Based on published anatomical-morphological and ecological characteristics and phylogenetic evidence, six species of the Ganoderma genus are known to occur in Europe, namely, G. applanatum (Pers.) Pat., G. adspersum (Schulzer) Donk, G. pfeifferi Bres., G. resinaceum Boud., G. carnosum Pat., and G. lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. Molecular markers (DNA sequences of selected genes or intergenic spacers) revolutionized our view of fungal variability. Every one of the four most frequently used molecular markers (ITS (internal transcribed spacer) and partial sequences of LSU (rRNA large subunit), tef1-α (translation elongation factor 1-alpha), and Rpb2 (RNA polymerase II second largest subunit)) provides a different view on the variability of European species of the Ganoderma genus. Both the lowest intraspecies variability and the best species differentiation (interspecies divergence) were observed for the LSU marker, and based on our data, this marker could be recommended for identification and species delineation in European Ganoderma spp. The sequences of the most frequently used ITS marker were unable to discriminate between G. lucidum and G. carnosum, and in general, this species pair showed the lowest interspecies divergence using all markers tested. Surprisingly, up to now, hidden variability has been detected in several Ganoderma spp., indicating the existence of possible cryptic taxa within the European Ganoderma morphospecies.
Phenol, a monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major pollutant in industrial wastewater. Euglena gracilis is a unicellular freshwater flagellate possessing secondary chloroplasts of green algal origin. This protist has been widely used for monitoring the biological effect of various inorganic and organic environmental pollutants, including aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, we evaluate the influence of different phenol concentrations (3.39 mM, 3.81 mM, 4.23 mM, 4.65 mM, 5.07 mM, 5.49 mM and 5.91 mM) on the growth, morphology and cell division of E. gracilis. The cell count continually decreases (p < 0.05-0.001) over time with increasing phenol concentration. While phenol treatment does not induce bleaching (permanent loss of photosynthesis), the morphological changes caused by phenol include the formation of spherical (p < 0.01-0.001), hypertrophied (p < 0.05) and monster cells (p < 0.01) and lipofuscin bodies. Phenol also induces an atypical form of cell division of E. gracilis, simultaneously producing more than 2 (3-12) viable cells from a single cell. Such atypically dividing cells have a symmetric "star"-like shape. The percentage of atypically dividing cells increases (p < 0.05) with increasing phenol concentration. Our findings suggest that E. gracilis can be used as bioindicator of phenol contamination in freshwater habitats and wastewater.
Since the introduction of the TM‐catalyzed cross‐couplings their scope of starting materials has been growing systematically, allowing for more flexible design of synthetic routes with the coupling as a key step, particularly late‐stage modifications. Herein we present the use of trifluoromethoxyarenes as halide surrogates in Ni‐catalyzed couplings with arylboronic acids, potassium aryl trifluoroborates and aryl trialkoxysilanes, under mechanochemical conditions. In total, 22 biphenyl structures were obtained in good yields. Successful gram scale experiments confirm the usefulness of our protocol. The developed transformations’ mechanism was discussed in relation to the experimental and literature data and DFT calculations. The unusual reactivity of potassium benzoyltrifluoroborates was uncovered. 6 examples of resulting benzophenones were obtained in very good yields and the protocol was extended to gram scale. The described methods present a powerful tool when combined with the recent advances in organofluorine chemistry.
The newspaper headline is the first contact between the author and the recipient and in terms of stylistics, it is one of the compositional aspects of the text. In relation to the text itself, as well as to the communication partner, the headline fulfils an informative, engaging and especially in journalistic genres, persuasive function. Following the previous research focused on the 1960s, the aim of the study is to analyse and compare headlines in Slovak newspapers in the period of totalitarian and democratic establishment with a focus on the journalistic genre. The research sample, excerpted from the official discourse of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1948 – 1956, 1961 – 1970) and the more recent Slovak mainstream e- discourse (2011 – 2021), contains almost 800 headlines to monitor the developmental tendencies of a given text component under the influence of changed extra lingual conditions. The aim of the research is to verify the expected linguistic and communicative modifications captured, for example, in a freer approach to the use of language. The given assumption expected at the structural-pragmatic level is conditioned by the dismantling of political-ideological control of the socialist period. At the stylistic-pragmatic level, we also assume a more direct and qualitatively more elaborate expressiveness in the language.
