University of Zulia
  • Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela
Recent publications
Delineating spatial boundaries that accurately encompass complex, often cryptic, life histories of highly migratory marine megafauna can be a significant conservation challenge. For example, marine turtles range across vast ocean basins and coastal areas, thus complicating the evaluation of relative impacts of multiple overlapping threats and the creation of coherent conservation strategies. To address these challenges, spatially explicit ‘regional management units’ (RMUs) were developed in 2010 for all marine turtle species, globally. RMUs were intended to provide a consistent framework that organizes conspecific assemblages into units above the level of nesting rookeries and genetic stocks, but below the species level, within regional entities that may share demographic trajectories because they experience similar environmental conditions and other factors. From their initial conception, RMUs were intended to be periodically revised using new information about marine turtle distributions, life history, habitat use patterns, and population structure. Here, we describe the process used to update the 2010 RMU framework by incorporating newly published information and inputs from global marine turtle experts who are members of the IUCN Marine Turtle Specialist Group. A total of 48 RMUs for 6 of 7 marine turtle species and 166 distinct genetic stocks for all 7 species are presented herein. The updated RMU framework reflects a significant advance in knowledge of marine turtle biology and biogeography, and it provides improved clarity about the RMU concept and its potential applications. All RMU products have been made open access to support research and conservation initiatives worldwide.
The activities developed by human society cause transformations on the Earth's surface and have the capacity to affect the functioning of the planet. One of the main effects has been climate change, which affects the entirety of the planet, its ecosystems, and society. The objective of this work was to carry out a bibliographic review through the compilation of scientific articles, book chapters, and reviews from reliable documentary sources. The review focused on the factors that influence climate change and its consequences. Additionally, this work presents an alternative: the implementation and use of agroforestry systems to mitigate climate change. This is not only because of their potential to capture and store carbon but also to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere through the growth of trees and shrubs. Agroforestry systems also have significant implications for sustainable development due to the social, economic, and environmental benefits they provide.
Sustainability has been recognized as a fundamental principle of development so that humanity can survive on this planet. However, there are still difficulties in translating its philosophical principles into the ability to make concrete decisions for its consolidation. Three factors that determine growth on planet earth, directly related to agricultural systems, have been identified: agricultural production, management of natural resources, and pollution. Therefore, sustainable agriculture must consider them both for the management of plant and animal populations, since both modify the environment to adapt it to their requirements, thus regenerative practices arise to recover the ability of ecosystems to restore themselves. In that sense, it is intended in this review to elucidate how the concepts and principles exposed are translated into a regenerative or a sustainable livestock. To achieve sustainability, it is necessary and essential, an integral management of processes with a holistic vision of the system by farmers and technicians, leading human talents willing to learn different and new technologies, and motivated trained personnel in sustainable techniques that incorporate agroecological and regenerative practices, all on the basis of financial planning. Regenerative livestock per se as an emerging paradigm is very promising, but still requires local research. It is concluded that there is no single model of sustainable livestock, there are no recipes or technological packages, it is governed by the principles that aim at the balance of its dimensions (social, economic, environmental and institutional political governance).
Pulmonary agenesis (PA) is a rare developmental malformation, with a frequency of approximately 1 in 10–15,000 pregnancies. Unilateral PA is often associated with other congenital anomalies, whereas bilateral PA is fatal. Prenatal diagnosis is rare and is diagnosed more frequently in the postnatal period than in the prenatal period. Is a challenge that may be difficult as it shares similar features with other more common pathologies. Ultrasound plays a crucial role in early diagnosis and management. Ultrasonographic findings for a correct prenatal diagnosis include mediastinum displacement with the absence of parenchymal or cystic tissue, decreased thoracic volume, an elevated diaphragm, cardiac axis deviation, and a hemithoracic cavity largely occupied by the heart. Cases of right PA have a worse prognosis compared to left PA, probably due to higher frequency of cardiac and great vessel abnormalities. A rare case of early prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of unilateral fetal PA, at 18 weeks of gestation, is reported.
