Introduction Faking orgasm by women reportedly occurs quite frequently, with both relationship characteristics and orgasmic difficulty being significant predictors. Aim We explored women's motives that might mediate the associations between orgasmic difficulty and relationship satisfaction on the one hand, with the frequency of faking orgasm on the other. Methods In a study of 360 Hungarian women who reported “ever” faking orgasm during partnered sex, we assessed the direct and indirect (mediated) associations between orgasmic difficulty, relationship satisfaction, and the frequency of faking orgasm. Outcomes Determination of motives that mediate the association between orgasmic difficulty and the frequency of faking orgasm, and the association between relationship satisfaction and the frequency of faking orgasm. Results Increased orgasmic difficulty was directly related to increased frequency of faking orgasm (β = 0.37; P < .001), and each variable itself was related to a number of motives for faking orgasm. However, the only motive assessed in our study that mediated the relationship between orgasmic difficulty and the frequency of faking orgasm was insecurity about being perceived as abnormal or dysfunctional (indirect effect: β = 0.13; P < .001). A similar pattern emerged with relationship satisfaction and frequency of faking orgasm. These two variables were directly related in that lower relationship satisfaction predicted higher frequency of faking orgasm (β = -0.15; P = .008). Furthermore, while each variable itself was related to a number of motives for faking orgasm, the only motive assessed in our study that mediated the relationship between the 2 variables was insecurity about being perceived as abnormal or dysfunctional (indirect effect: β = -0.06; P = .008). Clinical Translation Insecurity related to being perceived as abnormal or deficient, along with sexual communication, should be addressed in women with a history of faking orgasm but who want to cease doing so. Strengths and Limitations The sample was relatively large and the online survey adhered to best practices. Nevertheless, bias may result in sample characteristics when recruitment is achieved primarily through social media. In addition, the cross-sectional sample prevented causal determination and represented Western-based values. Conclusions The associations between orgasmic difficulty and faking orgasm, and between relationship satisfaction and faking orgasm, are both direct and indirect (mediated). The primary motive for mediating the indirect association between the predictor variables and the frequency of faking orgasm was the insecurity about being perceived as deficient or abnormal. Hevesi K, Horvath Z, Miklos E, et al. Motives that Mediate the Associations Between Relationship Satisfaction, Orgasmic Difficulty, and the Frequency of Faking Orgasm. Sex Med 2022;10:100568.
Student teams have become a very popular pedagogical learning tool in management education courses. However, these teams vary widely in their ability to accomplish their objectives. Moreover, students often report varying levels of learning as a result of teams, as well as overall satisfaction with team members. In this research, we assess the effectiveness of a prospective hindsight technique, known as the premortem exercise, in student teams. The premortem exercise requires team members to picture a potential future where their team project has failed and asks members to discuss critically the reasons for the failure. The premortem technique requires student teams to identify and codify mechanisms that will prevent these project failures from occurring. Instructions for facilitating the premortem exercise are provided, along with a preliminary analysis indicating how the premortem technique can move teams towards more successful processes and outcomes. We find that student participation in the premortem intervention leads to reports of increasing perspective taking throughout the semester, with no change in their prosocial motivation. Team satisfaction decreased immediately following the exercise, but improved to the highest levels at the semester's end, suggesting the premortem technique was beneficial to students' team experiences.
