This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin on strongyles and Parascaris sp. infecting adult riding horses in three regions with different climates. During 2021 and 2022 fecal specimens were randomly collected from 483 horses older than three years in 31 equestrian clubs in Hamedan (n = 217), Yazd (n = 146) and Tabriz cities (n = 120). Eggs were counted by McMaster technique, and the strongyle larvae were identified using coproculture, PCR and sequencing. Horses with strongyles and Parascaris egg counts ≥150 were enrolled in fecal egg count reduction (FECR) examination following treatment with ivermectin or fenbendazole. In total, 26.5% of examined horses were positive with at least one parasite. Infection rates varied in three cities i.e., 25.8% in Hamedan, 28.8% in Yazd, 25% in Tabriz. Fifty-seven horses had FECR measured. FECR below <90% was observed for IVM-strongyle in two horses in Tabriz, for FBZ-strongyle in two horses in Tabriz and two horses in Hamedan, for IVM-Parascaris in one horse in all three cities, and for FBZ-Parascaris in one horse in Yazd. Furthermore, FECR 90–100% was observed in IVM-Parascaris and FBZ -Parascaris groups in Tabriz. Data herein presented demonstrate different degrees of resistance of strongyles and Parascaris infecting horses in Iran against both ivermectin and fenbendazole. Since non-principled use of anthelminthics is common among horse owners, urgency of test-and-treatment strategy should be educated and implemented by policy-making organizations. Evaluating efficacy of different anthelminthics and choosing the most effective treatment in each region is suggested.
A water-soluble nickel complex based on amino-β-CD was developed using a facile method and exhibits excellent catalytic performance in the Suzuki reaction in water. This synthesized complex has been characterized using UV–Vis, AAS, TGA, and FT-IR techniques. The easily synthesized novel supramolecular catalysts have been applied as a green and eco-friendly catalyst in the Suzuki coupling for preparing diverse biaryls. This result indicates that using 2.5 mol% of nickel, K 2 CO 3 as the best base, and water as the green solvent are the best reaction conditions. This new catalyst features easy handling, low-cost, mild, and simple protocol. The use of low-cost and accessibility of the reagents, modest conditions, and good yields of products are notable characteristics of this method. Using aqueous media with this catalyst as a proper catalyst makes the presented process a fascinating method compared to most reports. Under mild reaction conditions, this green Ni(II)-β-CD catalyst displayed recyclable behavior seven times with minor loss in its catalytic activity.
In-vessel composting machine with the agitating system, circulating aeration system, and heating system on vegetable and food waste with coco peat additives and biochar obtained from coco peat was investigated. The composting process was tested at 55 °C, at three fresh inlet air rates of 20%, 30%, and 50%, three initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 18, 22, 26, and the addition of coco peat biochar of 5%, 10% w.b. (wet basis). To predict compost evaluation indicators of Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, C/N & GI, artificial neural network (ANN), and neural-fuzzy inference systems were used. The evaluation of the output parameters of compost showed high efficiency of the process. The amount of EC, acidity, and GI increased for all treatments, and the C/N ratio decreased. Also, the initial C/N ratio of 22 and fresh inlet air (FIA) of 30% were considered as the optimal setting conditions of the device. Treatment containing 5% biochar in the C/N of 22 resulted in the highest germination index of 93.55%. The best values of the coefficient of determination for the output parameters of the compost production process (EC, pH, C/N & GI) in the artificial neural network were 0.9252, 0.9863, 0.9691, and 0.9909 respectively. Moreover, the best values of the coefficient of determination in the fuzzy neural inference system for the output parameters of the compost include EC, pH, C/N and GI were 0.999, 0.999, 0.994, and 0.992, respectively. Also, the lowest values of MAE and RMSE in the fuzzy neural inference system for the output parameters of the compost include EC, pH, C/N, and GI were 0.0308, 0.0001, 0.2420, and 0.003 for MAE; and 0.0021, 3.66E−05, 0.1908 and 0.0041 for RMSE, respectively.
