VID Specialized University
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Background In utero exposure to nicotine, largely assessed by smoking, is a risk factor for impaired offspring health, while potential effects of non-combustible nicotine use such as snus (oral moist tobacco), are less well-known. Maternal serum concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) may be viewed as “placenta health markers”, known to differ by fetal sex. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with lower levels of circulating sFlt-1, while the effect of snus on placenta-associated angiogenic factors is unknown. Our aim was to explore if snus and/or smoking exposure was associated with midpregnancy maternal levels of sFlt-1, PlGF and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio if these associations were modified by fetal sex. Methods Midpregnancy (16–22 gestational weeks) serum from 2603 Scandinavian women enrolled in the population-based multi-center PreventADALL (Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and ALLergies in children) study was analysed for sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations by electrochemiluminescence, deriving the sFlt-1/PGF ratio. Nicotine use was assessed by electronic questionnaires at enrollment in 2278 of the women. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models on log transformed outcomes were used to assess the association between nicotine use and biomarker levels. Interaction terms were included to identify whether the associations were modified by fetal sex. Results Median sFlt-1, PlGF and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios among women with nicotine exposure information were similar to those of all included women and differed by fetal sex. Current snus use was significantly associated with reduced maternal circulating PlGF levels in adjusted analyses [ β − 0.12, (95% CI − 0.20; 0.00) compared to never use, p = 0.020]. A significant interaction between fetal sex and snus exposure was observed for PIGF ( p = 0.031). Prior or periconceptional snus use was significantly associated with PIGF in male fetus pregnancies [ β − 0.05 (95% CI − 0.09 to (− 0.02)) and β − 0.07 (95% CI − 0.12 to (− 0.02)) compared to never use, p = 0.002]. Smoking was not significantly associated with any circulating biomarkers levels. Conclusions Midpregnancy maternal angiogenic profile differed by periconceptional snus use and fetal sex. Snus exposure, perceived as “safe” by users, before or during pregnancy seems to affect midpregnancy placental health in a sex dimorphic manner.
Patients in specialist mental healthcare services who are at risk of suicide may experience their struggles as existential in nature. Yet, research on meaning in life has been relatively scarce in suicidology. This qualitative study aimed to explore how patients at risk of suicide perceived their encounters with specialist healthcare professionals after a suicide attempt (SA), with special reference to meaning in life experiences. The study was conducted in specialised mental healthcare services in Norway. Data were collected via individual interviews with eight patients aged 20–75 years. Using a four-step procedure, the interviews were analysed by systematic text condensation. The participants understood their feelings of shame, self-contempt and challenging life experiences as contributing factors to their SA. They perceived that existential themes in relation to financial difficulties, shame and trauma were resolved, while issues associated with the SA, such as death, loss and beliefs, were given less attention. The participants were either ambivalent about continuing to live or wished to rebuild a meaningful life. Overall, their experiences of meaningfulness were hampered. Assisting patients with meaning in life experiences may help them alter their life interpretations and increase their ability to rebuild their lives as meaningful. The present study should be seen as a contribution to meaning-informed approaches in specialist mental healthcare services. More research is needed to equip healthcare personnel in their overall aims of preventing suicide and supporting patients at risk in their efforts to live a meaningful life.
Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to explore mothers' and public health nurses' (PHN) experiences with sleep problems in children aged 6 months to 3 years in Norway. Background: Sleep problems in children are common, affecting their health and development, and their mothers' well-being. It is also the primary reason parents seek help in well-child clinics (WCC). However, there is limited knowledge regarding the experiences of these mothers and the public health nurses who consult them. Design: Qualitative design. Methods: Four semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted: two with mothers (n = 14) who had children with sleep problems and two with public health nurses (n = 14) from well-child clinics. The Framework Method was used for analysing the interviews of mothers. Data from public health nurses were charted onto the analytical framework of maternal data to understand how or whether public health nurses addressed the issues raised by mothers. The study is reported according to the COREQ checklist. Result: The analysis resulted in two main themes: 'therapeutic alliance' (categories 'alliance ruptures' and 'demanding negotiation process') and 'reorganisation of identity' (categories 'unfulfilled expectations' and 'internal tension conflicts'). Conclusion: Young children's sleep problems present challenges to new mothers due to failed expectations, negatively affecting their feelings as mothers and towards their children, and consequently the reorganising of maternal identity. Most mothers experienced unsatisfactory therapeutic alliances while seeking help from public health nurses because advice was considered overly general, contradictory and unsafe for their children. Public health nurses were mostly aware of the parental consequences of children's sleep problems, but many appeared unable to help because of limited time and knowledge. Relevance to clinical practice: Public health nurses need to establish a therapeutic alliance and provide evidence-based knowledge and guidance on sleep problems while also considering women's reorganisation of identity when becoming mothers. Clinical trial registration: Open Science Framework: osf-registrations-6ag38-v1 (
Whether higher education students’ approaches to studying are amenable to change, is disputed. In this study, Norwegian occupational therapy students’ (n = 263) approaches to studying were assessed annually across the three-year course, with the aim of exploring changes during the undergraduate study program. Sociodemographic information and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students were completed. Changes during the follow-up period were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. A significant increase in deep approach scores and a decrease in surface approach scores during the study program was revealed. The strategic approach remained unchanged, but with a difference between education institutions. Overall, the study suggests that the students’ approaches to studying changed in a positive direction during the study program. Attention should be given to students at risk of adopting a surface approach to studying and to the individual and contextual elements influencing study behaviors.
Aim: To explore the emotional changes and reactions men experience in their transition to fatherhood. Design: This study used a qualitative design. Methods: Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 Norwegian fathers. Results: Through thematic analysis, three main themes were developed: (1) from self-focus to family perspective; (2) emotional vulnerability; and (3) from insecurity to self-assurance. The themes describe fathers' emotional process during the child's first year of life, ranging from positive feelings like affection and mastery, to challenging feelings like exclusion, jealousy and exhaustion. Many fathers describe taboos and shame over their own emotional reactions, although these can be considered a natural part of the postnatal period.
Purpose To explore the recovery narratives of 13 young women who had fallen ill with severe Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), also known as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), during childhood and adolescence, with the focus on what they had to say about their past experiences from the perspective of the present. Method A qualitative narrative approach, informed by a phenomenological theoretical perspective, was adopted to explore what the women found significant and meaningful in their recovery process. Data analysis of in-depth narrative interviews was performed which are presented to readers through the stories of two particular participants. Results The first story describes how one participant made a recovery by testing her body’s tolerance and working to create a more confident self. The second story describes a complex exploration of possibilities for action in recovery, along with a struggle to make sense of setbacks and hold on to what has been gained. Conclusion Recovering from ME/CFS emerges as an inter-personal, contextual, fragile and nonlinear process of homecoming, based on gradually rising bodily based self-knowledge. Illness slowly fades away into the background, and there is the prospect of a healthier tomorrow.