Background Unlike the other 2 criteria for diagnosing premature ejaculation (PE), namely lack of ejaculatory control and short ejaculation latency (EL), the role of bother/distress has received only minimal consideration and investigation. Aim The specific aim was to determine both why distress is included in the PE diagnosis and whether such inclusion is advantageous to achieving better diagnostic outcomes. To this end, the review explored the historical and theoretical underpinnings of the inclusion of “bother/ distress” in the diagnosis of PE, with reference to the larger role that distress has played in the diagnosis of mental disorders, in an attempt to understand the utility (or lack thereof) of this construct in making a PE diagnosis. Methods We reviewed the role of bother/distress across current professional definitions for PE and then expanded this discussion to include the role of distress in other sexual dysfunctions. We then included a brief historical perspective regarding the role that distress has played in the diagnosis of PE. This discussion is followed by a deeper look at 2 nosological systems, namely DSM and ICD, to allow perspective on the inclusion of the bother/distress construct in the diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders, including the assumptions/arguments put forward to include or exclude bother/distress as an important criterion underlying various professional assumptions. Outcome Determination of the value and/or need of including bother/distress as a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of PE. Results Based on the research literature, bother/distress does not appear to be as critical for a PE diagnosis as either the lack of ejaculatory control or short EL. It is the weakest of the differences among men with and without PE, and recent evidence suggests that its inclusion is generally redundant with the severity of the 2 other criteria for PE, ejaculatory control and EL. Clinical Translation Bother/distress appears to serve little purpose in the diagnosis of PE yet its assessment may be important for the treatment strategy and for assessing treatment effectiveness. Strengths and Limitations This review did not provide a critical analysis of the literature regarding the role of bother/distress in PE, but rather focused on its potential value in understanding and diagnosing PE. Conclusion Although bother/distress appears to add little to the improvement of accuracy for a PE diagnosis, understanding and assessing the man's or couple's experience of distress has important implications for the treatment strategy and focus, as well as for assessing treatment success. Rowland DL, Cooper SE. The Tenuous Role of Distress in the Diagnosis of Premature Ejaculation: A Narrative Review. Sex Med 2022;XX:XXXXXX.
Introduction The role of bother/distress in the diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) has received minimal investigation compared with the 2 other diagnostic criteria, ejaculatory control and ejaculatory latency (EL). Aim This study assessed (i) the added variance explained by bother/distress to the diagnostic accuracy of PE and (ii) determined its overall contribution to a PE diagnosis. Methods The 3 diagnostic criteria for PE were assessed in 2,589 men (mean age = 38.2 years, SD = 13.5) in order to determine the contribution of each factor to a dysfunctional diagnosis. A series of regression and discriminant analyses were used to assess the value of bother/distress in explaining ejaculatory control and in predicting accuracy of PE group status. Commonality analysis was used to determine the relative contribution of each of these factors to the diagnosis of PE. Main Outcome Measure The major outcome was the quantified contribution of “bother/distress” to a PE diagnosis. Results Bother/distress accounted for about 3–4% of the variation in ejaculatory control and added only minimally to the prediction accuracy of PE group status (no, probable, definite PE). Commonality analysis indicated that bother/distress comprised about 3.6% of the unique explained variation in the PE diagnosis, compared with ejaculatory control and EL which contributed 54.5% and 26.7%, respectively. Common variance among factors contributed the remaining 15.5% to the PE diagnosis. Clinical Translation Bother/distress contributes least to the determination of a PE diagnosis. Its contribution is largely redundant with the unique and combined contributions of ejaculatory control and EL. Strengths and Limitations Using a well-powered and multivariate analysis, this study parsed out the relative contributions of the 3 diagnostic criteria to a PE diagnosis. The study is limited by its use of estimated EL, a single item assessment of bother/distress, and the lack of differentiation of PE subtypes, lifelong and acquired. Conclusion Bother/distress contributes minimally to the PE diagnosis, yet its assessment may be key to understanding the experiences of the patient/couple and to developing an effective treatment strategy. Rowland DL, McNabney SM, Hevesi K. Does Bother/Distress Contribute to the Diagnosis of Premature Ejaculation?. Sex Med 2022;XX:XXXXXX.
Quantifying reproductive effort (RE), the trade-off between devoting resources to reproduction versus individual growth, in plants presents a number of challenges. Of particular interest is comparing RE between reproductive strategies, such as those in Bromeliaceae: semelparous, where individuals undergo a one-time and subsequently lethal sexual reproductive event, versus iteroparous, where individuals reproduce sexually multiple times by producing clonal offshoots called pups. We introduce a dynamic model of vegetative and reproductive growth in long-lived Bromeliaceae rosettes accounting for the allocation of resources over developmental time. We compare multiple deﬁnitions of RE in semelparous and iteroparous Bromeliaceae at critical times during development and over the entire reproductive life of the individual. While others have posited that semelparous taxa exhibit higher RE than comparable iteroparous taxa, our results indicate this will only occur in limited circumstances: when RE is calculated over the lifespan of a rosette started from seed, semelparous RE is greater when pup mass is accounted for as if it were purely vegetative; or when RE is calculated over the lifespan of the genetic individual, semelparous RE is greater when the ratio of vegetative to inflorescence mass in each pup is greater than that of the originating rosette started from seed.