Background Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has spread worldwide. Since its discovery, health measures have been put in place to help stop it from spreading. Proper education about COVID-19 is important because it helps people to follow health control measures and learn more about the disease.Objective This study aimed to compare people´s knowledge of COVID-19 before and after a brief video-based educational intervention.Methods87 participants in Ecuador were recruited from a dataset of COVID-positive patients in Ecuador between December 2021 and February 2022. This was a cross-sectional, pre- and post-intervention study. First, COVID-19 knowledge was evaluated and then an educational intervention was provided as a video. After the intervention, the same knowledge questions were used to test the participants, and marginal homogeneity-based chi-square tests were employed for comparison.ResultsAfter watching the educational video, participants knew more about the age group most likely to get the disease and their knowledge of how long it takes for Covid to spread. Their knowledge of other aspects of COVID-19 has also increased.Conclusion This study shows that educational intervention positively affects the knowledge of people who watch it. At the end of the study, after the intervention, the study participants knew more than they had before. This could be a useful tool for identifying possible pandemics.
Silica aerogels have many potential applications, including as host matrices for chemical species or nuclear waste storage. For these applications, the permeability is a key parameter and data show that the silica aerogels have poor permeability (~10–60 nm2). In this chapter we review the method to measure the liquid and gas permeability in gels, aerogels, and composite aerogels. Ideally, permeability does not depend on the type of pore fluid, therefore permeability measured using gas should be the same as that measured using water. We measured gas and water permeability in sets of nanocomposite silica aerogels. Experimental results show that gas permeability in aerogels was larger than water permeability by almost two orders of magnitude. The observed difference in gas and water permeability was analyzed from the point of view of the slip regime (Klinkenberg correction) and transition regime (Knudsen correction); the slip flow of gas at pore walls enhances the gas flow when pore sizes are small. This work addresses the problem of estimating permeability with high porosity materials such as aerogels. The effects of structural parameters of porous media (pore volume, tortuosity, fractal features) on the Klinkenberg and Knudsen corrections are discussed and the different models proposed in the literature are tested.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, frequently leads to blockages in the upper respiratory tract in young children, presenting symptoms, such as a raspy voice, a distinctive cough, and noisy breathing during inhalation. Despite being a condition that often resolves on its own, it puts considerable strain on healthcare resources due to regular doctor visits, emergency room usage, and occasional hospital stays. Research focused on larger populations suggests that only a small percentage of children with croup end up requiring hospital admission for their condition. In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines, we executed a meticulous systematic review by scouring databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library. A total of 10 articles met our inclusion criteria and were selected for in-depth analysis. These scholarly works provided substantive insights into the pharmacological agents deployed in the treatment of croup. From a clinical standpoint, the management of croup is highly contingent on the patient's hemodynamic status. Our review discerned a pronounced preference for corticosteroids as the primary therapeutic intervention over other alternatives, which are largely relegated to second-line or emergency applications. Interestingly, we found negligible differences among the various corticosteroid treatment options in terms of statistical significance, underscoring their broad utility in ameliorating the condition. In addition to corticosteroids, our review also explored other therapeutic options, such as heliox, nebulized adrenaline, and even natural interventions, such as exposure to outdoor cold air. The efficacy of these treatments demonstrated variable results, reinforcing the notion that while they may be useful in specific circumstances, they are not universally applicable or as robustly effective as corticosteroids. Given the preponderance of evidence favoring corticosteroids, further research is warranted to solidify their status as the first-line treatment in different medical settings, be it inpatient hospitals, outpatient clinics, or even for home-based care. Such studies will not only add a layer of confidence in current medical practice but could also potentially optimize treatment protocols, contributing to improved patient outcomes. Therefore, advancing our understanding of the effectiveness of corticosteroids as the cornerstone of croup management remains an area of paramount scientific and clinical importance.
Somatic embryogenesis is an alternative for the accelerated propagation of promising guava (Psidium guajava L.) materials of agronomic interest. However, low maturation and germination rates of somatic embryos are some of the aspects that limit its application in breeding programs for different purposes. In this sense, the effect of three concentrations (0, 1 and 1.5 mg.L-1) of abscisic acid (ABA) on embryo maturation and two concentrations of sucrose (3 and 5 %) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) macronutrients (50 and 100 %) on the germination of somatic embryos of guava var. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA-1840 were studied. After six weeks of culture, ABA had a negative effect on somatic embryo maturation in culture media supplemented with 1 or 1.5 mg.L-1, whereas 3.95 to 5.49 times more mature embryos were observed in the absence of ABA. Germination of somatic embryos was significantly improved when the concentration of macronutrient in the culture medium was reduced independently of the sucrose concentration [MS 50 % + 3 % of sucrose (73,3 %) and MS 50 % + 5 % de sucrose (55,0 %)]. It is concluded that the simplification of the culture media with reduction of the macroelements MS and sucrose to standard concentration favors the germination of mature embryos of guava var. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA-1840.