Background People with anorexia nervosa often present with confusions around bodily sensations and difficulties in experiencing their body as a place of their own. Many existing models understand anorexia nervosa as a disorder of behaviour and thoughts about eating and body size, and treatments typically focus on modifying thoughts and psychological processes. They leave aside the subject as she experiences the body from a first-person perspective. Inspired by phenomenology and the embodied mind thesis, this explorative study examines in depth the experiences of individuals with anorexia nervosa as they engage in Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy. Through release of bodily tension and restricted breathing, this method aims to help subjects tune into the body and accept that difficult experiences, relationships and feelings are also bodily. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with two women who had been attending Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy for more than two years. Thematic analysis was used to identify, analyse and interpret themes within the data. Results Three main overarching themes that structure the subjects’ experiences were identified: the meaning of the therapeutic relationship, changes in bodily connectedness and ways of moving, and improved ability to articulate and reflect on feelings. Conclusion The subjects described a greater tendency to experience the body in the self and as a place of their own, a more flexible and vital body, and an increased capacity to identify, express and make sense of feelings. These changes enriched their interactions with the social world. Feeling acknowledged and accepted by the therapist throughout the process was essential. The study illustrates how difficult experiences, thoughts and feelings can, over time, manifest in the body as withheld breathing and diverse bodily constraints affecting both self- and body awareness. The study endorses the phenomenological concepts that our experiences of the self and the world are essentially bodily, and emphasizes the importance of the first-person perspective when investigating the contribution of the body to the self and to our interactions with the social world. Physio- and body awareness therapies that help patients relate to, understand and integrate bodily experiences may complement other treatment approaches and help patients with anorexia proceed with the recovery process. Plain English summary Having anorexia nervosa involve changes in the way one experiences the body. The condition has been linked to confusions around bodily sensations and reduced experience of the body as an integrated place of their own. The purpose of this study was to gain a richer understanding of bodily experiences in subjects with anorexia nervosa having attended a specialized physiotherapy approach. In depth interviews were conducted with two women who had anorexia nervosa and who had engaged in Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy for more than two years. Three themes that structure the subjects’ experiences were identified: the meaning of the therapeutic relationship, changes in bodily connectedness and ways of moving, and improved ability to articulate and reflect on feelings. The subjects described a greater tendency to experience the body in the self and as a place of their own, a more flexible and vital body, and an increased capacity to identify, express and make sense of feelings. Feeling acknowledged and accepted by the therapist throughout the process was essential. The study illustrates how difficult experiences, thoughts and feelings can manifest in the body as withheld breathing and diverse bodily constraints affecting both self- and body awareness in people with anorexia nervosa.
Plato and Aristotle understood phenomena to be knowable to the extent that they participate in the reality of the unchangeable, and this attitude was appropriated by the church fathers as a way of exploring the world’s dependence on its Creator. Luther’s insistence on the world’s sinfulness and on salvation as one-sidedly dependent on divine agency has been criticized as a rejection of this understanding of the inherent goodness of the world, thus paving the way for the secularized world view of modernity. Among these critics is Erich Przywara in his works up to and including his book Analogia Entis from 1932. However, in 1952 Przywara published an article where he found Luther’s theology of exchange to be a close parallel to his own doctrine of analogia entis, the implication being that Luther is closer to a Catholic understanding of the world’s relationship with God than mainstream post-Enlightenment Protestantism, and this article is an attempt to substantiate that claim.
Purpose This study compared the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and enhanced treatment as usual (eTAU) in children and adolescents exposed to family violence and receiving mental health services. Methods A total of 89 children, aged 5 to 17 years, with severe trauma symptoms participated with their non-offending caregiver in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing TFCBT and eTAU. Children were assigned a DSM-IV diagnosis at treatment start and after 6 months. Self-reported trauma symptoms and parental reports of children’s psychological well-being and their own psychological symptoms were obtained at treatment start and after 6 and 12 months. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed, and the reliable change index was calculated. Results Reports from children, parents, and clinicians showed a statistically significant reduction in trauma and other mental health symptoms among children in both the TFCBT and eTAU groups, with no statistically significant between-group differences. Trauma symptoms and other mental health symptoms decreased, with small to medium effects after both 6 and 12 months. Clinically significant change in core symptoms was however documented in less than half of the sample. Parents’ self-reported psychiatric and trauma symptoms showed small reductions in both groups, with no between-group differences. Conclusions Contrary to findings in prior RCTs, TF-CBT did not significantly outperform the control treatment (eTAU). The non-significant between-group findings and modest positive changes for individuals in both groups may be explained by the multi-traumatized study population, the treatment delivery, and/or the study design.
When students enter a bachelor program in occupational therapy, they engage in a variety of learning activities. To explore students' perceptions of learning activities, this qualitative study investigated the experiences of six first year students participating in an occupational therapy study program at a Norwegian university. The students took part in two focus group interviews. The interview analysis focused on meaning and ended up with three main themes: 1) Getting to know each other through collaborative learning activities, 2) Engaging in classroom learning activities, and 3) Approaching the syllabus and doing assignments. The study concludes that early engagement in social and collaborative learning activities can be a meaningful prerequisite to future learning focused on meaning and feeling safe in the learning environment. Teaching styles also influence students' engagement in the occupation of studying, with the change from one teaching style to another being particularly challenging for the students.