This paper represents a continuation of the ongoing research of authors who, in the framework of interdisciplinary scientific research, deals with several aspects of ensuring the safety of the Slovak Republic and the European Union in connection with aviation, aircraft, air traffic and airspace protection. In their current research, following these and constant developments in the field of innovation and introduction of new technologies in the field of aviation, the authors deal with unmanned aircraft, which are gradually used not only in the military, but are increasingly penetrating the commercial sphere of civil aviation. Due to the fact, that the unmanned aircraft market is the fastest growing market of all categories of aviation, the authors in the article provide a theoretical and terminological view of the researched issues, including a brief historical view of the development of unmanned aircraft.
This paper deals with the current social context in which the gender-balanced functions of the Slovak language are being created. The rules that exist for creating and using gender-based Slovak are at odds with contemporary society. This paper examines the mechanism of language changes including gender-balanced language and makes observations about how they are perceived within the communication community in particular. Language is approached as a construct that is a reflection of society and social processes, while at the same time language influences some of these processes in return. Language changes occur more slowly than social ones, or rather, these changes do not respond operatively to changes within society. An exception to this is the enrichment of vocabulary, but conceptual changes progress much more slowly. The fact that language is used to strengthen certain images of the world also plays a role in the process. Language ideology provides this process with new impulses.
Dual digraphs of finite join-semidistributive lattices, meet-semidistributive lattices and semidistributive lattices are characterised. The vertices of the dual digraphs are maximal disjoint filter-ideal pairs of the lattice. The approach used here combines representations of arbitrary lattices due to Urquhart (1978) and Ploščica (1995). The duals of finite lattices are mainly viewed as TiRS digraphs as they were presented and studied in Craig--Gouveia--Haviar (2015 and 2022). When appropriate, Urquhart's two quasi-orders on the vertices of the dual digraph are also employed. Transitive vertices are introduced and their role in the domination theory of the digraphs is studied. In particular, finite lattices with the property that in their dual TiRS digraphs the transitive vertices form a dominating set (respectively, an in-dominating set) are characterised. A characterisation of both finite meet-and join-semidistributive lattices is provided via minimal closure systems on the set of vertices of their dual digraphs.
In human society there are currently facts that implicitly testify to the lack or absence of the dialogue process. In the study, we will focus on dialogue and its position within the field of social pedagogy in selected Nordic countries. We can find dialogue in the representation of social pedagogy in the motto of social pedagogy, it is part of the term of the profession of the social pedagogue. For the the profession of the social pedagogue, dialogue represents a value, it is part of the socio-pedagogical approach and it is maintained as a principle in socio-pedagogical relations. Dialogue is used as a method of socio-pedagogical work, and it is a tool to achieve democracy and emancipation. Dialogue in the context of the education system acts as dialogical pedagogy and also represents the content of social pedagogy education in selected Nordic countries.
Calculations of spectroscopic properties of the CnO and FlO molecules are performed using ab initio all‐electron 4c and 2c‐relativistic coupled‐cluster approaches with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations. The corresponding calculation for HgO are also accomplished for comparison with the published data. The dependence of the results on the parameters of the basis set and approximations used is investigated in detail. The overall relative uncertainties of the recommended values on the level of 1–2% are reached. The calculated spectroscopic constants are indicative of the following trend in the reactivity of the oxides HgO > FlO > CnO. This is confirmed by the trend in the adsorption energies, E ads , of these molecules on the surfaces of gold, quartz and Teflon. The predicted rather low E ads values for the latter case should guarantee their delivery from the recoil chamber to the chemistry set up in gas‐phase experiments.
This paper represents a continuation of the ongoing research of authors who, in the framework of interdisciplinary scientific research, deals with several aspects of ensuring the safety of the Slovak Republic and the European Union in connection with aviation, aircraft, air traffic and airspace protection. In their current research, following these and constant developments in the field of innovation and introduction of new technologies in the field of aviation, the authors deal with unmanned aircraft, which are gradually used not only in the military, but are increasingly penetrating the commercial sphere of civil aviation. Due to the fact that the unmanned aircraft market is the fastest growing market of all categories of aviation, the authors in the article provide a theoretical and terminological view of the researched issues, including a brief historical view of the development of unmanned aircraft.
