This study examined daily occurrences of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and whether caregivers’ perceived distress towards BPSD varies throughout four phases of the day (i.e., morning, daytime, evening, and night). Family caregivers residing with relatives who were using adult day services (ADS) participated in an 8-day daily diary study (caregiver N = 173; caregiver-day N = 1,359). BPSD occurred most frequently in the evenings. ADS use, sleep disturbances, and dementia severity were significantly associated with BPSD occurrence for some phases of the day. Caregivers’ distress towards BPSD occurrences increased throughout the day (i.e., most stressful at night). However, caregivers showed lower reactivity to BPSD at night on days when their relatives used ADS. Evidence of temporal patterns of BPSD in community-dwelling older adults and caregiver distress demonstrated the importance of ADS use for BPSD reactivity and identified potential target windows and associated contextual factors for individualized interventions.
Research demonstrates that appropriation of aspects of American Indian cultures, pseudo-culture, and ethno-national identities is harmful to American Indians. Yet, when American Indians strive to eliminate this appropriation, they are often met with resistance from White Americans who are attached to the appropriation. Using a survey of 517 White Americans, we explored whether settler colonial collective memory was associated with this attachment. More specifically, we examined the associations between five ideologies that are part of this memory—glorification of U.S. colonialism, nationalism, militarism, masculine toughness, and White identity pride—and support for American Indian mascots and other types of appropriation. We found that these five ideologies are associated with each other, as well as with support for American Indian mascots and the other types of appropriation. In addition, we found that glorification of U.S. colonialism mediated between belief in each of the other four ideologies and support for appropriation. We situate our findings in the context of settler colonial collective memory and discuss how our findings can inform change.
Measurement of 24-hr movement behaviors is important for assessing adherence to guidelines, participation trends over time, group differences, and whether health-promoting interventions are successful. For a measurement tool to be useful, it must be valid, reliable, and able to detect change, the latter being a measurement property called responsiveness, sensitivity to change, or longitudinal validity. We systematically reviewed literature on the responsiveness of accelerometers to detect change in 24-hr movement behaviors. Databases (PubMed, Scopus, and EBSCOHost) were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English between 1998 and 2023. Quality/risk of bias was assessed using a customized tool. This study is registered at https://osf.io/qrn8a . Twenty-six papers met the inclusion/exclusion criteria with an overall sample of 1,939 participants. Narrative synthesis was used. Most studies focused on adults ( n = 21), and almost half ( n = 12) included individuals with specific medical conditions. Studies primarily took place in free-living settings ( n = 21) and used research-grade accelerometers ( n = 24) worn on the hip ( n = 18), thigh ( n = 7), or wrist ( n = 9). Outcomes included physical activity ( n = 19), sedentary time/behavior ( n = 12), or sleep ( n = 2) and were calculated using proprietary formulas (e.g., Fitbit algorithm), cut points, and/or count-based methods. Most studies calculated responsiveness by comparing before versus after an intervention ( n = 16). Six studies included a criterion measure to confirm that changes occurred. Limited research is available on the responsiveness of accelerometers for detecting change in 24-hr movement behaviors, particularly in youth populations, for sleep outcomes, and for commercial and thigh- or wrist-worn devices. Lack of a criterion measure precludes conclusions about the responsiveness even in more frequently studied outcomes/populations.
Accelerometers are increasingly used to measure 24-hr movement behaviors but are sometimes removed intermittently (e.g., for sleep or bathing), resulting in missing data. This study compared physical behaviors between times a hip-placed accelerometer was worn versus not worn in a college student sample. Participants ( n = 115) wore a hip-placed ActiGraph during waking times and a thigh-placed activPAL continuously for at least 7 days (mean ± SD 7.5 ± 1.1 days). Thirteen nonwear algorithms determined ActiGraph nonwear; days included in the analysis had to have at least 1 min where the ActiGraph classified nonwear while participant was classified as awake by the activPAL. activPAL data for steps, time in sedentary behaviors (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ActiGraph wear times were then compared with activPAL data from ActiGraph nonwear times. Participants took more steps (10.2–11.8 steps/min) and had higher proportions of MVPA (5.0%–5.9%) during ActiGraph wear time than nonwear time (3.1–8.0 steps/min, 0.8%–1.3% in MVPA). Effects were variable for SB (62.6%–66.9% of wear, 45.5%–76.2% of nonwear) and LPA (28.2%–31.5% of wear, 23.0%–53.2% of nonwear) depending on nonwear algorithm. Rescaling to a 12-hr day reduced SB and LPA error but increased MVPA error. Requiring minimum wear time (e.g., 600 min/day) reduced error but resulted in 10%–22% of days removed as invalid. In conclusion, missing data had minimal effect on MVPA but resulted in underestimation of SB and LPA. Strategies like scaling SB and LPA, but not MVPA, may improve physical behavior estimates from incomplete accelerometer data.
Correction for ‘Measuring the electrophoretic mobility and size of single particles using microfluidic transverse AC electrophoresis (TrACE)’ by M. Hannah Choi et al. , Lab Chip , 2023, https://doi.org/10.1039/D3LC00413A.
Background Research has demonstrated that implementation of Nocebo Hypothesis Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (NH-CBT) achieved full symptom remission in 93% of people with Functional Neurological Symptoms Disorder (FNSD), most of them exhibiting motor symptoms. The basis for NH-CBT is consistent with a predictive coding aetiological model of FNSD. This idea is transparently shared with people with FNSD in the form of telling them that their symptoms are caused by a nocebo effect, usually followed by some physical activity that aims to change the person’s belief about their body. Aims To demonstrate that a version of NH-CBT can also be effective in eliminating or reducing non-epileptic seizures (assumed to be a sub-type of FNSD). Method A consecutive case series design was employed. Participants were treated with NH-CBT over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure was seizure frequency. Numerous secondary measures were employed, as well as a brief qualitative interview to explore participants’ subjective experience of treatment. Results Seven out of the 10 participants became seizure free at least 2 weeks before their post-treatment assessment, and all stayed seizure-free for at least 5 months. Six of those seven remained seizure free at 6-month follow-up. There were large positive effect sizes for the majority of secondary measures assessed. Conclusions This case series provides evidence of feasibility and likely utility of NH-CBT in reducing the frequency of non-epileptic seizures.
Practice guidelines for early childhood education (ECE) and clinical autism interventions (Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention, NDBI) have emerged separately in history, represent different disciplines, and operate within different service systems. This manuscript identifies priorities, principles, and practices that are shared across the NDBI and ECE frameworks, unique to each framework but compatible with the other, or in conflict. Both frameworks support converging inclusive ECE models focused on autism in that they are both grounded in responsive relationships, natural learning environments, and strategies to promote children’s motivation and active engagement. While compatible in general, each framework extends the other in important ways. For example, NDBI goes beyond the ECE frameworks by focusing on a more fine-grained examination of learning strategies and targets. Opportunities for bridging gaps are identified, including the use of implementation science frameworks to integrate perspectives from different stakeholder groups, supporting the scale-up of inclusion preschools in community settings.
As part of an effort to observe and study ionospheric disturbances and their effects on radio signals used by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), alternative low-cost GNSS-based ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) monitors have been deployed over the American sector. During inspection of the observations made on 28 August 2022, we found increases in the amplitude scintillation index (S4) reported by the monitors for the period between approximately 17:45 UT and 18:20 UT. The distributed, dual-frequency observations made by the sensors allowed us to determine that the increases in S4 were not caused by ionospheric irregularities. Instead, they resulted from C/No variations caused by a solar radio burst (SRB) event that followed the occurrence of two M-class X-ray solar flares and a Halo coronal mass ejection. The measurements also allowed us to quantify the impact of the SRB on GNSS signals. The observations show that the SRB caused maximum C/No fadings of about 8 dB-Hz (12 dB-Hz) on L1 ~ 1.6 GHz (L2 ~ 1.2 GHz) for signals observed by the monitor in Dallas for which the solar zenith angle was maximum (~24.4o) during the SRB. Calculations using observations made by the distributed monitors also show excellent agreement for estimates of the maximum (vertical equivalent) C/No fadings in both L1 and L2. The calculations show maximum fadings of 9 dB-Hz for L1 and of 13 dB-Hz for L2. Finally, the results exemplify the usefulness of the low-cost monitors for studies beyond those associated with ionospheric irregularities and scintillation.