el objetivo de este artículo es evidenciar la existencia de empresas que contribuyen a la marca país mediante la incorporación de mecanismos sostenibles en sus procesos, a la vez que generan utilidades y valor social. La investigación se realizó mediante una metodología mixta y método naturalista en cinco fases. Se analizaron 425 empresas en Chile, utilizando el directorio de la Corp B en América Latina y el Caribe. Los principales hallazgos revelan que la pandemia mundial y la situación económica han impulsado la adopción del modelo de Corporación B, enfocando en el bienestar social, crecimiento económico y preservación de recursos naturales. Este estudio destaca la contribución de las empresas B a la marca país en Chile. Estas organizaciones son reconocidas por su compromiso con la sustentabilidad, su impacto social y su capacidad para proyectar la imagen país a nivel global. Sus prácticas empresariales innovadoras y responsables las convierten en agentes clave para el desarrollo sostenible. El alcance se ha limitado al contexto chileno, lo que podría restringir la extrapolación a otras áreas geográficas, con la existencia de 4000 empresas con certificación B Corp a nivel internacional. Los resultados aportan conocimiento a las ciencias administrativas y sociales, proporcionando una comprensión de cómo estas generan valor a la trilogía de sostenibilidad y su vez contribuir a la marca país, lo que puede servir de base para futuros estudios y estrategias empresariales.
en el contexto peruano, el emprendimiento se ha consolidado como un factor determinante para impulsar el progreso social y económico del país. Además, desempeña un papel activo en la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible propuestos por las Naciones Unidas. El objetivo central del estudio fue establecer la relación entre el emprendimiento peruano y el desarrollo sostenible. Se utilizó un enfoque cuantitativo, no experimental, correlacional y transversal. La población de estudio se estableció utilizando datos del informe técnico Demografía Empresarial del Perú, según este informe, se registraron y establecieron 2054 emprendimientos en el año 2021, con un ciclo de vida de dos años en el momento del estudio. Para la muestra se seleccionaron intencionalmente 746 emprendimientos. Se utilizó un cuestionario compuesto por 40 ítems con opciones de respuesta tipo Likert, fue validado por cinco expertos y se estableció su confiabilidad a través de la medida Alfa de Cronbach, obteniendo un coeficiente muy confiable de 0.93. Los datos resultantes fueron analizados utilizando el programa estadístico SPSS versión 25. Los resultados revelaron una correlación positiva moderada entre el emprendimiento en Perú y el desarrollo sostenible. En conclusión, el emprendimiento en Perú está relacionado de manera significativa con el desarrollo sostenible, especialmente en términos de contribución a los ODS y la promoción de la innovación y adaptabilidad. Sin embargo, se requiere una mayor atención a la participación comunitaria para fortalecer la relación entre el emprendimiento y la comunidad en general
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a condition resulting from infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The main mechanism involves the formation of immune complexes formed in the circulation or in situ on the glomerular basement membrane, which activates complement and causes various inflammatory processes. Cellular mechanisms have been reported in the induction of kidney damage represented by the infiltration of innate cells (neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages) and adaptive cells (CD4 + lymphocytes and CD8 + lymphocytes) of the immune system. These cells induce kidney damage through various mechanisms. It has been reported that nephritogenic antigens are capable of inducing inflammatory processes early, even before the formation of immune complexes. Usually, this disease progresses towards clinical and renal normalization; however, in a smaller number of patients, it evolves into chronicity and persistent kidney damage. Hypotheses have been proposed regarding the mechanisms underlying this progression to chronicity including failure to induce apoptosis and failure to phagocytose apoptotic cells, allowing these cells to undergo membrane permeabilization and release pro-inflammatory molecules into the environment, thereby perpetuating renal inflammation. Other mechanisms involved include persistent infection, genetic background of the host’s complement system, tubulointerstitial changes, and pre-existing kidney damage due to old age and comorbidities.
