Many countries are still facing a common hurdle: last-mile rural electrification. Great skill is required to face this challenge, which generally involves the most isolated, inaccessible and complex regions. Many Latin American countries have already undertaken universal access to energy schemes and have built an experience base that, if shared, can add a wealth of knowledge to facilitate the implementation of future initiatives. In this regard, this work evaluates the sustainability of the main electrification initiatives developed in Brazil and Venezuela, by performing an ex-post comparative multicriteria evaluation on 18 quantitative and qualitative social, institutional, economic, technical and managerial indicators. Eight discussion threads are drawn from the programs’ design and implementation strategies and outcomes. The main insights are: the suitability of renewable-based distributed energy resources for covering last-mile rural electrification; the effectiveness of a private context for the development of the technological market and the creation of policy instruments; and the effectiveness of a public context to implement a greater diversity of technological solutions focused on improving social well-being. The lessons learned aim to guide rural electrification promoters and decision makers in developing more sustainable and successful last-mile electrification initiatives.
The constant changes in cancer cell bioenergetics are widely known as metabolic reprogramming. Reprogramming is a process mediated by multiple factors, including oncogenes, growth factors, hypoxia-induced factors, and the loss of suppressor gene function, which support malignant transformation and tumor development in addition to cell heterogeneity. Consequently, this hallmark promotes resistance to conventional anti-tumor therapies by adapting to the drastic changes in the nutrient microenvironment that these therapies entail. Therefore, it represents a revolutionary landscape during cancer progression that could be useful for developing new and improved therapeutic strategies targeting alterations in cancer cell metabolism, such as the deregulated mTOR and PI3K pathways. Understanding the complex interactions of the underlying mechanisms of metabolic reprogramming during cancer initiation and progression is an active study field. Recently, novel approaches are being used to effectively battle and eliminate malignant cells. These include biguanides, mTOR inhibitors, glutaminase inhibition, and ion channels as drug targets. This review aims to provide a general overview of metabolic reprogramming, summarise recent progress in this field, and emphasize its use as an effective therapeutic target against cancer.
The objective of this work was to determine the content of some chemical and phytochemical characteristics, in seeds of 60 cocoa trees from a collection in southern Ecuador; to identify their potential as biochemical descriptors. Brix degrees (ºBrix), moisture (MO), lipids (LI), total phenols (TP), and antioxidant activity (AA) were determined. Statistical analysis indicated that there was low variability in ºBrix, MO and LI; and high variability in TP and AA. ºBrix was distributed in five classes; MO, LI, and AA in four and TP in three; several trees presented high contents and close to the standards: ºBrix (16-21.34 ºBrix), MO (7-7.90%), LI (50.03- 60.71%), TP (5.05-14.46 mg GAE.g-1) and AA (92.48-275.16 mg TE.g-1). A significant correlation (p<0.01) was found between LI and TP (r=-0.334), and between TP and AA (r=0.802). The TP and AA variables showed a high positive correlation, while LI and TP a low and negative. The accumulated variance was 64.54%, represented by TP and AA. It is concluded that the variability was influenced by the genotype and was high in TP, and AA. TP and AA constituted excellent biochemical descriptors of diversity in cocoa seeds. The trees FCA58, FCA59, FCA48, FCA45, and FCA46 presented the highest values of TP and AA, so they were promising as cultivars, for plant breeding and industry, among others.
High-amylose maize starch (AS) was modified by graft copolymerization with sodium acid maleate and disodium maleate, using the KMnO4-NaHSO3 redox system, and covalently crosslinked with N,N'-bismethylene acrylamide in inverse suspension polymerization process. The resulting modified starches were evaluated as absorbent materials for release fertilizers. Firstly, AS was obtained by leaching from native maize starch and posterior precipitation in ethanol. The gelatinized AS, comonomers, redox pair and crosslinker were dissolved in distilled water, which was used as dispersed phase; while paraffin oil was used as the continuous phase and sorbitan esters as stabilizers. In the reacions, parameters such as the AS amount of 10 wt%/v with respect to the dispersed phase; the degree of neutralization of maleic acid of 80%; the ratio [NaHSO3]/[KMnO4] of 2.6; the ratio between crosslinker and comonomers of 8.9 × 10–4; the stirring speed of 250 rpm; the reaction temperature at 60 °C; and a reaction time of 3 h, were kept constant. All the resulting amylose modified starches were characterized by potenciometric titration, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The absorption capacity of these materials was studied by analyzing their swelling in various media and different pHs. Finally, the amylose modified starches were evaluated as systems for release fertilizers by measuring the loaded and released amount of fertilizer by gravimetry and conductimetry, respectively.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases including diabetes. The interaction between RAGE and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promotes gene expression, enhances the release of proinflammatory molecules and causes the generation of oxidative stress in numerous cell types. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of enalapril and losartan on RAGE expression in abdominal aortic endothelium of rats with experimentally induced diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing approximately 150 - 200 g, were used. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by intravenous administration of a single dose of 55 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (ETZ). The following groups were studied: control (n=10), diabetic (n=10), losartan-treated diabetic (n=10) and enalapril-treated diabetic (n=10) rats. RAGE expression in aortic endothelium was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. A significant increase in RAGE expression was observed in diabetic animals versus controls (p<0.001), there was a decrease in RAGE expression, in animals treated with losartan versus controls (p<0.01) and in those treated with enalapril (p<0.05) versus control and versus diabetes + vehicle. In conclusion, in the experimental model of ETZ-induced diabetes, there is an increase in RAGE expression at the level of the abdominal aortic endothelium, which can be reversed by treatment with losartan and/or enalapril, two drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, suggesting its involvement in the molecular events related to vascular damage during diabetes.
We present detailed ONIOM(ωB97X-D:PM6) calculations for the formation mechanism of novel composites combining protonic mordenites (H-MOR) with various ionic liquids: 1,3-dimethyl-imidazolium chloride [MMIm]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [EMIm]Cl; 1-methyl-3-propyl-imidazolium chloride [PMIm]Cl; 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [BMIm]Cl, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [HEMIm]Cl, 1,3-dimethyl-1,3,2-diazasilolium chloride [MMSiN]Cl, and 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphospholium chloride [MMPP]Cl. The most feasible [M]-MOR formation mechanism ([M]⁺ = [MMIm]⁺, [EMIm]⁺, [PMIm]⁺, [BMIm]⁺, [HEMIm]⁺, [MMSiN]⁺ [MMPP]⁺) involves an ion exchange at the T4O10 position favoring the isolation of a minimal number of [M]⁺ isomers (i.e., conformational traps). The interaction of these [M]-MOR composites with pollutant gases has afterward been evaluated. Among the studied sytems, [EMIm]-MOR and [HEMIm]-MOR present electronic and steric conditions for potential applications in gas separation, capture, and storage (H2 and H2S). The H-MOR framework exhibits two structural conformers with the [HEMIm]⁺ cation in the confined space. Both, the MOR-T4O10-[HEMIm] and MOR-T4O10-[HEMIm]HB conformers, interconvert by a dynamic equilibrium with a transition state MOR-T4O10-TS1 acting as a conformational switch (-) that selectively recognizes and captures H2S through a plier-like conformation.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) drives ocular perfusion. Excessive 24-h MAP variability relates to glaucoma, however, whether this is due to dips or increases in the blood pressure (BP) is undocumented. We investigated the association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in relation to the five largest MAP dips/increases over 24-h, henceforth called dips/blips. In the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS), 93 participants aged 40y or older (women, 87.1%; mean age, 61.9y) underwent baseline ophthalmological and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring assessments. OAG was the presence of optic nerve damage and visual field defects. Statistical methods included logistic regression and the generalized R2 statistic. For replication, 48 OAG cases at the Leuven Glaucoma Clinic were matched with 48 controls recruited from Flemish population. In MAS, 26 had OAG. OAG compared to non-OAG participants experienced longer and deeper dips (116.5 vs. 102.7 minutes; to 60.3 vs. 66.6 mmHg; 21.0 vs. 18.0 mmHg absolute or 0.79 vs. 0.81 relative dips compared to the preceding reading). The adjusted odds ratios associated with dip measures ranged from 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–4.85; P = 0.009) to 3.39 (95% CI, 1.36 8.46; P = 0.008). On top of covariables and 24 MAP level/variability, the dip measures increased the model performance (P values below 0.025). Blips did not associate with OAG. The case-control study replicated the MAS observations. Dips rather than increases in the 24-h MAP level were associated with increased risk for OAG. An ophthalmological examination combined with 24-h BP monitoring might be precautious steps required in normotensive and hypertensive patients at risk of OAG.
Open access (OA) to research publications is of global relevance, both in terms of provision and consumption of scholarly content. However, much of the research, practice, and models surrounding OA have been centered around the Global North. In this study we investigate how and to what degree higher education institutions (HEIs) in Angola interact with the concept of OA to journal publications through their policies and practices, a country where the end of the civil war in 2002 marked a new start for growth in teaching and research. This study is based on an online survey conducted in 2020 among research management units of Angolan HEIs. 23 valid institutional responses were received of 44 invitations sent (52% response rate). The results suggest that Angolan HEIs have moderate awareness of OA but practical incorporation into academic processes has remained slow, however, this can be seen to be connected to the overall slow progress in ramping up research intensity in the country. Seven of the responding institutions reported to be involved in publishing scholarly journals, all of them OA. Overall Angolan HEIs have few institutional repositories, and have so far placed little value on OA in the context of academic career advancement.