Aquatic communities are increasingly subjected to multiple stressors through global change, including warming, pH shifts, and elevated nutrient concentrations. These stressors often surpass species tolerance range, leading to unpredictable consequences for aquatic communities and ecosystem functioning. Phytoplankton, as the foundation of the aquatic food web, play a crucial role in controlling water quality and the transfer of nutrients and energy to higher trophic levels. Despite the significance in understanding the effect of multiple stressors, further research is required to explore the combined impact of multiple stressors on phytoplankton. In this study, we used a combination of crossed experiment and mechanistic model to analyze the ecological and biogeochemical effects of global change on aquatic ecosystems and to forecast phytoplankton dynamics. We examined the effect of dust (0–75 mg L−1), temperature (19–27°C), and pH (6.3–7.3) on the growth rate of the algal species Scenedesmus obliquus. Furthermore, we carried out a geospatial analysis to identify regions of the planet where aquatic systems could be most affected by atmospheric dust deposition. Our mechanistic model and our empirical data show that dust exerts a positive effect on phytoplankton growth rate, broadening its thermal and pH tolerance range. Finally, our geospatial analysis identifies several high-risk areas including the highlands of the Tibetan Plateau, western United States, South America, central and southern Africa, central Australia as well as the Mediterranean region where dust-induced changes are expected to have the greatest impacts. Overall, our study shows that increasing dust storms associated with a more arid climate and land degradation can reverse the negative effects of high temperatures and low pH on phytoplankton growth, affecting the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems and their role in the cycles of the elements and tolerance to global change.
Globally, insects have been impacted by climate change, with bumble bees in particular showing range shifts and declining species diversity with global warming. This suggests heat tolerance is a likely factor limiting the distribution and success of these bees. Studies have shown high intraspecific variance in bumble bee thermal tolerance, suggesting biological and environmental factors may be impacting heat resilience. Understanding these factors is important for assessing vulnerability and finding environmental solutions to mitigate effects of climate change. In this study, we assess whether geographic range variation in bumble bees in the eastern United States is associated with heat tolerance and further dissect which other biological and environmental factors explain variation in heat sensitivity in these bees. We examine heat tolerance by caste, sex, and rearing condition (wild/lab) across six eastern US bumble bee species, and assess the role of age, reproductive status, body size, and interactive effects of humidity and temperature on thermal tolerance in Bombus impatiens . We found marked differences in heat tolerance by species that correlate with each species' latitudinal range, habitat, and climatic niche, and we found significant variation in thermal sensitivity by caste and sex. Queens had considerably lower heat tolerance than workers and males, with greater tolerance when queens would first be leaving their natal nest, and lower tolerance after ovary activation. Wild bees tended to have higher heat tolerance than lab reared bees, and body size was associated with heat tolerance only in wild‐caught foragers. Humidity showed a strong interaction with heat effects, pointing to the need to regulate relative humidity in thermal assays and consider its role in nature. Altogether, we found most tested biological conditions impact thermal tolerance and highlight the stages of these bees that will be most sensitive to future climate change.
Although sampling the five tallest young aspen in a stand is useful for detecting the occurrence of any aspen recruitment, this technique overestimates the population response of aspen to wolf reintroduction. Our original conclusion that random sampling described a trophic cascade that was weaker than the one described by non‐random sampling is unchanged. image
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