The genus Agropyron has an important role in soil protection and forage production in rangelands. The investigation utilized 37 ISSR primers, resulting in the detection of 956 loci within the A. elongatum genome and 705 loci within the A. cristatum genome. The findings revealed a high level of polymorphism, with 97% of loci in A. elongatum and 84% of loci in A. cristatum exhibiting variability. Notably, the primer (AC)8GCT emerged as a promising candidate for evaluating genetic diversity due to its ability to amplify numerous loci in both species. Using both the UPGMA algorithm and Bayesian analysis, the examined Agropyron accessions were categorized into two subgroups based on their respective species. The Q values associated with these subgroups suggested that certain accessions, namely "G16," "G19," "G20," "G21," "G22," "G23," "G24," and "G25," displayed potential admixture genomes. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) underscored the significance of within-species variability, which accounted for 69% of the overall diversity, compared to between-species variability at 31%. Various genetic diversity parameters, including Na, Ne, I, He, and the number of private loci, were found to be higher in A. elongatum when compared to A. cristatum. Furthermore, Jaccard similarity coefficients ranged from 0.33 to 0.66 in A. cristatum and from 0.25 to 0.7 in A. elongatum, indicating the extent of genetic relatedness among these species. Intriguingly, the study identified two and three heterotic groups in A. cristatum and A. elongatum, respectively, which could be harnessed in the development of synthetic varieties to exploit heterosis. The results also indicated that a small proportion of ISSR loci pairs (5.2% in A. elongatum and 0.5% in A. cristatum) exhibited significant levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) (P≤0.05), suggesting the potential utility of LD-based association mapping in Agropyron species. In conclusion, this research sheds light on the genetic diversity of Agropyron species and provides valuable insights into their potential applications in soil protection and forage production, as well as the prospects for enhancing genetic variability and heterosis in these species.
Large salt lakes are long-term witnesses to climatic conditions and land use in their basins. The majority are experiencing a drastic drop in water levels due to climate change and human impact. Endoreic Lake Urmia (NW Iran), the sixth largest salt lake worldwide, is a striking example of this decline. Quantification of the relative contributions of natural variability and human impact on the lake's water supply is therefore essential. Here we present isotopic and radiocarbon analyses of surface and groundwater from the Shahr Chay River catchment, entering Lake Urmia on its western shore, and radiocarbon dating of a sedimentary core. Lake Urmia behaves like a large saltwater wedge almost entirely fed by the river and shallow groundwater. This leads to trapping of residual brines and formation of CH4 and secondary CO2 greenhouse gases, impacting sediment geochemical records and corresponding time scales for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. We conclude that (1) salt lakes functioning like a saline wedge, allowing organic matter oxidation, could contribute to increasing methane sources or reducing carbon sinks globally, and (2) endoreic basins worldwide need to be monitored before aridification-related salinization leads to the establishment of a saline wedge precluding any possibility of return to an equilibrium state.
In this study, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite foam blown with CO 2 was fabricated. Optimization was done by design of experiment (DOE) on the cellular structure using the Taguchi method. Foaming time (20, 40, and 80 s), saturation pressure (4, 5.5, and 7 MPa), and foaming temperature (80, 90, and 120°C) are the input parameters. The results obtained from the signal‐to‐noise (S/N) analysis showed that the most effective factor on the cell density (CD) was the saturation pressure and its influence rate was 48.05%, and also, the CD improved with the increase in the saturation pressure because the high saturation pressure leads to an enhancement in gas solubility and the rate of cell nucleation. Moreover, the foaming temperature and the foaming time had a noteworthy impact on the void fraction and the cell size (CS), and they should be controlled accurately. The impression rate of the foaming time on the CS was 50.86%, and also, with increase in the temperature and the time of foaming, the void fraction showed an increasing trend. The optimal values for the CD, the CS, and the void fraction were predicted to be 1.18 × 10 ⁹ cells/cm ³ , 5.37 μm, and 0.5744%, respectively.
Since the type of forest influences vegetation patterns from the edge-to-interior forest, site-specific edge studies are needed but there have been few studies in open-canopied forests such as oak savannahs. Our objective was to compare patterns of herbaceous plant diversity along the forest edge-to-interior gradient between open areas and underneath oak trees in the Zagros Forest in Iran. We established eighteen transects from the forest edge to the interior in small and large forest fragments to sample herbaceous species in five 0.25 m² quadrats at 1 m intervals from the base of the tree to the open area at different distances from the forest edge. We analyzed the data using randomization tests for edge influence and generalized linear mixed models. Edge influence had a positive effect on herbaceous species richness and diversity underneath oak trees but a negative effect in open areas. At forest edges, species richness and diversity significantly decreased from the tree base toward open areas, but exhibited the opposite pattern away from the edge. Edge influence extended up to 50 m from the forest edge to the interior. Our findings highlight the importance of considering forest type and stand heterogeneity when studying edge influence on plant diversity. Our results show that edge studies are needed for specific forest types, particularly in heterogeneous landscapes, to ensure appropriate conservation of species diversity. We recommend establishing a 50-m buffer zone along edges in the Zagros Forest in Iran to minimize negative edge influence on herbaceous plant diversity.