This paper investigates the performance of the credit‐card‐augmented Divisia monetary aggregates in forecasting U.S. inflation and output growth at the 12‐month horizon. We compute recursive and rolling out‐of‐sample forecasts using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) model based on Divisia monetary aggregates. We use the three available versions of those monetary aggregate indices, including the original Divisia aggregates, the credit card‐augmented Divisia, and the credit‐card‐augmented Divisia inside money aggregates. The source of each is the Center for Financial Stability (CFS). We find that the smallest Root Mean Square Forecast Errors (RMSFE) are attained with the credit‐card‐augmented Divisia indices used as the forecast indicators. We also consider Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR) for forecasting annual inflation and output growth.
The immense production of plastic polymers combined with their discordancy with nature has led to vast plastic waste contamination across the geosphere, from the oceans to freshwater reservoirs, wetlands, remote snowpacks, sediments, air and multiple other environments. These environmental pollutants include microplastics (MP), typically defined as small and fragmented plastics less than 5 mm in size, and nanoplastics (NP), particles smaller than a micrometer. The formation of micro and nanoplastics in aqueous media to date has been largely attributed to fragmentation of plastics by natural (i.e., abrasion, photolysis, biotic) or industrial processes. We present a novel method to create small microplastics (≲ 5 μm) and nanoplastics in water from a wide variety of plastic materials using a small volume of a solubilizer liquid, such as n-dodecane, in combination with vigorous mixing. When the suspensions or solutions are subjected to ultrasonic mixing, the particle sizes decrease. Small micro- and nanoparticles were made from commercial, real world and waste (aged) polyethylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate, in addition to other plastic materials and were analyzed using dark field microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and particle size measurements. The presented method provides a new and simple way to create specific size distributions of micro- and nanoparticles, which will enable expanded research on these plastic particles in water, especially those made from real world and aged plastics. The ease of NP and small MP formation upon initial mixing simulates real world environments, thereby providing further insight into the behavior of plastics in natural settings.
Although the educational and psychological hazards of boredom are well documented, an increasing number of researchers have argued that boredom may be a helpful, rather than harmful, emotion for the growing individual. In this paper, we engage with this re‐conception of boredom and explore its implications for contemporary education: Can boredom enhance student learning, or support certain forms of it? Can it be put to use in the classroom? What are the risks involved? In addressing these questions, we show that boredom can fulfil several important psychological functions under certain special conditions. At the same time, we argue that careful attention to the moral psychology of boredom reveals that it has significant disadvantages for helping students to develop a meaningful and fulfilling relationship to subject matter in the classroom. Against the backdrop of this analysis, we discuss the concept and experience of aspiration as a potential way of tempering and eventually obviating the psychological pitfalls of boredom. In the final section, we draw out several principles of an aspirational approach to grappling with boredom in education.
Macropartisanship is a measure of aggregate trends in party identification in the mass public that allows researchers to track partisanship dynamically. In previous research, macropartisanship was found to vary in concert with major political events and forces like presidential approval and the economy. However, studying macropartisanship as an aggregate trend assumes that group dynamics within the measure are equivalent. We present a series of new measures of macropartisanship using Stimson’s (2018) dyad ratio approach disaggregated by race and ethnicity. We detail the creation of measures for White, Latino, and Black macropartisanship from 1983 to 2016 using more than 500 surveys from CBS News and CBS/New York Times. The resulting data collection is publicly available and can be downloaded in monthly, quarterly, or yearly format. Our initial analysis of these data show that thinking about macropartisanship as a single aggregate measure masks important and significant variation in our understanding of party identification. Change in the measures are uncorrelated. Latino macropartisanship is more volatile and responds more to economic conditions, Black macropartisanship is very stable and has become more Democratic in response to increased polarization, while White macropartisanship has become less responsive to economic conditions as has become more Republican as Republicans have moved to the right.
