The first evidence of the white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) reproduction in Crimea is reported. The white-headed duck is a medium size diving duck with a highly fragmented distribution across southeast Asia, south of Europe, and north of Africa and it is declining in most parts of its range. Here, we obtained photographic documentation of an adult female and four 1-week-old ducklings on 16 July 2023 at Saky Lake, located in Saky town. Another brood with 1 chick was recorded here on 28 August 2023. Breeding in wetlands close to human settlement might be a response to hunting and fishing disturbances in other, more remote areas. The appearance of breeding birds in Crimea might be the result of changes in climate or might signal a recovery prompted by reductions in other pressures such as hunting or fishing.
The study of Bronze–Early Iron Age pottery from the sites of the Northern Pontic region provides to trace the traditions of using crushed carbonate rocks as the paste temper. This technological feature depends on cultural, regional, geological, and temporal factors. Investigations of the mineralogical and geochemical composition of 55 ceramic sherds with carbonate additive from 295 vessels from the Prut-Dniester basin (Saharna Mare, Glinjeni II settlements), the Southern Buh basin (Nemirov, Dikiy Sad settlements), the Lower Danube basin (Kartal-Orlovka settlement), the burials in the interfluves of Lower Danube-Dnieper (Pivdennoe, Obloi, Velikaiya Alexandrovka, Kut), the Tarkhankut Peninsula (Bai-Kiyat I, T-H8, T-H2, T-18 sites), were conducted employing such analytical methods as XRF-WD, thin section analysis, SEM-EDX, m-CT, and DTA-TG. The mapping of carbonate rock outcrops on the studied territory showed they could be used as sources of raw materials. The Early Iron Age pottery differs from the Bronze Age pottery in technology. Several paste recipes were used for ceramic manufacture. Addition of crushed carbonates to the Early Iron Age ceramic paste (9th–7th centuries BCE) was used in combination with other types of temper, such as grog and sand. The presence one component presented by the crushed carbonate rocks as a temper can be an archaic element of tradition that is characteristic of the early cultural traditions of the Eneolithic.
The article considers the prerequisites and problems of the evolution of Russian-Ukrainian relations in the period from 2014 to 2022. Geopolitical causes of the reunification of Crimea with the Russian Federation in 2014, as well as the consequences of the mentioned event have been analyzed. The results of negotiations for settlement of the conflict in Ukraine within the framework of the Normandy format have been studied. It is emphasized that in the result of the failure to implement the Package of Measures for the Implementation of the Minsk Agreements the process of resolving the conflict in the South-East of Ukraine has reached a dead end. Moreover, the Ukrainian side, with the support of the states of the socalled collective West, has initiated the preparations to finish the conflict under consideration by military means. In addition, the transformation of the doctrinal documents that determined the Russian-Ukrainian relations has been analyzed. The active influence of the member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on the foreign policy of Ukraine during the period under consideration is noted. The military and technical, reconnaissance, financial and diplomatic support provided to Ukraine by Western states, as well as the politics of Ukraine for implementation of the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism and Russophobia into society have been studied as the factors of transformation of Russian-Ukrainian relations, as well as the prerequisites for the Special Military Operation initiated by the Russian Federation on February 24, 2022.
In this paper a precision water salinity sensor based on microwave resonator is proposed. The geometrical dimensions of the sensor aperture are optimised. Experimental verification of sensitivity is carried out and operational characteristics of the device are determined. The methodology of work with the development is proposed.
Rheumatoid arthritis refers to joint diseases of unclear etiology whose final stages can lead to unbearable pain and complete immobility of the affected joints. As one of the most widely known diseases of the joints, it serves as a study target for a large number of research groups and pharmaceutical companies. Modern treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, including janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and botanicals (polyphenols, glycosides, alkaloids, etc.) has achieved some success and hope for improving the course of the disease. However, existing drugs against RA have a number of side effects which push researchers to elaborate on more selective and effective drug candidates. The avant-garde of research, which aims to develop treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using antisense oligonucleotides along with nonsteroidal drugs and corticosteroids against inflammation, increases the chances of success and expands the arsenal of drugs. The primary goal in the treatment of this disease is to find therapies that allow patients with rheumatoid arthritis to move their joints without pain. The main purpose of this review is to show the victories and challenges for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and the tortuous but promising path of research that aims to help patients experience the joy of freely moving joints without pain.
The subject of the study is the distinctive approaches to the formatting of spatial and temporal structures in historical texts. The main methods for historians belonging to a particular tradition to move through historical space and time in the process of creating discourse are highlighted, affecting a distinctive relationship in the representation of past events and structures, chance and regularity. For the sake of clarity, examples are taken of little-known sites (e.g. the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom of Hellenistic period), for which historians face not only the problem of generalising factual material, but also the problem of incorporating such sites cumulatively, without destroying discourse, into the existing structure of historical knowledge. In line with the opposing approaches developed in both historiographical traditions, the author of this study have outlined and for the first time identified the methods that have been used in these traditions to achieve the objective: the method of frontal approximations (in Soviet historiography) and the ‘historian’s wings’ method (in Western historiography). The study presents examples of applying both methods, identifies their shortcomings and advantages, in accordance with which the specific features inherent in both historiographical traditions are specified, and indicates their significance for an adequate presentation of the historical past.
This paper deals with convolution-type Urysohn equations of the first kind. Finding a solution for such equations is an ill-posed problem. For it to be solved, regularization algorithms and the continuous wavelet transform are used. Similar to the Fourier transform, the continuous wavelet transform is applied to convolution-type equations (based on the Fourier and wavelet transforms) and to Urysohn equations with unknown shift. The wavelet transform is preferable for the cases with approximated right-hand sides and for type 1 equations. We demonstrated that the application of the wavelet transform to Urysohn-type equations with unknown shift translates into a solution of a nonlinear equation with an oscillating kernel. Depending on the availability of a priori information, a combination of regularization and iterative algorithms with the use of close equations are effective for solving convolution-type equations based on the continuous wavelet transform and Urysohn equation.
We have demonstrated efficiency of employing the ABCD matrix approach to transform higher-order structured Laguerre–Gaussian (sLG) beams into structurally stable astigmatic sLG (asLG) beams, highlighting their dynamics at propagating. Radical transformations of the beam structure by a cylindrical lens form not only orbital angular momentum (OAM) fast oscillations and bursts, but also make the asLG beams structurally unstable in propagation through cylindrical and spherical lenses when focusing paraxially. But, if the spherical lens performs a Fourier transform of the asLG beam after a cylindrical lens, the symmetric beam emerges at the lens focal plane with a sharp OAM dip; then, the OAM restores its former astigmatism, becoming structurally stable at the far diffraction domain. By investigating the beam structure at the focal area, we have showed that the OAM sharp dip is associated with nothing less than the process of dividing the OAM into the vortex and astigmatic constitutes predicted by Anan’ev and Bekshaev.
In this work, studies are carried out in the field of optical singular beams that have passed through gyrotropic crystals. We have experimentally shown that singular beams with a helical intensity distribution are formed when passing through a system of two gyrotropic crystals with opposite values of the gyration coefficient. It is shown that the system is capable of generating optical vortices with a double topological charge in one of the components of circular polarization when light propagates through two gyrotropic crystals.
Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia conorii subspecies conorii and transmitted to humans by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. The disease was first discovered in Tunisia in 1910 and was subsequently reported from other Mediterranean countries. The first cases of MSF in the former Soviet Union were detected in 1936 on the Crimean Peninsula. This review summarizes the historic information and main features of MSF in that region and contemporary surveillance and control efforts for this rickettsiosis. Current data pertinent to the epidemiology of the disease, circulation of the ticks and distribution of animal hosts are discussed and compared for each of the countries in the Black Sea basin where MSF occurs.
The culture of food consumption is centered around innovative technologies and the healthy eating ideology. Against this background, manufacturers often use product information to promote products in the market without providing buyers with complete data on their practical purpose. The study tests the hypothesis that the ‘gluten-free’ logo has no effect on consumer choice, and the awareness of a product’s functional properties is formed in the context of marketing information received from the external environment. The methodological basis of the study is marketing theory in terms of consumer perception of products using neuromarketing technologies, oculography, and eye tracking. Practical outcomes were obtained through a pilot method implying a neuromarketing experiment on the visibility of ‘gluten-free’ labels. The empirical evidence covers the results of a survey of 200 buyers at large retail chains in the city of Simferopol in January 2023, as well as the results of an experiment involving 32 students and employees conducted by the Laboratory of Neuromarketing and Behavioral Economics of V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University. The study shows that consumers are dimly aware of the functional properties of gluten-free products. We found that visual attention to the ‘gluten free’ logo was 1.5 times lower than to any other labelling information. A relationship was found between the time spent on studying the product and the buyer’s choice of a test sample with the logo. According to the research results, it is necessary to provide more detailed information on gluten-free products’ packaging; to classify such products as functional, narrowly specialized goods and substitutes intended for consumers with autoimmune disorders; and to sell them in specialized departments or sales points.
Plant health plays an important role in influencing agricultural yields and poor plant health can lead to significant economic losses. Grapes are an important and widely cultivated plant, especially in the southern regions of Russia. Grapes are subject to a number of diseases that require timely diagnosis and treatment. Incorrect identification of diseases can lead to large crop losses. A neural network deep learning dataset of 4845 grape disease images was created. Eight categories of common grape diseases typical of the Black Sea region were studied: Mildew, Oidium, Anthracnose, Esca, Gray rot, Black rot, White rot, and bacterial cancer of grapes. In addition, a set of healthy plants was included. In this paper, a new selective search algorithm for monitoring the state of plant development based on computer vision in viticulture, based on YOLOv5, was considered. The most difficult part of object detection is object localization. As a result, the fast and accurate detection of grape health status was realized. The test results showed that the accuracy was 97.5%, with a model size of 14.85 MB. An analysis of existing publications and patents found using the search “Computer vision in viticulture” showed that this technology is original and promising. The developed software package implements the best approaches to the control system in viticulture using computer vision technologies. A mobile application was developed for practical use by the farmer. The developed software and hardware complex can be installed in any vehicle. Such a mobile system will allow for real-time monitoring of the state of the vineyards and will display it on a map. The novelty of this study lies in the integration of software and hardware. Decision support system software can be adapted to solve other similar problems. The software product commercialization plan is focused on the automation and robotization of agriculture, and will form the basis for adding the next set of similar software.
Successful management of the synthesis of secondary metabolites of essential oil plants is the basis for the economic growth of the essential oil industry. Against the backdrop of a growing global population and a decrease in land available for cultivation, simple and effective ways to increase the content of certain components in essential oils are becoming increasingly important. Selection is no longer keeping pace with market needs, which stimulates the search for faster methods to control the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this article, using the genera Lavandula and Mentha as examples, we consider the prospects for use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), oligoilators, to rapidly increase the concentration of valuable components in essential oil and its yield. This article discusses the use of unmodified ASOs as regulators of a plant’s secondary metabolism to increase the synthesis of individual valuable components, presenting a completely new way to increase the yield of valuable substances based on unique nucleotide sequences. The proposed approach is effective, affordable, safe, and significantly reduces the time needed to obtain plants that synthesize the required concentrations of target substances. Oligoilators can be used with oligonucleotide insecticides (olinscides) in complex formulations used for green agriculture. Further investigation is needed to determine maximum economic efficiency for this approach.
The article reveals the main content of strategic planning of socioeconomic development of territorial communities as an important tool for improving the quality of life of the population. It was revealed that the concept of «strategic planning of socioeconomic development of territorial communities» can acquire different meanings, on the one hand as a process of sequential implementation of interconnected stages with the aim of achieving a predetermined socioeconomic effect, on the other hand as a set of decisions taken by territorial bodies within the framework of defined strategies. It was found that the socioeconomic development of territorial communities is a priority in the totality of state interests, as it contributes to various aspects of the country’s life. It was revealed that the reform of the territorial organization of power in 2020 was marked by the creation of 1,470 capable territorial communities in which positive processes of governance restructuring were developing, but the fullscale war significantly corrected them, directing them in the direction of security and survival. The destruction of infrastructure, the closure of a significant number of enterprises, and the forced migration of the population became a test of the capacity and stability of communities. The relevance of the development of programs for the recovery of the local economy in war conditions and community development programs in the postwar period is substantiated. In order to ensure the successful implementation of community development strategies, it is proposed to take into account international experience, the best domestic practices of territorial development, and to use such a tool as grant opportunities in the field of restoration and development of territorial communities. , which includes taking into account the needs and interests of the population, efficient use of resources, coordination between different levels of government and stakeholders.
The paper presents a study of the structural and electrophysical parameters of sandwich structures of the conductive electrode type—a film of colloidal quantum dots of silver sulfide (QDs Ag2S/SiO2) and Au plasmon nanoparticles—the second conductive electrode. The methods of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including high-resolution TEM, IR absorption spectroscopy, were used, and the current–voltage characteristics were analyzed. It is shown that Ag2S/SiO2 QD reveals a crystalline cross section of 1.6 nm in the monoclinic modification and an amorphous SiO2 shell with a thickness of about 1.6 nm, which approximately corresponds to one monolayer of the organic ligand (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. It is shown that the Al-Ag2S/SiO2-ITO sandwich structure has a barrier-type CVC, determined by the Schottky barrier that appears at the boundary of the Ag2S QD film and aluminum. The use of plasmon-exciton Ag2S/SiO2/Au in the formation of sandwich structures Al-Ag2S/SiO2/Au-ITO changes the CVC to linear, which apparently determines the ohmic type of conductivity and the absence of barriers in such a structure. It was found that, in contrast to the structure based on Ag2S/SiO2 QDs, the Al-Ag2S/SiO2/Au-ITO structure has photosensitivity. It is concluded that decorating Ag2S/SiO2 QDs with Au nanoparticles increases the photosensitivity of sandwich structures.
Macrosiphoniella sanborni is a widespread pest of Chrysanthemum morifolium that causes significant damage to world floriculture. Chemical insecticides and biological methods of control have a number of disadvantages that can be improved by using oligonucleotide insecticides. In this article, we present, for the first time, the results of using oligonucleotide insecticides, for which the target sequence is an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in a polycistronic rRNA transcript. The mortality of wingless aphid individuals after a Macsan-11 treatment was recorded at a level of 67.15 ± 3.32% 7 days after a single treatment with a solution at a concentration of 100 ng/μL and 97.38 ± 2.49% 7 days after a double treatment with a solution of the same concentration and a daily interval. The contact use of the control oligonucleotide (ACTG)2ACT-11. as well as the oligonucleotide insecticides Macsan-11(3′) and Macsan-11(5′) was not accompanied by insect mortality. Given the high variability in the internal transcribed spacer, which has proven to be a promising target for the action of oligonucleotide insecticides, it is possible to create selective preparations. This study showed the prospects of ribosomal insect pest genes as targets for the action of olinscides, and also demonstrated the high specificity of such insecticidal agents.
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