Duckweed is a rapidly growing aquatic plant, which could be used in the diet of laying hens to enhance carbon capture and improve land use efficiency. Digestion may be improved by supplementation with exogenous enzymes. We replaced soyabean meal and wheat with duckweed in a 10‐week study with 432, 60‐week‐old Hy‐Line W‐36 layers, divided into six isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments, each with eight replicates. Two factors were investigated: first, duckweed substituted for wheat gluten meal and soyabean meal at 0, 7.5 and 15% of the diet, and second, with and without a multi‐enzyme supplement (500 mg/kg). Duckweed did not affect egg output or weight, but it improved yolk color ( P = 0.01) and reduced the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase ( P = 0.04) and alanine aminotransferase ( P = 0.02) in serum, suggesting hepatoprotective effects. Enzyme addition did not alter the effects of including duckweed in the diet, but it increased feed intake ( P = 0.03). It is concluded that, as well as offering the potential to increase land productivity, inclusion of duckweed in the diet of laying hens enhances egg yolk color and hepatoprotection, without detrimental effects on performance.
This research aimed to extract flaxseed mucilage (FM) and investigate its rheological properties (static and dynamic tests) compared with animal oil. In the next stage, the D-optimal design was applied to investigate the effect of FM (0–60%) and FF (0–30%) replacements with animal oil and cake flour, respectively on the sponge cake's physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties. According to the flow behavior test, FM showed Newtonian behavior while animal oil had pseudoplastic behavior. The results of the dynamic test showed with an increase in frequency, the loss modulus (G״) and storage modulus (Gʹ) of samples increased. However, Gʹ was higher than G״ in all samples. By replacement of FM and FF, the moisture content, water activity, antioxidant capacity, crumb hardness, and cohesiveness of the samples increased while springiness, crust hardness, and specific volume decreased (P < 0.05). Lightness of samples with replacement of FF decreased (P < 0.05). The overall acceptance score was enhanced with an increase in FM substitution while it was decreased with the replacement of FF (P < 0.05). The amounts of fat, calories, and peroxide values were decreased in sponge cake with the incorporation of FF and FM (P < 0.05). In general, the substitution of FM (60%) and FF (28%) in the cake formulation as an optimized sample to make new products with low-calorie content is possible without significant decreases in product quality.
Background Because of swift climate change, drought is a primary environmental factor that substantially diminishes plant productivity. Furthermore, the increased use of chemical fertilizers has given rise to numerous environmental problems and health risks. Presently, there is a transition towards biofertilizers to enhance crops’ yield, encompassing medicinal and aromatic varieties. Methods This study aimed to explore the impacts of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), both independently and in conjunction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), on various morphological, physiological, and phytochemical characteristics of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. This experimentation took place under different irrigation conditions. The irrigation schemes encompassed well watering (WW), mild water stress (MWS), and severe water stress (SWS). The study evaluated the effects of various biofertilizers, including AMF, PGPR, and the combined application of both AMF and PGPR (AMF + PGPR), compared to a control group where no biofertilizers were applied. Results The findings of the study revealed that under water-stress conditions, the dry yield and relative water content of D. kotschyi Boiss. experienced a decline. However, the application of AMF, PGPR, and AMF + PGPR led to an enhancement in dry yield and relative water content compared to the control group. Among the treatments, the co-application of AMF and PGPR in plants subjected to well watering (WW) exhibited the tallest growth (65 cm), the highest leaf count (187), and the most elevated chlorophyll a (0.59 mg g ⁻¹ fw) and b (0.24 mg g ⁻¹ fw) content. Regarding essential oil production, the maximum content (1.29%) and yield (0.13 g plant ⁻¹ ) were obtained from mild water stress (MWS) treatment. The co-application of AMF and PGPR resulted in the highest essential oil content and yield (1.31% and 0.15 g plant ⁻¹ , respectively). The analysis of D. kotschyi Boiss. essential oil identified twenty-six compounds, with major constituents including geranyl acetate (11.4–18.88%), alpha-pinene (9.33–15.08%), Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (8.43-12.8%), neral (6.80–9.32%), geranial (9.23–11.91%), and limonene (5.56–9.12%). Notably, the highest content of geranyl acetate, geranial, limonene, and alpha-pinene was observed in plants subjected to MWS treatment following AMF + PGPR application. Furthermore, the co-application of AMF, PGPR, and severe water stress (SWS) notably increased the total soluble sugar (TSS) and proline content. In conclusion, the results indicate that the combined application of AMF and PGPR can effectively enhance the quantity and quality of essential oil in D. kotschyi Boiss., particularly when the plants are exposed to water deficit stress conditions.