There are two rival theories of time: static and dynamic. The Special Theory of Relativity is one of the strongest arguments for static time. However, the defenders of dynamic time claim that their approach is also possible in a relativistic setting. This debate supported the third theory: the hybrid theory of time. The aim of this paper, however, is to argue that the hybrid theory (combining both static and dynamic elements) is against the nature of the Special Theory of Relativity. The argument is motivated by H. Stein’s attempt to separate definite past from indefinite future by timelike and lightlike relations in and on the past pointing light cone. The paper shows that this approach leads to restricted and extremely unintuitive notion of co-presence. This is considered as a serious objection against the animation of static time in a relativistic setting
The study presents fundamental theoretical and methodological information on individual sacral tourism as a suitable type of tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individual (virtual) tourism on the example of the Koscelisko locality in Radoľa municipality (northwestern part of Slovakia) in the area of the extinct medieval sacral landscape, thanks to modern technologies, represents a relatively modern segment of the alternative - modern types of tourism. In the first step, a bibliometric method combined with content analysis of literary and archival sources was used to process the study. It was followed by a comprehensive method of historical-geographical research and field research, which generate a database of information to create a 3D model of the defunct church Koscelisko. The outputs processed in this way are available online to potential tourists via smartphones on the platform called Multimedia Guide to Geotourism (https://www.montanistika.eu).
This study proposes and tests an operational framework to examine the significance of resilience and the related concept of vulnerability, for labour market efficiency, in the context of regional competitiveness. The performance of European regional labour markets is analysed, compared and assessed using a methodology based on principal component analysis with regression modelling and decision tree techniques. The proposed operational framework and its spatial distribution offer new theoretical, methodological and empirical insights into understanding the real contribution of resilience and vulnerability to regional labour markets. The added value of the proposed operational framework is its direct policy-oriented perspective.
This article aims to describe the role of social pedagogy in Slovakia, and in particular to answer the following questions: What are the social challenges that children and their families, schools and social pedagogues are facing during the COVID-19 pandemic? How do social pedagogues in Slovakia perceive the present situation and what can they do to help their students face these challenges? The article first describes the unfolding and the current state of the pandemic as well as the role of social pedagogues in Slovakia. It then analyses the reflections of 31 Slovak social pedagogues on current educational problems and the role of social pedagogy during the pandemic. In doing so, the article answers the question: In what sense does social pedagogy bring hope for various needy communities? The analysis presents some of the challenges social pedagogues are facing amid the chaos of social relations due to social distancing and pandemic lockdowns.
• Background: More than 2 billion peripheral vascular cannulas are introduced globally each year. It is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in medicine worldwide. There is a group of patients with difficult intravenous access (DIVA). In experts’ hands, ultrasound guided vascular access appears to be a significantly better method. Investigators hypothesize that UGVA is superior also in short term patency of cannula and even for blood draw through cannula. Repeated cannula pricks in the operating room setting not only puts a lot of stress on patient and medical staff, they also waste OR time. • Methods: This investigator-initiated prospective randomized monocentric controlled trial is designed to randomly allocate 400 patients undergoing elective primary total joint arthroplasty of hip or knee to one of two groups as follows: Group C (control group) – peripheral venous cannula insertion by palpation or Group USG (intervention) – cannula insertion by ultrasound guided vascular access. Our primary endpoint is to compare number of attempts for ultrasound guided insertion of peripheral venous cannula with common palpation insertion of peripheral venous cannula in overweight/obese patients (BMI ≥ 25). The secondary endpoint is failure rate of peripheral venous cannula to administer intravenous therapy up to 5 days postoperatively. Tertiary endpoints include portion of long PVCs that are able to ensure blood draw up to 5 days postoperatively, time needed to insert PVC in each group, number of needle tip redirections in both groups, reinsertion of PVC needed in both groups for any reason. • Discussion: This study is pragmatic and is looking for clinically relevant data. After completion it will answer the question whether it is clinically relevant to use ultrasound guided vascular access in the context of not only short-term benefit of insertion, but also up to 5 days after insertion. Also, if this method can ensure blood draw through peripheral vein cannula, it can save resources in perioperative period - valuable especially considering the ongoing shortage of medical staff worldwide. If this hypothesis is confirmed, this finding could contribute to more widespread implementation of ultrasound guided peripheral vascular access in perioperative period. Trial registration: Registered on clinicaltrials.gov 13.12.2021 under CT number: NCT05156008
N,N’ ‐disubstituted indigos are photoswitchable molecules that have recently caught the attention due to their addressability by red‐light. When alkyl and aryl groups are utilized as the N ‐substituents, the thermal half‐lives of Z isomers can be tuned independently while maintaining the advantageous red‐shifted absorption spectra. To utilize these molecules in real‐world applications, it is of immense importance to understand how their molecular structures as well as the environment influence their switching properties. To this end, we probed their photoisomerization mechanism by carrying out photophysical and computational studies in solvents of different polarities. The fluorescence and transient absorption experiments suggest for more polar excited and transition states, which explains the bathochromic shifts of absorption spectra and shorter thermal half‐lives. On the other hand, the quantum chemical calculations reveal that in contrast to N ‐carbonyl groups, N ‐alkyl and N ‐aryl substituents are not strongly conjugated with the indigo chromophore and can thus serve as a tool for tuning the thermal stability of Z isomers. Both approaches are combined to provide in‐depth understandings of how indigos undergo photoswitching as well as how they are influenced by N ‐substituent and the chemical surroundings. These mechanistic insights will serve as guiding principles for designing molecules eyeing broader applications.
Language Landscape of Banská Bystric (Continuity of Texts and Intersection of Ethnic Groups) The language landscape of Banská Bystrica is made up of visible language, which means written language in the form of contextually fixed words, sentences and complex sentences of a commercial and non-commercial nature. Non-commercial language fulfills a communicative function in terms of presenting basic orientation information in and around Banská Bystrica town, and about the town’s activities, the church and cemetery buildings, and monuments. Commercial language has a business function because it becomes part of the process of business transactions: first in the form of advertising texts offering commercial products; later in the form of information concerning goods offered directly by business facilities. The language landscape of Banská Bystrica is a collection of texts in Slovak, German and Hungarian and is a manifestation of the ethnolinguistic activities of Slovaks, Germans and Hungarians. Some texts in English, German, Latin, Russian and Romanian are evidence of the vitality of these languages in presenting facts about the present day and the history of this town. Krajobraz językowy Bańskiej Bystrzycy (kontinuum tekstów a krzyżowanie się grup etnicznych) Na krajobraz językowy Bańskiej Bystrzycy składają się teksty o charakterze komercyjnym i niekomercyjnym, dostępne w wersji wizualnej, powstałe w języku pisanym, w formie kontekstowo uwarunkowanych słów, zdań prostych i zdań złożonych. Język o charakterze niekomercyjnym pełni funkcję komunikacyjną w zakresie przekazywania podstawowych informacji orientacyjnych w mieście Bańska Bystrzyca i w jego okolicach, a także informacji o działalności związanej z miastem, o budynkach kościelnych i cmentarnych oraz o zabytkach. Język o charakterze komercyjnym pełni funkcję biznesową, ponieważ staje się częścią procesu obrotu gospodarczego: najpierw w postaci tekstów reklamowych oferujących produkty handlowe, później w formie informacji o produktach oferowanych bezpośrednio przez placówki handlowe i usługowe. Krajobraz językowy Bańskiej Bystrzycy tworzą teksty w językach słowackim, niemieckim i węgierskim, będące przejawem działalności etnolingwistycznej Słowaków, Niemców i Węgrów. Teksty w językach angielskim, niemieckim, rosyjskim, rumuńskim i po łacinie świadczą o istotnej roli tych języków w przedstawianiu faktów dotyczących współczesności i historii tego miasta.
Virtual reality is currently a phenomenon that is transmitted from the scientific field to real life more and more, and its application can be observed in several sectors. This technology provides a whole new perspective on various areas that we, as ordinary mortals, would find very difficult to reach. It allows us to see and even feel things, that are often very difficult to reach in real life. Starting with various simulations of dangerous work activities and ending with complicated scientific experiments, virtual reality provides a wide utilization, that pushes the boundaries of research and human capabilities further again. But is VR suitable for anyone, is it safe enough? Does VR have any limitations that make it impossible for it to be fully exploited and put into practice?
The article reflects dramatic work of Peter Karvaš in the context of existentialist philosophy. It points to the connection between the social situation and the author´s topic choice, emotional engagement and approach to characters. In the article the author defines the basic features of existentialist philosophy in the work of Peter Karvaš providing analysis of selected extracts. In particular the article deals with the issue of how male characters react to the same situation and their motives behind the reaction. The article also reveals subjective view of Karvaš on social events and their impact on people and Karvaš himself.
According to the theories of Wolf Schmid, Wolfgang Iser and Roman Ingarden, the presented paper follows the ways in which the reader is forced to reveal the logic of the story's selectivity in the reception process. Interest is mainly placed on different narrative gaps, the so-called places of indeterminacy, which trigger literary communication. Various theories of narrative gaps and text negations are demonstrated in Julian Barnes’s novel The Sense of an Ending (2011) depicting the story of four young men – old high-school friends – who have to deal with the death of their close one. The author chooses an interesting form of story composition and represents the literary text as a fraction which the reader concretizes and defines. This way the reader is able to decipher even those event components that are not explicitly present in the text and they call for different acts of reception.
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