Constantly facing human suffering and impending death can generate anxiety and insecurity in nursing personnel in end-of-life care. The aim of the study is to reveal nursing personnel’s inner driving force in end-of-life care. A phenomenological hermeneutical method was used to search for meaning in the narrative data collected in this study. The structural analysis resulted in four themes: The appeal in the patient’s vulnerability, The appeal in the patient’s joy, Facing one’s own existence in vulnerability, and Being at home with colleagues. Both vulnerability and joy motivated nursing personnel in caring. The care was often emotionally engaging and oscillated between grief and joy, which required a great deal from the nursing personnel both as professionals and fellow human beings. At the same time the emotionally engaging constituted an inner driving force, which gave them courage to do the best for the patients at the end of life.
Background The COVID-19 pandemic with its restrictions touched the daily life of most people. While everyday social life becomes difficult for citizens with economic and cultural capital, it becomes even worse for persons with mental health (MHD) and substance use disorders (SUD), who are particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. In this project, we aim to explore the impact of the pandemic on persons MHD/SUD, nearer, how the lockdown effected their daily life and further, the utilization of health care services under the consecutive waves of the pandemic. Methods The project has two parts: First we conducted 17 individual interviews and one focus group with persons with MHD/SUD, using thematic analysis. Second, we merged the Norwegian Patient Register, the Register for Infectious Diseases and data from Statistics Norway. We matched data of 41500 individuals with MHD/SUD after gender, age and health region with a sample from the general population as a control group and study the health care service utilization under the consecutive waves of the pandemic in Norway in 2020-2021. Results Within the qualitative study, we identified four interrelated main themes: (1) The COVID-19 outbreak as a perceived challenge, (2) A decline in mental health and well-being, (3) Increased substance use challenges, and (4) Diverse experiences with health and social services. The results show further that people with MHD/SUD have challenges with digital tools and/or do not have the appropriate equipment. Persons with MHD/SUD face greater barriers in accessing the health care system compared to the general population as a control group. Results of the register study are still preliminary. Conclusions Persons with MHD/SUD face major challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic There is reason to believe that new pandemics will emerge in the future. In this context, it is essential to gain knowledge of how to care for vulnerable groups in society and how to reach them in emergencies. Key messages • Continuous maintenance of low-threshold services for persons with MHD/SUD during a pandemic is essential. • Improvement of digital skills of service users or alternatives to digital consultations should be considered.
Background In 2011 Norway granted undocumented women the right to antenatal care and to give birth at a hospital but did not include them in the general practitioner and reimbursement schemes. As a response to limited access to health care, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) have been running health clinics for undocumented migrants in Norway’s two largest cities. To further facilitate universal health coverage, there is a need to investigate how pregnant undocumented women use NGO clinics and how this affects their maternal health. We therefore investigated the care received, occurrence of pregnancy-related complications and pregnancy outcomes in women receiving antenatal care at these clinics. Methods In this historic cohort study we included pregnant women aged 18–49 attending urban NGO clinics from 2009 to 2020 and retrieved their medical records from referral hospitals. We compared women based on region of origin using log-binominal regression to estimate relative risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results We identified 582 pregnancies in 500 women during the study period. About half (46.5%) the women sought antenatal care after gestational week 12, and 25.7% after week 22. The women had median 1 (IQR 1–3) antenatal visit at the NGO clinics, which referred 77.7% of the women to public health care. A total of 28.4% of women were referred for induced abortion. In 205 retrieved deliveries in medical records, there was a 45.9% risk for any adverse pregnancy outcome. The risk of stillbirth was 1.0%, preterm birth 10.3%, and emergency caesarean section 19.3%. Conclusion Pregnant undocumented women who use NGO clinics receive substandard antenatal care and have a high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes despite low occurrence of comorbidities. To achieve universal health coverage, increased attention should be given to the structural vulnerabilities of undocumented women and to ensure that adequate antenatal care is accessible for them.
Assessing risk, planning for safety and security, and aiding recovery for children subjected to violence in a family setting is a complex process. The aim of the article is to synthesize the current research literature about risks for children subjected to violence in the family and outline an empirical base for a holistic and practically usable model of risk assessments placing the individual child at the center. Such assessments need to recognize four different areas of risk: (1) child safety, i.e., known risk factors for severe and dangerous violence aimed at both adults and children and how they play out in the individual case; (2) the child’s response in situations with violence; (3) the child’s perspective, especially fear and feelings of powerlessness in situations with violence; (4) developmental risks, e.g., instability in the child’s situation and care arrangements, lack of a carer/parent as a “secure base” and “safe haven”, the child developing difficulties due to the violence (e.g., PTSD), problems in parents’ caring capacities in relation to a child with experiences of, and reactions to, violence, and lack of opportunities for the child to make sense of, and create meaning in relation to, experiences of violence. In addition to the four areas of risk, the article emphasizes the importance of assessing the need for immediate intervention and safety planning in the current situation as regards safety, the child’s responses, the child’s perspectives, and long-term developmental risks.
Background By sharing patient stories, health care professionals (HCPs) may communicate their attitudes, values and beliefs about caring and treatment. Previous qualitative research has shown that HCPs usually associate paediatric palliative care (PPC) with death or dying and that they find the concept challenging to understand and difficult to implement. Attending to HCPs’ stories may provide a richer account of their understanding of PPC. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore PPC stories narrated by HCPs to gain increased insight into their understanding of what PPC entails. Methods This qualitative study collected data from four focus group interviews with 21 HCPs from different units in two Norwegian hospitals. Stories told by the HCPs to illustrate their comprehension of PPC were analysed following thematic analysis procedures. Results Four themes were identified illustrating what PPC meant to the participants: creating spaces for normality, providing tailored support for the family, careful preparations for saying goodbye and experiencing dilemmas and distress. The stories centred on family care, particularly relating to dramatic or affective situations when the death of a child was imminent. Conclusion The stories reflect how the HCPs view PPC as a specific field of health care that requires particular professional sensitivity, including good communication, collaboration and planning. Thus, the HCPs in this study demonstrated knowledge about the core qualities needed to succeed in PPC. However, similar to previous research, the stories illustrate that how HCPs speak about PPC is strongly associated with end-of-life care, and by that the HCPs do not capture the breadth of the PPC concept. The findings highlight the importance of increasing knowledge about the meaning and content of PPC among HCPs in order to maintain quality of life for all children with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions throughout their illness trajectory.
Aim: The current study aims to review the existing literature on internet-based health interventions directed to support parents of children aged 0 to 5 years. Methods: We systematically searched electronic databases between January 2000 and 2018. The search consisted of terms describing eHealth, intervention, and families and/or children. Results: Internet-based parent support interventions were most often directed at rehabilitation and selective prevention, and we identified more studies on mental health (57%) than somatic health (41%). Developmental disorders were the most frequently studied mental health condition (n = 33), while interventions for obesity (15%) were the most studied somatic health condition. Forty-four percent of mental health studies were RCTs and 65% of interventions were theory driven. Interventions most often used a behavioral approach, included guidance, and delivered content via text-based information. Conclusion: Several significant gaps were identified such as the need for more research outside of English-speaking countries, more systematic reviews, and effect studies. This review also elucidates the need for researchers to improve reporting on the theoretical approaches employed in interventions, and to focus on determining the importance of guidance. Finally, program developers should consider using more audio-visual technology to avoid reinforcing social inequalities in access to healthcare.