En la historia reciente de Venezuela, son múltiples los mecanismos que se utilizan para controlar a la población, los mismos tienen un ropaje jurídico, además la línea que divide la ayuda social del control social, en ocasiones, es muy tenue, por lo que resulta imprescindible verificar simbólica y materialmente las características de cada uno, en sus expresiones de leyes habilitantes, censura, represión, pobreza, ignorancia, alimentos y servicios públicos, todo lo cual configura un control social informal que teórica e ideológicamente se desvinculan de planteamientos tradicionales, por ello, es menester también establecer su relación con la seguridad jurídica y los derechos humanos. En este sentido, el objetivo de la investigación consiste en describir la impronta de la política de control social implementada en Venezuela, desde 2013 hasta 2021. En lo metodológico se hizo uso de la técnica de investigación documental y de la hermenéutica. La información recabada permite concluir que hay un desequilibrio de poder, ya que no existe la separación entre los poderes públicos propia del Estado de derecho, de modo que las instituciones y órganos del Estado --en su totalidad-- responden a los lineamientos del ejecutivo nacional y avalan sus políticas de control social.
Todo indica que la presencia de diversas formas de inteligencia artificial IA en todas las actividades humanas, con especial énfasis en los procesos de producción y difusión del conocimiento científico, se irá incrementando en los próximos años a un ritmo vertiginoso. Esta situación demanda del desarrollo de un conjunto de debates y reflexiones interdisciplinarias, que den cuenta del alcance múltiple de la relación inteligencia humana e IA. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este editorial fue, por una parte, reflexionar sobre las implicaciones éticas de uso de la inteligencia artificial en la elaboración de artículos científicos de alto impacto, y; por la otra, presentar los trabajos de investigación de este nuevo número correspondiente al volumen 03, número 05 de la edición de julio-diciembre 2023 de Multiverso Journal. Metodológicamente se hizo uso de la técnica documental de investigación y de la hermenéutica para interpretar y organizar las fuentes recabadas. Se concluye que, aunque el fenómeno de la IA esta incorporado al núcleo mismo de la producción de conocimientos y saberes científicos, cosa que difícilmente se pueda revertir, su uso tiene profundas y variadas implicaciones, no solo para la vida de las comunidades académicas, sino, además, para la sociedad en general.
La racionalidad moderna desde sus inicios cartesianos ha fundado las bases de la conocida modernidad racional presente, esta premisa clave es fundamental para la elaboración de este artículo, cuya finalidad es sentar sólidas críticas como reenfoques científicos validos acerca de la modernidad actual. Tales críticas son de corte histórico -sociológico y epistemológico y, en su conjunto, pretenden ofrecer una solidez critica desglosando determinadas características y elementos de análisis que configuran la volátil y mutante realidad de Latinoamérica; poseedora de rasgos sui generis que ameritan ser abordados bajo lupas de diferentes disciplinas científicas como la sociología, historiografía, filosofía y demás. Ciertamente se acudió interdisciplinariamente a distintos métodos y enfoques científicos provenientes de los análisis, tanto sociológico como histórico/filosófico (fenomenología) seleccionados. Asimismo, se abordaron aspectos del tiempo pasado mediante el empleo del método deductivo como inductivo, con el propósito de establecer una serie de críticas de fondo al desarrollo histórico alcanzado por la modernidad racional y etnocéntrica que prepondera en la complejidad contemporánea. Se concluye que, la finalidad de este artículo estriba en aproximarse a la comprensión de los aspectos cambiantes relativos a la modernidad epistémica, que se torna sinuosa, difusa, y ambigua con respecto a la filosofía en sus diversos paradigmas.
This research was carried out at the Santa Inés Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the Universidad Técnica de Machala, El Oro Province, Ecuador. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Plectranthus amboinicus, commonly called oreganon, on the productive and economic parameters of Cobb 500 broilers. For the well–being of the birds, the management established for open house systems in the area was used. A Completely randomized design was applied, where 6 treatments were used, each with 4 Experimental Units of 10 birds, for a total of 240 chickens evaluated. The treatments arrangement was: T1 or control which was based on a commercial type basal diet, while, to the balanced diets of treatments T2, T3, T4 and T5, the dehydrated–ground leaf of P. amboinicus was added at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%, respectively, in replacement of the Growth Promoter Antibiotic (GPA); the T6 or blank, which did not contain GPA and dehydrated P. amboinicus in the balanced mixture. The variables evaluated were live weight gain (LWG), feed consumption (FC), accumulated water consumption (AWC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality (M), productive efficiency factor (PEF), kg of standing meat per m2, economic expenses and cost per kg of standing meat. For all the variables, an ANOVA was used, previous assumptions of normality and homogeneity, and to discriminate between the means, Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) procedure was used, with a confidence level of 95%. All data were analyzed using the PROC GLM (General Linear Model) procedure of the SAS statistical package. The results showed that oreganón could works as a replacement alternative to the GPA in broilers, without harming the productive and economic parameters.
Background Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are a rare form of retroperitoneal malignancy and their venous extension to the right atrium is an even rarer event. These tumors pose a unique surgical challenge and often require a multidisciplinary team-based approach for their surgical treatment. Case presentation We present a case of a 68-year-old male with primary LMS of the IVC with a tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium that was initially deemed inoperable. Conclusions After extensive neoadjuvant chemo-radiation with minimal tumor effect, the patient underwent en-bloc surgical resection of the tumor along with removal of the infrarenal IVC and right kidney and adrenal without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass.
The relationship between nutrition and immunity is very complex, because each phase of the immune response can be affected by the lack of essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. In addition, it has been described that the most prevalent non-communicable diseases worldwide, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, underlie the activation of inflammatory mechanisms, which can compromise immune functions, often caused or accompanied by alterations in nutritional patterns and intestinal microbiota. In this context, it is clear that diet is a key modulator of the immune system and much interest is emerging in the area of nutrition as a means of treatment and prevention. The Mediterranean diet has been widely described as positively influencing and is proposed not only as a potential tool in the clinical management of different diseases, but also for global health promotion. Therefore, the aim of this review is to address the current knowledge on the regulatory role of the nutritional components present in the Mediterranean diet on the immune system and the intestinal microbiota.
Todo profesional de la economía requiere conocer aspectos relativos al comportamiento de los agentes económicos, mercados, entre otros, que son parte del contenido académico en el área microeconómica presentes en las instituciones universitarias. Sin embargo, la enseñanza de la economía varía en forma importante entre diferentes casas de estudio, prevaleciendo una mayor o menor presencia del eje microeconómico con variaciones de contenido. Partiendo de los aportes conceptuales de Parkin (2018) y Krugman y Wells (2019), esta investigación pretende comparar la oferta académica en microeconomía disponible en una muestra de universidades consideradas. El estudio planteado es descriptivo-documental y de campo virtual, no experimental, utilizando la técnica de la observación. La muestra intencional estuvo constituida por 15 universidades. Entre los resultados obtenidos destacan que las universidades venezolanas incorporan una mayor cantidad de asignaturas en el eje microeconómico que el resto de los sub-grupos estudiados (25,69%). En el sub-grupo top mundial 9, destaca la presencia de asignaturas relacionadas con la economía del comportamiento y experimental (77,78%), así como de gestión estratégica (66,67%), resultando esta última también con mayor frecuencia relativa para el sub-grupo de las mejores 3 de Latinoamérica, mientras en el sub-grupo Venezuela, destaca la profundización en microeconomía general. Por tanto, el estudio realizado permite concluir que, si bien el eje microeconómico es parte fundamental de la carrera de economía para todas las instituciones consideradas, resulta más evidente en el caso de las universidades venezolanas, mientras que a nivel internacional este eje tiene menor peso relativo y se evidencia una inclinación por asignaturas relacionadas al área del estudio del comportamiento, a nivel general y estratégico.
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971 members
Cateryna Aiello-Mazzarri
  • Escuela de Ingeniería Química
Jose Enrique Finol
  • Laboratorio de Investigaciones Semióticas y Antropológicas
Paz Reverol Carmen Laura
  • Department of Human Sciences
Jose Atilio Aranguren Mendez
  • Animal Production and Molecular Genetics.
Maczy Gonzalez
  • Departamento de Morfofisiopatologia Facultad de Medicina LUZ
Ciudad Universitaria. Av. Universidad, 4001, Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela
Head of institution
Judith Aular de Duran