Depth temperature of asphalt layers is one of the most predominant required factors for asphalt pavements analysis, design, maintenance, and rehabilitation purposes. In this study, using the results from field experiments in six asphalt pavement sites located in different climatic conditions in Iran, the depth temperature of asphalt layers was investigated. By employing the four well-known regression-based predictive models including, Gedafa et al., Albayati and Alani, BELLS, and Park et al., the depth temperatures of asphalt layers were predicted. Two statistical criteria, accuracy and bias, have been adopted for evaluating the performance and capability of these models in predicting the depth temperature of asphalt layers. Results exhibited a fair correlation between the predicted depth temperature values and those measured during the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) testing. However, it is necessary to enhance the prediction accuracy and diminish its bias by calibrating the mentioned models for determining the depth temperature of asphalt layers in pavements in Iran. For this reason, these existing prediction models were calibrated, and new predictive models were developed. Performance evaluation and validation of the newly developed models showed an excellent correlation between predicted and measured values. In addition, results exhibit the capability of the developed models in predicting the depth temperature of asphalt layers with very good prediction precision ( R 2 = 0.94) and low predictive bias.
Considering the importance of reducing the use of chemical preservatives in food and the increasing attention of consumers to consume food products with minimal additives, the main goal of this research was to study the effect of use of chemical (calcium propionate) and biological ( Lactobacillus plantarum ) preservatives on increasing shelf life of yufka paste considering its physicochemical and microbial characteristics. For this purpose, three samples of yufka paste were prepared by adding concentrations of 10 ³ , 10 ⁵ , and 10 ⁷ cfu/mL of L. plantarum individually and three samples of paste were prepared by adding the same amount of bacteria in combination with 0.3% calcium propionate and these samples were compared with the control sample (without preservative) and the sample only containing 0.3% calcium propionate. The obtained results showed that different treatments and time had a significant effect on physicochemical properties including pH, moisture, and protein of yufka paste ( p < .05). The results of the survival of L. plantarum showed that with increasing time, the survival rate of bacteria increased ( p < .05). The pH of the samples showed that the L. plantarum has a significant effect on controlling the chemical quality of yufka during storage. The count of mold and yeast in the combined use of L. plantarum and 0.3% propionate was lower than the single use of propionate chemical preservative, which indicated the very good effect of the green preservative in controlling the moldy spoilage of yufka. Low concentrations of bacteria showed better antimold results than treatments containing bacteria and propionate in a combined form, propionate or control treatment.
In many practical applications such as motor drives, the inverter is required to produce a variable output voltage within a wide range (e.g., 0.1 to 1 pu). In such cases, when the inverter operates in low modulation index (low output voltage), the harmonic distortion of the output voltage increases due to considerable reduction in the magnitude of the fundamental component. Also, the ratio of the switching losses to the output power will be high in the low modulation index. In this paper, a simple solution is proposed to overcome the problems. The principle of the proposed solution is to adjust the DC‐link voltage so that the modulation index of the inverter remains within a specific high range. Different practical ways of obtaining controlled DC‐link voltage are presented. Also, for operation of the DC‐DC converter used for DC‐link voltage control, three strategies are proposed. The proposed solution is simple, and it is very effective and feasible to implement. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the idea has not been presented in this form previously. In order to verify the proposed solution, the simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.
This research aimed to evaluate the quality of soils for rapeseed crop production by Boolean and fuzzy-analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) approach in northwest of Iran. To this purpose, the physical, chemical, and topography quality indicators of land were selected based on agricultural considerations that were obtained from 83 fields. The spatial distribution of soil quality indicators was prepared using inverse distance weighting (IDW) technique. Also, validation of the developed model was performed using composite operator. The results showed that physical and chemical properties were key deciding parameters for the evaluation of soil quality. In the developed models, clay, sand, silt, soil organic matter, pH, calcium carbonate equivalent, electrical conductivity, and elevation were selected as modeling parameters. AHP technique showed that soil texture and elevation had the strongest and weakest influences on rapeseed yield, respectively. By dividing lands into four suitability categories, FAHP could more easily classify lands into soil quality classes where 36.3% of the study area was permanently unsuitable, 39.7% was marginally suitable, 22.6% was moderately suitable, and 1.4% was suitable. The comparison results of soil quality and rapeseed yield map by composite operator showed that FAHP with 77% agreement provided better results than Boolean approach with 39% agreement. Finally, this research will provide a reasonable record in ensuring crop yield security, agronomic use and management of rapeseed as well as increasing crop income. Hence, FAHP was introduced as an efficient approach.
