research results. Attention is drawn to the influence of the population's attitude to the development of AI technologies. The elements that are decisive in the development of artificial intelligence in the countries of the region, in particular the infrastructure platform, are examined. Geographical boundaries of the APR are highlighted, which allows concreteness during its conduct. Practical meaning. Determinants that influence the development of artificial intelligence and cause-and-effect relationships arising as a result of such evolution are considered, as AI penetrates the vast majority of spheres of life in society. Value/originality. The need for establishment and consolidation of legal doctrine within the framework of artificial intelligence regulation in the APR countries is proven.
The focus of the author’s attention has been on the emblematic sense concentration in the philosophical system of Hryhorii Skovoroda. The study aims to reveal the artistic and style features of eide emblematic formation in the texts of the Ukrainian sophist, their origin, context, and conceptual classification by the author himself. The theoretical generalizations were essentially based on the philosophical treatises and dialogues by Hryhorii Skovoroda and the studies of other scholars. To analyze the issues under scrutiny, the author applied structuralist and semiotic methodology. The article highlights the emblematic sense, conveyance, and dominance in Skovoroda’s works. Emblematic forms of signification play a unique role in elucidating the anthropological, metaphysical, ethical, aesthetic, and hermeneutic dimensions of the Ukrainian poet and philosopher. Skovoroda considers emblemacity a particularly effective pictorial and verbal (iconic-conventional) type of “significative” speech, functioning as metalanguage.
The purpose of the research is information terrorism as a threat to the global security system of the 21st century. The problem of combating information terrorism requires the analysis of the structure of terrorism itself as a phenomenon that has come a long way of evolution from lone suicide bombers, to huge terrorist organizations that commit destructive acts and cause the death of a large number of people, also using the dissemination of information to intimidate a significant number of people. The methodological basis of the research is presented as comparative-legal and systematic analysis, formal-legal method, method of interpretation, hermeneutic method, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis. It is concluded that, one of the main threats to information security is presented by computer terrorism as a form of destructive influence aimed at manipulating or intimidating the population or causing harm to the society, the state or individuals with the use of information technologies and with the purpose of forcing the authorities, an international organization, a natural or legal person (group of persons) to commit a certain action (or refrain from committing it).
Ultrafine NiFe2O4 (T0) and NiFe2O4 / rGO composites have been synthesized by solution combustion method. The presence of rGO in the composite (33 wt.% (T1) or 66 wt.% (T2)) causes a decrease in the average particle size of the oxide phase from 16 to 10-11 nm with their transition to superparamagnetic with a decrease in the mixed spinel inversion degree. The SBET values for T1 and T2 are 180 and 315 m2/g, respectively, decreasing to 78 and 169 m2/g after annealing in the temperature range of 200-800°C. Both micro- and small mesopores (size of 2.0-4.5 nm) have been observed for samples T2, while samples T0 and T1 are mainly mesopores. The small polaron mechanism of electrical conductivity is observed for pure spinel, when the electron hopping charge transport prevails for NiFe2O4 / rGO composites. It can be assumed that the GO component lowers the combustion reaction temperature and prevents particle agglomeration.
The relevance of scientific research is determined by modern globalization processes, which determine the need to ensure the quality of higher education, its integration into the European and world educational space. It is emphasized that the category of quality is one of the central ones in scientific discussions regarding the problems of Ukrainian higher education. The purpose of the study is to analyze modern approaches to ensuring the quality of higher education, to identify criteria and indicators for evaluating the quality of professional training of future specialists. To achieve the goal, the methods of analysis of scientific sources and normative documents were used to determine the current state of the research problem and highlight the main directions of scientific research, comparison and generalization – with the aim of substantiating scientific approaches to solving the researched problem, surveying higher education students regarding provision and promotion quality of higher education, identification of criteria and indicators of its evaluation. The results of the conducted research were the determination and justification of certain provisions regarding quality assurance of higher education in the context of European and national standards. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian legislation, the criteria and indicators for evaluating the quality of higher education have been identified. The main approaches to assessing the quality of professional training of future specialists in modern scientific research are considered. It was noted that an important tool for quality monitoring is a comprehensive study of public opinion of higher education seekers, which allows for quick and efficient evaluations and proposals regarding the quality of educational services. The article presents the results of a student survey on the need to improve the quality of higher education, to identify the most effective criteria and indicators for its evaluation. It was concluded that ensuring the quality of higher education integrated into the single European educational space is one of the key goals of reforming the higher education system in Ukraine. This requires, first of all, the use of clear and understandable criteria and indicators for evaluating the quality of professional training of future specialists, ensuring their compliance with the requirements of Ukrainian legislation and international quality standards of higher education.
The paper analyzes the existing non-invasive methods and tools for measuring and monitoring heart rate (HR), glucose saturation and human blood glucose level (BGL), shows ways of improving them to increase accuracy and expand the number of parameters obtained by these methods, which became the basis for creating a hybrid microsystem device for biomedical applications. A block diagram of the microsystem and a prototype of software and hardware tools for continuous monitoring of heart rate, BGL, saturation level and other blood parameters by photoplethysmography (PPG) have been developed. The proposed algorithms and tools provide primary processing of signals from optical sensors, calculation of pulse wave parameters, data transmission to mobile devices and a remote server, the possibility of calibration during operation based on research results.
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57 Shevchenka Str, 76018, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
Head of institution
Rector Ihor Tsependa, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor