Over the last few decades, there has been a gradual deterioration in higher education in all three areas: the academic setting (both staff and students), as well as research and development output (including graduates). All colleges and universities are essentially focused on improving management decision-making and educating pupils. High-quality higher education can be obtained through a variety of methods. One method is to accurately forecast pupils’ achievement in their chosen educational context. There are numerous prediction models from which to pick. While it is unclear whether there are any markers that can predict whether a kid will be an academic genius, a dropout, or an average performer, the researcher reports student achievement. This article presents a metaheuristics and machine learning-based method for the classification and prediction of student performance. Firstly, features are selected using a relief algorithm. Machine learning classifiers such as BPNN, RF, and NB are used to classify student academic performance data. BPNN is having better accuracy for classification and prediction of student academic performance.
This paper shows how an agribusiness in a remote agrarian village in the Philippines has been organized in traditional ways amid technological advancements and the free market. The paper draws on the Montreal School’s CCO approach, which holds that organizing begins at the level of interaction and that nonhumans make a difference in social formation. Through analyzing the text exchanges between farm actors, the paper surfaces the agencies of the most ventriloquized agricultural actants within their talks. Imagined in Bakhtin’s dialogical world, multiple voices were made to interplay across time and space creating tensions, on one hand, and facilitating the assimilation of similar qualities of ideologically differing voices, on the other. This paper stresses that the ideological difference of interplaying voices can be blurred in the process of assimilation or in the constitution of an organization. The “intertextual play of power” of multiple voices offers a postcolonial perspective in examining power in organization studies.
This study aims to validate a scale that evaluates the flying competence of aircraft pilots. The scale was developed by pilots in an aerospace university and was approved by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. To do so, the scale was administered to 288 pilots holding different levels of licenses. The data obtained were subjected to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and created a three-factor model. The factors are set of flying skills named as instrument flight (Factor 1), basic attitude flying (Factor 2), and instrument landing system (Factor 3). The model was confirmed utilizing the resulting values of five goodness of fit indices (GFIs) generated by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Only comparative fit index, Tucker–Lewis index, and Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual resulted to values falling within the thresholds. These three GFIs are already adequate to confirm that the model is relatively good fit. The standardized factor loadings (SFLs) and composite reliability (CR) were also excellent, thus, establishing convergent validity. Also, the estimated average variance extracted and Cronbach’s alpha of all factors provided evidence of discriminant validity and reliability, respectively. In conclusion, this scale is valid and reliable to evaluate the pilot’s performance in flying an aircraft.
Nautilus fisheries throughout the Philippines supported a worldwide trade in the nautilus shell for decades, with little to no management. A consequence has been significant declines in catch rate and low population abundances. This survey took place in April 2014 at Siquijor Island (9°17′30.7″N 123°38′36.5″E) and Dalaguete–Alcoy (09°43′20.9″N, 123°35′52.8″E) sites using baited traps and baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS). The last report of nautiluses at Siquijor Island was in the early 1980’s and although nautiluses inhabit areas near the Dalaguete–Alcoy area, this site has not been surveyed. At Siquijor Island, zero nautiluses were caught using 27 baited traps and zero nautiluses were recorded from nearly 20 h of BRUVS footage. At the Dalaguete–Alcoy site, one nautilus was caught using 120 traps and zero nautiluses were recorded from 12 h of BRUVS footage. These data are like other fished areas and suggest the populations of nautiluses at the Siquijor and Dalaguete-Alcoy sites are small.
Background Nested and overlapping events are particularly frequent and informative structures in biomedical event extraction. However, state-of-the-art neural models either neglect those structures during learning or use syntactic features and external tools to detect them. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents and compares two neural models: a novel EXhaustive Neural Network (EXNN) and a Search-Based Neural Network (SBNN) for detection of nested and overlapping events. Results We evaluate the proposed models as an event detection component in isolation and within a pipeline setting. Evaluation in several annotated biomedical event extraction datasets shows that both EXNN and SBNN achieve higher performance in detecting nested and overlapping events, compared to the state-of-the-art model Turku Event Extraction System (TEES). Conclusions The experimental results reveal that both EXNN and SBNN are effective for biomedical event extraction. Furthermore, results on a pipeline setting indicate that our models improve detection of events compared to models that use either gold or predicted named entities.
This article is an attempt to carve out a research agenda for an enriched populism research in the Philippines. Specifically, it analyzes journal articles drawn from academic database collections, examines its domains of publication, and core analytical approaches. Then, it situated these studies within the broader landscape of the Philippine political scholarship. The results suggest a thriving and flourishing populism research in the Philippines. Yet, it also suffers from the same theoretical and empirical obscurities that typifies global research on populism. The article contends that future Philippine populism studies: (a) must adhere to a minimalist theoretical anchor, (b) methodologically pluralistic and innovative, and (c) thematically grounded on a host of other significant domains of Philippine politics that goes beyond Duterte. Ultimately, the article urges prospective scholars to strongly engage with these arguments and suggested line of political inquiries in order to refine the scholarly enterprise of populism in the country.
Streets are public spaces where people pass through in going from one place to another. As such, streets are not supposed to be dwelling places. However, rapid urbanization has ushered in problems on housing, livelihood, and basic social facilities and services, giving rise to informal settlements and street living in cities. In Cebu City (a highly urbanized city in Central Philippines), displacement from urban slums as well as, lack of livelihood options have pushed some people to dwell on the streets and sidewalks in sites most visited by foreign and local tourists. Through street ethnography, this research uncovers how street dwellers in a heritage site in downtown Cebu City came to live and make a living here. The findings point to the fact that street dwellers have socially constructed and purposely transformed heritage spaces into places where they do their daily domestic routines as well as livelihood activities, in order to survive. This article posits that placemaking by these street dwellers in this heritage site is a process from entering and integrating into the place, appropriating specific spaces into places with meanings for them, building and maintaining social networks, contesting notions of the place, and developing a street culture over time.
The present study explored the phenomenon of women choosing younger men—seemingly a violation of evolved mate preferences of males preferring young mates and females preferring resource-laden mates who are usually older. The study explored this issue through two perspectives: evolved preferences and social learning. Study 1 investigated the possibility that couples where the female is older may have been conforming to evolved mate preferences while ignoring the age factor. The results of Study 1 revealed that in particular contexts, there may be some truth to the popular adage, age does not matter. In Study 2, two experiments were designed to investigate a form of social learning, mate choice copying (MCC), particularly the role of models, as a possible explanation for why women choose younger men. In Experiment 1, college-age women participated in an experiment that explored the effects of age of female partner, attractiveness of female partner, and popularity on attractiveness of the male partner and on perceptions about the partnership. Caucasian faces were utilized in this experiment. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 using Asian faces. Study 2 showed that MCC appeared to be facilitated with the Asian models, but not with the Caucasian models. Also, attractiveness of female partner and popularity may have effects that may facilitate positive perceptions of the older female-younger male partnership with Caucasian models. This may, in turn, facilitate mate choice copying.
Aim: The restricted mobility of the students during the global COVID pandemic impacted on their physical activity level (PAL) and physical fitness level (PFL). The objectives of the study were to (1) describe the current PAL and health- and skill-related PFL of 1st year college students, (2) determine the correlation between PAL and PFL, and (3) compare current and pre-pandemic perceived PALs. Methods: A descriptive research design was used. A retrospective data from students enrolled in Physical Education (PE) 1 was reviewed. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PAL; health-related and skill-related PFL were measured using traditional PE-based standardized tests and 10-cm visual analog scale for perceived current and pre-pandemic PAL. Spearman rho was used to determine the correlation between PAL and PFL and paired t test to compare change in PAL. Results: The students had moderate PAL. All health-related and skill-related PFL was good except for flexibility and agility which was poor. Spearman rho correlations revealed a statistically significant correlation between PAL and muscle endurance (r = .397; n = 55; p = .004). Paired t test showed a statistically significant reduction in current compared with the pre-pandemic PAL t (54) = 2.34, p = 0.023. Conclusion and Implications: Freshmen students have acceptable PAL and PFL except for flexibility and agility while poor muscle endurance correlated with lower PAL. A reduction in their PAL was noted during the pandemic. This indicates the need for programs to improve students’ flexibility, agility, and muscle endurance to be incorporated in their PE classes and daily activities to improve their PAL and PFL.
The use of counting and empirical approaches, tools, and processes is immensely relevant in public policy theory and practice. On the one hand, the essence and use of counting and numbers served significance in addressing public problems that are scientifically inclined and thus manifests the need for technocratic approaches. On the other hand, while technical approaches dominate policy analysis, it cannot be dismissed that discourses, subjectivities, and normative assumptions are also crucial considerations toward addressing critical issues of public concern. Hence, Deborah Stone's work, 'Counting: How we use numbers to decide what matters,' is not just another piece of literature that puts descriptive take on numbers' stories; instead, it presents both practical and critical reflections between numbers and opinion, of subjectivities and objectivities, of ways of decision-making and weighing sound alternatives by exemplifying daily scenarios in our social-physical world. In this book, Stone has unraveled critical lessons in dealing with numbers and counting, both on its superficial-numeric implication and even on a deeper interpretative, abstractive, and symbolic take. However, it is notable that Stone's previous works are critical toward unveiling paradoxes in public policy (Stone 1988, 2012), as well as articulative and keen in emphasizing value and implications of stories, narrative, and emotions to be a significant factor in policy agenda formation and analysis (Stone 1989). Recently, Stone talked about quantitative approaches and their relevance and debates surrounding social data analysis (Stone 2015). It invests attention on formulating an all-encompassing interpretive theory of quantitative analysis based on her previous works and classics, which this book took off and gained inspiration from. The work profoundly analyzed counting and the world of numbers as to how it relates and becomes significant to the physical and social world while reiterating that it is not the end in itself; instead, it blankets an extra layer that can potentially articulate stories and meanings. Chapter one centered on emphasizing the thought that there is 'no such thing as raw number,' where Stone articulates the importance of counting to the social world (human experience) that is not merely interested in objective facts, but at the same time goes beyond and capture subjective interpretations and abstractions of phenomenon tended to be quantitatively accounted. The chapter leveraged a takeoff point to analyze further and discuss how instrumental numbers relate to functions of abstractions, interpretations, and meanings in various aspects of the human world, essentially toward complex situations apprising public problems that need immediate attention. Chapter two centers on nature or the 'numberness' by putting a more profound understanding on 'how a number comes to be.' Significantly, counting and numbers manifest an aura of objectivity and persuasion that happens to be contradicting at times but complementary if considered in its extensive and creative use. The book raised the question of whether numbers can be manipulated to cater to someone's interest; thus, can we perceive that numbers are reliable and valid? Hence, chapter three of the book has provided an extensive exploration and discussion using practically relevant life scenarios to explain further 'how we know what a number
Abstract Background Racial/ethnic minorities are at higher risk for severe COVID-19. This may be related to social determinants that lead to chronic inflammatory states. The aims of the study were to determine if there are racial/ethnic disparities with inflammatory markers and association of methylprednisolone to in hospital survival. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of patients ≥ 18 years of age and admitted for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March and June 2020 in 13 Hospitals in New Jersey, United States. Patients who received other formulation of corticosteroids were not included. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curves were performed to test for discriminatory ability of each inflammatory makers. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression assessed the association of variables to in hospital survival. Results Propensity matched sample (n = 759) between no methylprednisolone (n = 380) and methylprednisolone (n = 379) had 338 Whites, 102 Blacks, 61 Asian/Indians, and 251 non-Black non-White Hispanics. Compared to CRP, area under receiving operating characteristic curve for d-dimer in Hispanics (0.742) was statistically different (DeLong Test P = 0.0041). Multivariate cox regression showed that different variables in Blacks [age ≥ 60 years (HR = 3.71, P = 0.0281), mechanical ventilation (HR = 5.07, P = 0.0281) and creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL (HR = 3.61, P = 0.0007)], Whites [cancer (HR = 1.68, P = 0.0213), qSOFA score of 1 (HR = 1.81, P = 0.0213), qSOFA score of 2 (HR = 5.16, P
Banate-Barotac Bay Resource Management Council, Inc. (BBBRMCI) is an inter-local government alliance composed of the municipalities of Anilao, Banate, Barotac Nuevo, and Barotac Viejo in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. It was organized in 1996 to address the declining state of the resources of Banate Bay. The alliance has implemented numerous projects and was recognized for exemplary environmental governance. However, it encountered several challenges in its governance structure and operation when three of its members withdrew their support. Community perception can provide valuable information in examining the performance of an alliance and can serve as a basis to improve the governance framework for inter-local government collaboration. There is a dearth of comprehensive studies that look into the perception of the stakeholders towards the Banate Bay alliance. This paper utilized the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) survey to assess the perceptions of the community towards the alliance as to its performance and efficacy on resource governance. A total of 474 respondents were interviewed covering the 31 coastal barangays (villages) of the four member-municipalities. Results show that community members of the Banate Bay alliance have generally high awareness, have a positive attitude, and participated actively in its activities. Levels of KAP vary across member-municipalities. Knowledge is associated (p < .001) with the municipalities and there are significant differences in the mean attitude of participants (p < .001). Respondents actively participated in the activities of the alliance resulting in an increase of their environmental awareness. Political factors were identified as one of the reasons that influenced the sustainability of participation of the members. Perceptions of the community were not fully studied nor considered in the narrative of the alliance. Results of this study can serve as a basis for the proposed initiative of reorganizing the alliance for effective governance of Banate Bay.
Mandaue is a crucial city in Cebu island, Philippines as it links other large metropolises and is highly industrialized. The occurrence of urban heat island (UHI) in Mandaue was already confirmed by a previous study. In this paper, we aim to determine how UHI in Mandaue could be improved by mitigations including increasing vegetation, adding open spaces, employing green roofs and/or a combination thereof. ENVI-met software was utilized to simulate two study sites: M. C. Briones street and the planned urban development (PUD). To reduce computing load, M. C. Briones street was further divided into 2 subareas and PUD into 4 subareas. Results of the simulation indicate that addition of more urban spaces and trees could decrease air temperature by 0.2 °C on average while green roof could decrease air temperature by an average range of 0.2 °C–0.4 °C. When a combination of trees, grasses and green roof is used, air temperature could be decreased by an average range of 0.1 °C–0.3 °C. Despite these mitigations, thermal comfort index in Mandaue would still be greater than 26 °C which means that majority of the people would feel uncomfortable. On the other hand, addition of more urban spaces and trees could decrease surface temperature by an average range of 0.5 °C–0.8 °C while conversion of building roofs into green roofs would have no effect. When a combination of vegetation and green roof is employed, surface temperature could be decreased by an average range of 0.4 °C–1.1 °C.
When coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a national health crisis, the local government of the Cagayan de Oro City (CDOC) did not implement total lockdown. The COVID-19 Adjustment Measure Program adopted by the local government probably affected the April 2020 Labor Force Survey that showed that Region 10 posted an employment rate of 88.9%, which is higher than the national average of 82.3% (Department of Labor and Employment, Region Office No. X (DOLE-X). NorMin secures highest employment rate amid COVID 19. 2020. Available from: https://pia.gov.ph/news/articles/1044898 [Accessed 9th May 2021]). Despite the regional figure being 6.6 percentage points higher than the national one, there is a decrease in employed persons by around 400,000 from 2.302 million persons employed in April 2019 to 1.883 million in April 2020 (Department of Labor and Employment, Region Office No. X (DOLE-X). NorMin secures highest employment rate amid COVID 19. 2020. Available from: https://pia.gov.ph/news/articles/1044898 [Accessed 9th May 2021]). Hence, the study determines the effect of COVID-19 protective measures implemented by the government on the economy of CDOC. Using the barangay-level and selected sectoral-level data on business registration, and employment data between 2010 and 2019, the study estimates that one-week lockdown means a [Formula: see text] 1,825 loss of income for a minimum-wage employee. One-month lockdown costs [Formula: see text]7,300 foregone income, while one-quarter lockdown (or a half of six months) is equivalent to [Formula: see text]21,900 income loss. We recommend 10 policy interventions, but the government should also think big and invest its resources into programs that create a multiplier effect on the economy. Multipliers are interventions that create ripples or positive impacts on other sectors and/or economic participants.
Octocorals are relatively understudied than other coral reef organisms despite their ecological and economic values. The Philippines is known to have high marine biodiversity, but information on octocorals is lacking. This study investigated spatial and temporal variations in the assemblage of octocorals in selected reef sites in the West Philippine Sea (WPS)- the Kalayaan Island Group (i.e., Pag-asa, Sabina, Lawak, and Northeast Investigator) and Ulugan in 2017 and 2019. Results showed high octocoral taxonomic richness (at least 10 families) in the study sites. Mean percent octocoral cover in WPS was 5.35% SE ± 0.55, with Sabina having the highest octocoral cover in both years. Significant differences in octocoral cover were observed among sites in both years, but among-station differences were only observed in 2017. Octocoral assemblage also differed among sites in both years (ANOSIM: R > 0.5, p < 0.05), wherein different octocoral taxa dominated in different sites. In particular, variations were driven by high cover of holaxonians, nephtheids, and coelogorgiids in Sabina, and clavulariids, tubiporiids, and xeniids in Northeast Investigator in 2017. In 2019, significant variations were driven by high cover of helioporiids in Pag-asa, while Sabina had higher abundance of holaxonians, nephtheids, alcyoniids, and xeniids. Short-term temporal variation on octocoral cover in monitoring stations in Pag-asa was not observed (Kruskal-Wallis, p > 0.05), although the overall mean octocoral cover increased from 1.23% ± SE 0.47 in 2017 to 2.09% SE ± 0.37 in 2019. Further, there was no significant change in the octocoral assemblage in Pag-asa between years (ANOSIM, R = 0.11, p = 0.07). This study highlights high octocoral taxonomic richness in the WPS relative to other sites in the Indo-Pacific Region and provides baseline information on the octocoral assemblages, which can be useful for future ecological studies and marine biodiversity conservation efforts.
Human trafficking survivors experience elevated suicide risk in comparison to the general population. Anti-trafficking service providers in the Philippines have identified capacity building in suicide prevention as a critical priority given the insufficient number of trained mental health professionals and lack of culturally adapted evidence-based interventions in the Philippines. We conducted a focused ethnography exploring the experiences of non-mental health professionals working in the anti-human trafficking sector in the Philippines in responding to suicidality among survivors of human trafficking ( n = 20). Themes included: emotional burden on service providers, manifestations of stigma regarding suicide, lack of clarity regarding risk assessment, lack of mental health services and support systems, transferring responsibility to other providers, and the need for training, supervision, and organizational systems. We discuss implications for training service providers in the anti-human trafficking sector, as well as cultural adaptation of suicide prevention interventions with human trafficking survivors in the Philippines.
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