Continuous and sustainable growth has become a daily norm, putting increasing pressure on organizations to adopt green practices to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze the structural relationship between GHRM and GTL on EBs and GIP with the mediating role of EK. The research method was developmental-applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlational in terms of research design, using a structural equation modeling approach. The statistical population consisted of all primary school teachers in Urmia city, Iran (Urmia city districts one and two) during the academic year 2022–2023. A one-stage cluster sampling method was used, and the sample size was determined to be 338 individuals using Morgan's table. Standard questionnaires were used to collect the required data, including the questionnaire by Zid et al. (2018) for GHRM, Zhang & Wang (2020) for GTL, Roberson, and Carleton (2018) for EBs, Chen et al. (2013) for GIP, and Me et al. (2012) for EK. Content validity of the research was ensured through the opinions of educational science professors, and the reliability of the questionnaires was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which yielded values of 0.90, 0.77, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.70, respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, structural equation modeling, and confirmatory factor analysis with SPSS 28 and Smart PLS 3 software. The results of the research indicated a significant positive direct relationship between GHRM and GIP. There was a positive direct relationship between GTL and GIP. A positive direct relationship was found between GTL and EBs. However, there was no significant relationship between GHRM and EBs. There was an indirect non-significant relationship between GHRM and EBs with the mediating role of EK. There was no indirect relationship between GTL and GIP with the mediating role of EK. There was no indirect relationship between GTL and EBs with the mediating role of EK.
Tomato plants are attacked by various pathogenic bacteria, some of which can cause serious diseases in greenhouses and fields. During the summer of 2016–2018, several surveys were carried out after an outbreak of a disease in the tomato fields in northwest of Iran. To identify and characterize the disease’s causal agent, sampling was done from symptomatic tomato plants that have dark brown to black lesions on the leaf margins, vascular discoloration and stem canker following wilting. Phenotypic features were checked out according to valid bacteriological texts. The pathogenic isolates were gram-positive, obligate aerobic, non-motile, and non-spore-forming with a variety in colony color of yellowish-orange. About 40% of pathogenic strains were virulent with a disease severity of more than 55%, other strains showed poor to moderated virulence. The results of the phylogenetic tree using partial sequences of 16 S rRNA gene and amplified fragments in PCR using three sets of specific primers confirmed the phenotypic results. The efficiency of PSA4/PSAR, PSA8/PSAR, and CMM5/CMM6 in detecting Cmm-like colonies strains was 59%, 84%, and 42%, respectively; however, CMM5/CMM6 could detect pathogenic Cmm strains. The results of the antibiogram test indicated that the studied strains were sensitive to 13 tested antibiotics, which this feature can be used in population diversity studies and providing disease management strategies. Based on the results of biochemical, physiological, and molecular experiments, the pathogenic strains isolated from tomatoes were Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm).
The current comprehension of the connection between foliar application (FA) of microelements and its impact on reducing soil copper toxicity in medicinal plants is limited. Therefore, this investigation assessed whether micronutrient FA (Fe, Zn, and Mn) could mitigate soil Cu toxicity in Mentha piperita L. Four FA treatments (deionized water spray as control or 0, a spray of 1% Fe, 1% Zn, or 1% Mn) were applied to peppermint grown under soil Cu toxicity conditions (0 as control, 5, and 25 mg kg−1 soil). The dry weight of shoots and roots were negatively affected under 25 mg kg−1 Cu toxicity and 0 FA (1.22 and 0.35 g, respectively), in contrast to 0 Cu toxicity and 0 FA (2.11 and 1.77 g, respectively). However, the application of FA containing Fe, Zn, and Mn enhanced these parameters at all levels of Cu toxicity. Under 25 mg kg−1 Cu toxicity, FA with Fe, Zn, and Mn reduced the leaf proline content by 35.1%, 24.9%, and 25.2%, respectively, compared to 0 FA. Under 25 mg kg−1 Cu toxicity, FA of Mn and Zn increased the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) by 28.4% (for leaves) and 23.7% (for roots), respectively, in comparison to 0 FA. The predominant essential oil (EO) components identified under all levels of Cu toxicity included menthofuran, menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate, pulegone, and limonene. FA of Fe, Zn, and Mn can provide a cost-effective and practical approach to amending Cu-contaminated soils. To enhance peppermint EO production, an application of 5 mg kg−1 Cu toxicity can be recommended.
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