Differences in pollen performance, often revealed during pollen competition, have long been recognized as evolutionarily significant and agriculturally important. Though we have sophisticated models for the growth of individual pollen tubes, we have no robust models for larger scale pollen competition, a process that has been linked with inbreeding avoidance, sexual selection, reproductive barrier reinforcement, and speciation. Here we use existing data on pollen performance traits to develop an agent-based model of pollen competition. We calibrate our model parameters to empirical data found in the literature of seed siring proportions from mixed pollinations and pollen tube length distributions from single accession pollinations. In this model, parameters that influence pollen tube movement and sensing of ovules were found to be primary factors in competition. Our model also demonstrates that interference competition emerges as a property of pollen competition, and suggests a potential mechanism for this phenomenon. This study integrates pollen performance measures with mathematical modeling conducted on a simplified and accessible system. This represents the first mechanistic agent-based model for pollen competition. Our model may be extended to predict seed siring proportions for other accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana given data on their pollen performance traits.
The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of back-to-back azimuthal correlations of di-π0s produced at forward pseudorapidities (2.6<η<4.0) in p+p, p+Al, and p+Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV. We observe a clear suppression of the correlated yields of back-to-back π0 pairs in p+Al and p+Au collisions compared to the p+p data. The observed suppression of back-to-back pairs as a function of transverse momentum suggests nonlinear gluon dynamics arising at high parton densities. The larger suppression found in p+Au relative to p+Al collisions exhibits a dependence of the saturation scale Qs2 on the mass number A. A linear scaling of the suppression with A1/3 is observed with a slope of −0.09±0.01.
Anaerobic Reactors (ARs) and Constructed Wetlands (CWs) have gained popularity as efficient and low-cost technologies for decentralized wastewater treatment. However, when used individually, each presents some disadvantages. For instance, low, or even negative, nutrient removal efficiencies have been reported in ARs, and operational failures (e.g. clogging) are frequent in CWs. Combined AR + CW systems have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the limitations of individual units, where the AR effluent is fed into the CW to achieve better water quality and to avoid operational failures. In this review, the removal performance of combined AR + CW systems were compared with individual ARs, individual CWs, and conventional units (AAO, MBR and stabilization ponds). In addition, the pollutant removal processes (for organic matter, suspended solids and nutrients) and some aspects of combined systems' environmental, economic and social sustainability are deeply discussed herein. This literature analysis provided quantitative evidence of more efficient pollutant removal in combined systems over individual units and conventional processes. Also, the combined system's advantages are highlighted, including simple and low-cost construction, low operational and maintenance requirements, minimum energy consumption, reduced land occupation and low GHG emissions. In summary, this review supports the conclusion that AR + CW combined systems are an effective, robust, flexible and highly sustainable technology for decentralized wastewater treatment, especially for developing countries with limited resources and infrastructure.
MetPy is an open-source, Python-based package for meteorology, providing domain specific functionality built extensively on top of the robust scientific Python software stack, which includes libraries like NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, and xarray. The goal of the project is to bring the weather analysis capabilities of GEMPAK (and similar software tools) into a modern computing paradigm. MetPy strives to employ best practices in its development, including software tests, continuous integration, and automated publishing of web-based documentation. As such, MetPy represents a sustainable, long-term project that fills a need for the meteorological community. MetPy’s development is substantially driven by its user community, both through feedback on a variety of open, public forums like Stack Overflow, and through code contributions facilitated by the GitHub collaborative software development platform. MetPy has recently seen the release of version 1.0, with robust functionality for analyzing and visualizing meteorological datasets. While previous versions of MetPy have already seen extensive use, the 1.0 release represents a significant milestone in terms of completeness and a commitment to long-term support for the programming interfaces. This article provides an overview of MetPy’s suite of capabilities, including its use of labeled arrays and physical unit information as its core data model, unit-aware calculations, cross-sections, Skew-T and GEMPAK-like plotting, station model plots, and support for parsing a variety of meteorological data formats. The general roadmap for future planned development for MetPy is also discussed.
