The COVID-19 pandemic has relegated pathologies that were previously commonplace to a secondary context. Therefore, it is necessary to study the evolution of these diseases in the presence or absence of COVID-19. Objective: The present study had the following objectives: 1. to evaluate the relationship between the COVID-19 epidemic and the possible decrease in death from respiratory disease (DRd) in Chile; and 2. to study the relationships between meteorological variables and severity of COVID-19 with respect to DRd from January 2018 to February 2021. Methods: The variable number of DRds in Chile was analyzed considering the monthly records of meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation and humidity) in each region of Chile and the severity of COVID-19 to evaluate the mortality trend before and after the pandemic. For this, different nonobservable heterogeneity models for panel data were used. Results: The variables that affect DRd include the number of deaths from COVID-19, which led to a decrease in DRd (negative effect) when increased, the number of patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU), which led to an increase in DRd (positive effect) when increased, and the minimum temperature, which had a negative effect on DRd. These results are supported by the application of panel regression with one-way random-effects models. Conclusion: This study revealed a reduction in the number of DRds other than COVID-19 during the pandemic in Chile. This could be explained by the sanitary measures applied by the Ministry of Health of Chile in relation to mobility restrictions and social distancing, among others. Therefore, DRd decreased in accordance with the appearance of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare academic achievement, cognitive performance, playtime, bullying, and discrimination in adolescents according to traditional uniforms (TUs) and sports uniforms (SUs) worn at school, while simultaneously exploring the influence of the school vulnerability index. Methods: A total of 988 Chilean adolescents (52.6% boys) aged 10–14 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Academic achievement was evaluated by the average grade in maths, language, and science grades, while cognitive performance was assessed through eight cognitive tasks. TUs affecting physical activity, playtime, bullying, and discrimination were queried. Mixed model analyses were performed. Results: No differences were observed in academic achievement (TU: 5.4 ± 0.1 vs. SU: 5.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.785) or in cognitive performance (TU: 99.6 ± 0.8 vs. SU: 98.9 ± 1.8, p = 0.754) according to the school uniform type. Moreover, 64.1% of participants declared that wearing TU affects their physical activity (traditional uniforms: +8min and sports uniforms: +20min), and those who believed so spent more time playing than those who answered negatively (14.5 min, p = 0.012). Finally, adolescents wearing SU displayed a lower feeling of bullying and discrimination; this finding depended mainly on the school’s vulnerability. Conclusion: It is concluded that wearing TU does not show an educational advantage at an academic and cognitive level that justifies its obligation. In addition, it could be suggested that schools consider adolescents’ opinions in adopting a more comfortable uniform, such as the SU. This feasible and low-cost measure would help to increase adolescents’ physical activity during the school day, and, contrary to belief, it would not be related to increased feelings of bullying and discrimination.
Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is a well-described disease in young chickens. It is caused by the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), which has a bi-segmented, double-strand RNA genome. The absence of a lipidic envelope makes IBDV highly resistant to environmental conditions. Consequently, it is widely reported around the world. Fourteen samples retrieved from chickens exhibiting apparent alterations of the bursa of Fabricius between 2017 and 2021 were included in the study. These samples were passaged into embryonated eggs and the presence of IBD was confirmed through RT-PCR. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed to characterize the Chilean IBDV isolates for comparison with GenBank sequences, including vaccines sequences currently used in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis classified the Chilean sequences as A1B1, except the sample 15002_CL_2021 which was classified as A2B1. On the other hand, all Chilean viruses were grouped as B1, based on viral segment B. Estimated evolutionary divergence between different genogroups supports these clustering. Moreover, samples 13936_CL_2017, 14038_CL_2017, 14083_CL_2017, 14145_CL_2018, 14431_CL_2019, and 14459_CL_2019 showed high similitude with the D78 and ViBursa CE vaccines (both currently used in Chile). Viruses 14010_CL_2018, 14040_CL_2017, 14514_CL_2019 and 14019_CL_2017 exhibited patterns that do not exactly fit either vaccine. Finally, viruses 15,041 N-_CL_2021, 15,041 N+_CL_2021, and 15004_CL_2021 showed even more differences regarding both vaccines. This is the first study in Chile to analyze the genetic sequences of IBDV isolates. The different assessments conducted as part of the study suggest a close relationship with vaccines currently in use. Interestingly, one of the viruses exhibited a reassortment in its genome segments, which could confer new characteristics to the virus. However, new approaches would be required to establish the origin of the isolated viruses, as well as how the recombination is changing its virulence or morbidity.
This research presents a first attempt to define the concept of sound-space from the aesthetic and auditory experience of sound in space, through the observation of the interactions between sound and architecture revealed by sound perception. The importance of sound in the configuration of space regards architecture not as its constructive conditions, but instead, as a sensible environment where sound builds animated environments. The case studies for the experiment are industrial spaces and sublime wartime architectures, abandoned infrastructures at the margins of memory, and the urban, uninhabitable places with unique and exacerbated acoustics. A series of compositions were made from the field recordings within the case studies, to work with the subjective interpretation of a sample of people using reactive listening as the main methodology. This aesthetic experience translates acoustic information through comparisons and associations that use the senses, synesthesia, memory, personal and social constructions of reality, and the affective relationship we have with the environment to give shape and definition to the sound-space.
Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii are two zoonotic parasites that constitute significant human and animal health threats, causing a significant economic burden worldwide. Both parasites can be transmitted congenitally, but transmission rates for T. gondii are high, contrary to what has been observed for T. cruzi. The probability of congenital transmission depends on complex interactions between the pathogen and the host, including the modulation of host cell gene expression by miRNAs. During ex vivo infection of canine and ovine placental explants, we evaluated the expression of 3 miRNAs (miR-30e-3p, miR-3074-5p, and miR-127-3p) previously associated with parasitic and placental diseases and modulated by both parasites. In addition, we identified the possible target genes of the miRNAs by using computational prediction tools and performed GO and KEGG enrichment analyses to identify the biological functions and associated pathologies. The three miRNAs are differentially expressed in the canine and ovine placenta in response to T. cruzi and T. gondii. We conclude that the observed differential expression and associated functions might explain, at least partially, the differences in transmission rates and susceptibility to parasite infection in different species.
El consumo de alcohol y drogas en estudiantes del sistema escolar chileno se inicia cada vez a más temprana edad. Por este motivo, se considera importante analizar la experiencia de actores educativos sobre la puesta en práctica de dispositivos destinados a regular este tipo de prácticas. Debido a que se carece de estudios que muestren la percepción de los actores educativos sobre la implementación de protocolos de convivencia escolar en conductas de consumo de alcohol y/o drogas en establecimientos educacionales, el objetivo del estudio es comprender la percepción de actores educativos sobre protocolos de actuación asociados al reglamento de convivencia escolar en consumo de alcohol y/o drogas en establecimientos escolares chilenos. Se utiliza una metodología cualitativa, orientada desde un diseño fenomenológico. Los participantes fueron un total de 6 informantes que se desempeñaban dos establecimientos de la zona centro-sur de Chile. Los resultados muestran una percepción inconsistente sobre la socialización de los protocolos de actuación. Se percibe positivamente el funcionamiento de los protocolos de actuación, aunque se reconoce que el alcance es insuficiente para orientar un trabajo preventivo sobre las conductas de consumo. Palabras clave: Convivencia escolar; educación; protocolos de actuación; fenomenología.
The accreditation process of primary healthcare centers in Chile has not had the same progress as in hospitals, which show high levels of compliance. The purpose of this research is to characterize the communes that have accredited family healthcare centers (CESFAMs) through socio-economic, municipal management, clinical management, and population variables by performing a principal components analysis (PCA) with biplot analysis and a grouping of communes through a hierarchical analysis. The biplot analysis and hierarchical analysis yielded the formation of three large groups of communes with accredited CESFAMs, characterized mainly by population size, number of people registered in the municipal health system, socioeconomic indicators, and financial management and clinical management variables. It was found that the communes that have accredited CESFAMs are characterized by dissimilar behavior in relation to the variables analyzed. Through the model used, it was possible to establish at least three groups of communes according to their behavior against these variables. Of these, the variables of a municipal financial nature were not decisive in achieving the accreditation of the CESFAMs of these communes. Therefore, it is possible that there are other variables or factors that could be facilitating the achievement of accreditation processes.