The concept of ‘existential’, used frequently in Scandinavian healthcare journals, is associated with various, often unclear, meanings, highlighting the need for a more accurate understanding of the concept. In this integrative review we analyse how the concept has been used in Scandinavian healthcare journals from 1984 to 2020, exploring the trajectory of the concept, its definitions and its applications. A secondary aim is to offer some clarity regarding how the concept may be used in future healthcare research and provide a definition of ‘existential’ based on our findings. Our findings show that while the concept is increasingly used, it is rarely defined, and there appears to be no consensus on the concept’s meaning. We categorise applications of the concept into five overarching themes: (1) Suffering and re-orientation, (2) Meaning and meaninglessness, (3) Existential philosophy in relation to health (4) Existential questions as approaches to care and (5) Usage and demarcation of existential, spiritual and religious concepts. Based on the findings, we propose a definition of the concept of ‘existential’ in the healthcare context. The study contributes to, and underscores advantages and limitations of, the use of the concept in healthcare research.
Background: Active ageing is described as the process of optimizing health, empowerment, and security to enhance the quality of life in the rapidly growing population of older adults. Meanwhile, multimorbidity and neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), lead to global public health and resource limitations. We introduce a novel user-centered paradigm of ageing based on wearable-driven artificial intelligence (AI) that may harness the autonomy and independence that accompany functional limitation or disability, and possibly elevate life expectancy in older adults and people with PD. Methods: ActiveAgeing is a 4-year, multicentre, mixed method, cyclic study that combines digital phenotyping via commercial devices (Empatica E4, Fitbit Sense, and Oura Ring) with traditional evaluation (clinical assessment scales, in-depth interviews, and clinical consultations) and includes four types of participants: (1) people with PD and (2) their informal caregiver; (3) healthy older adults from the Helgetun living environment in Norway, and (4) people on the Helgetun waiting list. For the first study, each group will be represented by N = 15 participants to test the data acquisition and to determine the sample size for the second study. To suggest lifestyle changes, modules for human expert-based advice, machine-generated advice, and self-generated advice from accessible data visualization will be designed. Quantitative analysis of physiological data will rely on digital signal processing (DSP) and AI techniques. The clinical assessment scales are the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), and the REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ). A qualitative inquiry will be carried out with individual and focus group interviews and analysed using a hermeneutic approach including narrative and thematic analysis techniques. Discussion: We hypothesise that digital phenotyping is feasible to explore the ageing process from clinical and lifestyle perspectives including older adults and people with PD. Data is used for clinical decision-making by symptom tracking, predicting symptom evolution, and discovering new outcome measures for clinical trials.
Objectives Sociodemographic predictors of employee alcohol use are well established in the literature, but knowledge about associations between workplace factors and alcohol use is less explored. The aim of this study was to explore whether workplace factors were associated with employee alcohol use (consumption and alcohol-related problems). Design Cross-sectional study. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses. Setting Heterogeneous sample of employees (workers and supervisors) from 22 companies across geographical locations and work divisions in Norway. Participants Employees (N=5388) responded on survey items measuring workplace factors and alcohol use. Outcomes Data on alcohol use were collected with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumption was measured with the AUDIT-C (the first three items), and alcohol-related problems were operationalised as a sum score of 8 or higher on the full 10-item AUDIT. Results Higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with more liberal workplace drinking social norms (b=1.37, p<0.001), working full-time (b=0.18, p<0.001), working from holiday home (b=0.40, p<0.01), being a supervisor (b=0.25, p<0.001), having supervisors with less desired leadership qualities (b=−0.10, p<0.01), shorter working hours (b=−0.03, p<0.05), higher workplace social support (b=0.13, p<0.05) and higher income (b=0.02, p<0.001). Alcohol-related problems were associated with more liberal workplace drinking social norms (OR=3.52, p<0.001) and shorter working hours (OR=0.94, p<0.05). Conclusions Workplace drinking social norms were the supremely most dominant predictor of both consumption and alcohol-related problems. Results suggest that some workplace factors may play a role in explaining employee alcohol consumption, although the predictive ability of these factors was limited. This study points to the importance of drinking social norms, workplace drinking culture and leadership for understanding employee alcohol use.
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282 members
Tine K Grimholt
  • Faculty of Health
Aleksandra Bartoszko
  • Faculty of Social Studies
Elisabeth Jeppesen
  • Faculty of health studies
Gurid Aga Askeland
  • Institute of social work and family therapy
Oslo, Norway