Both masturbation frequency and pornography use during masturbation have been hypothesized to interfere with sexual response during partnered sex as well as overall relationship satisfaction. However, results from prior studies have been inconsistent and frequently based on case studies, clinical reports, and simple binary analyses. The current study investigated the relationships among masturbation frequency, pornography use, and erectile functioning and dysfunction in 3586 men (mean age = 40.8 yrs, SE = 0.22) within a multivariate context that assessed sexual dysfunctions using standardized instruments and that included other covariates known to affect erectile functioning. Results indicated that frequency of pornography use was unrelated to either erectile functioning or erectile dysfunction (ED) severity in samples that included ED men with and without various sexual comorbidities or in a subset of men 30 years or younger (p = 0.28–0.79). Masturbation frequency was also only weakly and inconsistently related to erectile functioning or ED severity in the multivariate analyses (p = 0.11–0.39). In contrast, variables long known to affect erectile response emerged as the most consistent and salient predictors of erectile functioning and/or ED severity, including age (p < 0.001), having anxiety/depression (p < 0.001 except for a subset of men ≤ 30 years), having a chronic medical condition known to affect erectile functioning (p < 0.001 except for a subset of men ≤ 30 years), low sexual interest (p < 0.001), and low relationship satisfaction (p ≤ 0.04). Regarding sexual and relationship satisfaction, poorer erectile functioning (p < 0.001), lower sexual interest (p < 0.001), anxiety/depression (p < 0.001), and higher frequency of masturbation (p < 0.001) were associated with lower sexual and lower overall relationship satisfaction. In contrast, frequency of pornography use did not predict either sexual or relationship satisfaction (p ≥ 0.748). Findings of this study reiterate the relevance of long-known risk factors for understanding diminished erectile functioning while concomitantly indicating that masturbation frequency and pornography use show weak or no association with erectile functioning, ED severity, and relationship satisfaction. At the same time, although verification is needed, we do not dismiss the idea that heavy reliance on pornography use coupled with a high frequency of masturbation may represent a risk factor for diminished sexual performance during partnered sex and/or relationship satisfaction in subsets of particularly vulnerable men (e.g., younger, less experienced).
The flexural behavior of sandwich concrete beams reinforced with Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) side faces is studied. The GFRP faces are commercially available as pultruded sections consisting of flat plates with integrated T-shaped ribs and are used as stay-in-place (SIP) structural forms with the ribs embedded longitudinally into the concrete beam. Nine beams, 170 ×245 mm in cross-section and 1.06 to 1.945 m in length were tested in three-point bending to failure. Five of the beams included GFRP splices at mid-height along the length to simulate sections of continuous wall applications with spliced panels. The main parameters studied were splice method (adhesive and mechanical fasteners at spacing of 3.7%-16.7% the shear span), GFRP reinforcement ratio (7.6 and 10%) which was controlled by rib spacing, and shear span-to-depth (a/d) ratio (1.8-3.7). The test results have shown that the adhesively spliced beams reached 92%-96% the strength of their un-spliced counterparts. As the fasteners spacing reduced from 16.7%-3.7% of shear span, the strength increased from 86 to 92% the strength of the un-spliced counterpart. As a/d ratio reduced from 3.7 to 1.8, the ultimate moment increased by 17%. The beam with 7.6% GFRP reinforcement ratio had the same flexural strength as a conventional reinforced concrete section of the same size with a total steel reinforcement ratio of 3%. A three-dimensional finite element model is also developed and validated using test results and was able to predict all responses and failure modes, within 5%-8% difference in ultimate load. It was then implemented in a parametric study using 10 additional models to investigate the effects of adding a bottom facing and corner connections.
Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) overlays have become increasingly used for retrofitting concrete bridge decks, beams and slabs. A particular concern for the strengthening system is the localized cracking that develops within the overlay which can lead to failure and reduced strength and ductility. Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar can be used as a hybrid overlay reinforcement to overcome this issue and result in much thinner and lighter overlays. In the present study, the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon-FRP (CFRP)-reinforced UHPC overlays is examined through a robust finite element (FE) model. The model was validated against two existing experimental campaigns, resulting in excellent predictions for load–deflection and load-slip responses, cracking, yielding, and ultimate loads as well as the failure modes. A parametric study, comprising 68 models, was conducted on 5 key parameters, namely: reinforcement ratios for the beam and overlay, concrete compressive strength for the beam, overlay thickness and the interface between cast-in situ overlay and the beam. In general, the system resulted in significant increases in ultimate load and ductility compared to the control beam and those strengthened with un-reinforced or steel-reinforced overlays and eliminated the overlay cracking failure. Varying the CFRP reinforcement ratio in the overlay for the strengthened beam results in a significant increase in ultimate load in range of 112–463%, compared to the control beam. An analytical procedure was also undertaken, using parametric study results and regression analysis, resulting in the development of an analytical model for estimating the capacity of strengthened beams and can be used for design purposes.
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