El siguiente artículo presenta un proceso de investigación y desarrollo inclusivo que tiene como objetivo la cocreación de un sistema de apoyo tecnológico para la accesibilidad cognitiva en entornos urbanos. Se plantea una metodología de investigación inclusiva y codiseño, llevada a cabo por un grupo multidisciplinar de las áreas de la educación, sociología, ingeniería y diseño, en conjunto con un grupo asesor conformado por 11 adultos con discapacidad intelectual, quienes participaron como expertos por experiencia, adoptando el rol de coinvestigadores y codiseñadores de apoyos que potencian la vida independiente. Entre los resultados se describe un lenguaje pictográfico codiseñado con el grupo asesor y la aplicación PICTOS para apoyar y evaluar la accesibilidad cognitiva en servicios presenciales o físicos. La discusión final aborda los aprendizajes sobre el impacto de la accesibilidad cognitiva y la investigación inclusiva en los procesos de codiseño.
Background Multicomponent physical exercise is the most recommended type of physical intervention in older adults. Experimental data suggest the relevance of the muscle-brain axis and the relationship between muscle contraction and release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, however, the impact of this relationship on cognition remains unclear, especially in people with diagnosis of cognitive impairment. This study assesses the effect of multicomponent physical exercise on global cognition in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods Randomized controlled trials published until January 2021 were searched across three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database). Data about exercises included in the multicomponent intervention (endurance, strength, balance, or flexibility), the inclusion of aerobic exercise, and the change in global cognition were extracted. The effect size was represented as a standardized mean difference. Risk of bias was assessed by the RoB2 tool. Results A total of 8 studies were included. The overall effect size suggested an effect of multicomponent exercise on global cognition. However, the subgroup analysis showed an effect only when aerobic exercise was included in the intervention. No effect when mild cognitive impairment and dementia were assessed separately was found. Conclusion This study suggests that multicomponent physical exercise could have an effect on global cognition in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia only when aerobic exercise is included in the intervention. Our results support the inclusion of structured physical exercise programs in the management of people with cognitive impairment.
La formación de profesores ha evolucionado en forma, fondo y calidad a lo largo del tiempo, y las prácticas pedagógicas han sido uno de los principales elementos de la integración de los saberes necesarios para ejercer la profesión docente. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el proceso de adquisición de habilidades reflexivas de los profesores en formación en el ámbito de formación práctica, desde la perspectiva de académicos directivos y profesores en formación, desde un enfoque cualitativo, con un diseño fenomenológico y una muestra no probabilística. Para organizar y analizar los datos se utilizó la herramienta NVivo, para codificar y levantar categorías. Las fuentes de recolección de datos fueron: a) información recogida en talleres, b) grabaciones de audio de los grupos focales, y c) bitácoras de los profesores en formación. Los resultados mostraron que la conceptualización de los académicos acerca de los propósitos de las prácticas depende del programa formativo. Las temáticas propuestas por los profesores en formación se organizaron en las relacionadas consigo mismo, con los estudiantes, con el profesor colaborador y con los contenidos, y si bien en sus bitácoras emplearon distintas modalidades discursivas, predomina la descripción. Se ha detectado que el proceso de práctica requiere mejores y mayores orientaciones metodológicas, pedagógicas y escriturales, puesto que parece organizarse más a partir de la intuición del profesor tutor o guía y de los profesores en formación que en una secuenciación de destrezas y habilidades diseñadas a partir de un enfoque o modelo. Las prácticas pueden abordarse asociadas a la formación de habilidades escriturales, reflexivas e investigativas, pero requieren el ajuste y validación de sus propósitos formativos, mediante un trabajo colegiado y la revisión curricular pertinente a cada especialidad.
Service+Learning (S+L) is an active teaching methodology that enables students to participate in their teaching and learning process, being guided by the teacher. This methodology allows the student to show all the skills, abilities, tools and theoretical-practical knowledge since they are placed at the service of the community partner, which in the case of pedagogies translates into pedagogical practice centers. This transfer must be guided and mediated by the teacher, allowing to provide a response to the requirements of the practice center through the “S+L Booklet”, developed as a methodological proposal for the intermediate practice subject of the Universidad de Las Américas Physical Education Pedagogy career. This instrument takes 15 weeks of weekly development with the proposal, adjustment, development-implementation, monitoring, evaluation and feedback by the students and the teacher of the subject.
Introduction: Short sleep, physical inactivity, and being locked up are risk factors for weight gain. Objective: We evaluated weight gain according to sex, age, hours of sleep and physical activity in university students from 10 Latin American countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional and multicenter study (n = 4880). Results: The average age was 22.5 ± 4.4 years. 60.2% were currently locked up. 73.6% were women, 48.2% increased their body weight, 66% reported insufficient sleep hours, and 65.9% were inactive. Women gained more weight than men (73.2%) and younger students gained more weight (85.1%). Those who had insufficient sleep hours gained most weight (67.6%). Inactive participants gained most weight (74.7%). Students who have insufficient sleep are 21% more likely to have changes in body weight compared to students who have optimal sleep. Conclusion: The increase in body weight and its risk factors during confinement should be considered as emerging from public health.
Objetivo: En este estudio se determinaron las asociaciones entre los principales factores de riesgo con el intento de suicidio, en sujetos que recibieron su primera atención en el servicio de urgencia hospitalario. Material y método: Este fue un estudio descriptivo, en una muestra de 797 casos atendidos en servicio de urgencias, a través de informe de autolesiones, para los años 2017-2018, se determinó la asociación entre el sexo, el tipo de método y los diagnósticos psiquiátricos con el intento de suicidio. Para las asociaciones se utilizó la prueba de Chi-Cuadrado y odds ratio [OR] para el análisis del riesgo, para la comparación de los casos por año se utilizó la prueba T de student. Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron la existencia de una asociación entre el intento de suicidio, sexo, grupo etario, tipo de método, diagnóstico psiquiátrico y fármaco. El riesgo al intento de suicidio aumentó en la variable depresión (OR =1,4; p<0,05), con mayor riesgo del sexo femenino (OR=1,8; p<0,05). Con respecto a la diferencia por año el intento de suicidio aumento en un 19,4 % (p = 0,000; IC95 %) del año 2017 al 2018. Conclusión: El intento de suicidio tiene una asociación significativa con el sexo femenino y con la presencia de depresión, además de ser estas últimas las que generan un mayor riesgo para el intento de suicidio.
Background: The number of people with intellectual disabilities and associated mental illness has increased considerably in recent years. This population presents greater obstacles than their peers without mental health problems in accessing education, leisure, and health services. This, conditions their quality of life (QoL) and makes them one of the most vulnerable groups in society. Methods: This study seeks to know the level of QoL of 181 people with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems between the ages of 35 and 75, based on the perceptions of the professionals who work with them in different disability care services in Chile. The data were collected with the FUMAT scale. Findings: The dimensions of self‐determination and personal development obtained the lowest scores. In addition, living in rural settings, receiving regular support, or being a man was associated with a better QoL. Conclusions: It would be desirable to increase the frequency with which certain supports aimed at the population with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems are provided. Likewise, the exercise of informed and meaningful choices must be encouraged.
Valeriana pilosa is usually employed in Peruvian folk medicine in the form of infusion to treat stomach pain, and has antispasmodic, relaxing, sleep-promoting, and sedative properties, as well as is an anti-inflammatory. In this study, Valeriana pilosa essential oil (VPEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and 47 compounds were identified. Major oil components were α-patchoulene (5.8%), α-humulene (6.1%), seychellene (7.6%), and patchoulol (20.8%). Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antioxidant activities, molecular docking, and Ligand Efficiency studies on enzymes involved in cellular redox pathways such as CYP2C9, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase. Essential oil antioxidant activities were assessed by FRAP, ABTS•+, and DPPH• radical scavenging activity. VPEO displays high antioxidant activity as compared to essential oils of Valeriana jatamansi and Valeriana officinalis oil roots. In addition, molecular docking and ADMET prediction was employed to compare the absorption, metabolism, and toxicity properties of Valeriana pilosa compounds. In the molecular docking studies, limonene, p-cimene, carvone, α-cubebene, cyclosativene, α-guaiene, allo-aromadendrene, valencene, and eremophyllene were the compounds with the best docking score on CYP2C9 and xanthine oxidase. Thus, volatile components of Valeriana pilosa could be associated with the detected antioxidant activity, acting as putative inhibitors of CYP2C9 and xanthine oxidase.
The aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of consumption, access to purchase, and type of preparations with pulses among people who eat a vegetarian/vegan or non-vegetarian diet during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional surveys were distributed using different digital platforms and social networks. We investigated the frequency of consumption, access to purchase any type of preparations. Descriptive analyses were performed. Differences between the types of diet were tested by Chi-squared statistics. A total of 3339 adults participated in the survey in March 2021, 80% of the total participants were females; 13.6% were vegetarian or vegan (VV). The consumption of pulses increased by 25% among non-vegetarians and 54.5% in VV (p by 25% among non-vegetarians and 54.5% in VV (vey in March 2021, 80% of the total participants were females; 13.6% were vegetarian or vegan (VV). The consumption of pulses preparations. Descriptive analyses were performfood with high satiating power, when compared with the opinions of non-vegetarians (p ood with high satiating power, when cconsumption of pulses were observed in less than 30% of the respondents, but the percentage was lower among VV, the most common negative beliefs are "They are difficult to prepare" and "My family does not like them." Food preparations including pulses are more diverse among VV, and consumption being significantly higher in the 10 alternatives of preparations included in the study. These results highlight the importance of identifying the knowledge, practices, frequency, and preferences of consumption of legumes in the population to stimulate their consumption. Although we observed an increase in the consumption of legumes among those in the sample, the VV group showed a higher frequency of consumption, consumption of different types of legumes and varied preparation, and greater knowledge about the beneficial properties of legumes.
This study aimed to compare compliance with 24-h movement guidelines across countries and examine the associations with markers of adiposity in adults from eight Latin American countries. The sample consisted of 2338 adults aged 18-65 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) data were objectively measured using accelerometers. Sleep duration was self-reported using a daily log. Body mass index and waist circumference were assessed as markers of adiposity. Meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was defined as ≥ 150 min/week of MVPA; ≤ 8 h/ day of SB; and between 7 and 9 h/day of sleep. The number of guidelines being met was 0.90 (95% CI 0.86, 0.93) with higher value in men than women. We found differences between countries. Meeting two and three movement guidelines was associated with overweight/obesity (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.97 and OR: 0.69, 95% CI 0.51, 0.85, respectively) and high waist circumference (OR: 0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.97 and OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.62, 0.96). Meeting MVPA and SB recommendations were related to reduced adiposity markers but only in men. Future research is needed to gain insights into the directionality of the associations between 24-h movement guidelines compliance and markers of adiposity but also the mechanisms underlying explaining differences between men and women.
e early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using the real-time quantitative poly-merase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a gold-standard molecular tool has allowed to test and trace the viral spread and the isolation of COVID-19-infected patients. e detection capacity of viral and internal genes is an essential parameter to consider and analyze during the assay. In this study, we analyze the performance of the two commercial RT-qPCR kits used in Chile, TaqMan ™ 2019-nCoV Control Kit v1 (ermo Fisher) and MaxCov19 (TAAG Genetics), for the COVID-19 diagnosis from nasopharyngeal swab samples (NPSs). Our results show a lower sensitivity of the TAAG kit compared to the ermo Fisher kit, even in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 mutations associated with its variants. is study reinforces the relevance of evaluating the performance of RT-qPCR kits before being used massively since those with lower sensitivity can generate false negatives and produce outbreaks of local infections.
Neuropathic pain reduces GABA and glycine receptor (GlyR)-mediated activity in spinal and supraspinal regions associated with pain processing. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) alters Central Amygdala (CeA) excitability by reducing glycinergic inhibition in a mechanism that involves the auxiliary β-subunit of GlyR (βGlyR), which is highly expressed in this region. However, GlyR activity and its modulation by IL-1β in supraspinal brain regions under neuropathic pain have not been studied. We performed chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in male Sprague Dawley rats, a procedure that induces hind paw plantar hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain. Ten days later, the rats were euthanized, and their brains were sliced. Glycinergic spontaneous inhibitory currents (sIPSCs) were recorded in the CeA slices. The sIPSCs from CeA neurons of CCI animals show a bimodal amplitude distribution, different from the normal distribution in Sham animals, with small and large amplitudes of similar decay constants. The perfusion of IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in these slices reduced the amplitudes within the first five minutes, with a pronounced effect on the largest amplitudes. Our data support a possible role for CeA GlyRs in pain processing and in the neuroimmune modulation of pain perception.
A low‐lying structure is revealed for the CuB cluster, which is bowl‐shaped. It consists of a triangular CuB2 base and a B10 rim. Molecular dynamics simulations indicates its structural robustness; at an elevated temperature (600 K), the base rotates reversibly within the B10 perimeter. Chemical bonding analysis detects 2σ‐ and 3π‐delocalized bonds, suggesting double aromaticity. This is also confirmed by two diatropic and concentric ring currents under an external magnetic field. The doubly aromatic global minimum bowl‐shaped structure of the CuB cluster is revealed by DFT and ab‐initio calculations.
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