INTRODUCTION Bariatric surgery revisions and emergencies are associated with higher morbidity and mortality compared to primary bariatric surgery. No formal outcome benchmarks exist that distinguish MBSAQIP-accredited centers in the community from unaccredited institutions. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted on 53 bariatric surgery revisions and 61 bariatric surgical emergencies by a single surgeon at a high-volume community hospital accredited program from 2018 to 2020. Primary outcomes were complications or deaths occurring within 30-days of the index procedure. Secondary outcomes included operative time, leaks, surgical site occurrences (SSOs), and deep surgical site infections. RESULTS There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the study groups. Mean operative time was significantly longer for revisions as compared to emergency operations (149.5 vs 89.4 minutes). Emergencies had higher surgical site infection (SSI) (5.7% vs 21.3%, p<0.05) and surgical site occurrence (SSO) (1.9% vs 29.5%, p<0.05) rates compared to revisions. Logistic regression analysis identified several factors to be predictive of increased risk of morbidity: pre-operative albumin <3.5 g/dL (p<0.05), recent bariatric procedure within the last 30 days (p<0.05), prior revisional bariatric surgery (p<0.05), prior duodenal switch (p<0.05), and pre-operative COPD (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Bariatric surgery revisions and emergencies have similar morbidity and mortality, far exceeding that of the primary operation. Outcomes comparable to those reported by urban academic centers can be achieved in community hospital MBSAQIP-accredited centers. Keywords: Revisional bariatric surgery, bariatric emergencies, community hospital, MBSAQIP
The present narrative review was conducted to investigate and to compile the most recent and relevant information about the epidemiology of the Human Papilloma Virus and its relationship with the pathologies associated with it. Literature searches were performed electronically in PubMed, Medline, ISI, DOAJ, Springer, Embase. Web of Knowledge, DOAJ, and Google Scholar for original articles written in the English language and Scielo, Latindex, Imbiomed-L, Redalyc, and Google Scholar for original articles written in the Spanish language. The searches included the keywords: epidemiology of human papillomavirus, viral taxonomy, the structure of human papillomavirus, classification of human papillomavirus, the nomenclature of human papillomavirus, pathologies associated to human papillomavirus, human papillomavirus and cervical, human papillomavirus and vulvar cancer and human papillomavirus and vaginal cancer Publications from January 1987 to August 2021 reviewed. This narrative review researched the epidemiology of the human papillomavirus and its pathologies associated especially the female genital area.
Obesity is a multifactorial metabolic condition characterized by an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat in the adipose tissue, capable of decreasing life expectancy. Chronically, the exacerbated inflammatory response interferes with the proper functioning of organs and tissues external to adipose tissue, becoming the cornerstone of various major metabolic imbalances in places such as the central nervous system. In this matter, obesity’s meta-inflammation indirectly affects brain regions related to psychiatric illnesses and cognitive function. Also, it has been established that several neurobiological mechanisms related to appetite regulation and impulse control disorders could explain the onset of obesity. Thus, because of the high prevalence of mental illnesses linked to obese patients and the fact that a bidirectional relation between these two entities has been observed, many efforts have been made to establish an effective and secure pharmacological approach for obesity. In this context, several psychotropics and appetite-suppressant drugs, along with lifestyle changes, have been highlighted as promising therapeutic tools against obesity.
Comprehensive assessments of species’ extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been omitted from conservation-prioritization analyses that encompass other tetrapods. Reptiles are unusually diverse in arid regions, suggesting that they may have different conservation needs. Here we provide a comprehensive extinction-risk assessment of reptiles and show that at least 1,829 out of 10,196 species (21.1%) are threatened—confirming a previous extrapolation and representing 15.6 billion years of phylogenetic diversity. Reptiles are threatened by the same major factors that threaten other tetrapods—agriculture, logging, urban development and invasive species—although the threat posed by climate change remains uncertain. Reptiles inhabiting forests, where these threats are strongest, are more threatened than those in arid habitats, contrary to our prediction. Birds, mammals and amphibians are unexpectedly good surrogates for the conservation of reptiles, although threatened reptiles with the smallest ranges tend to be isolated from other threatened tetrapods. Although some reptiles—including most species of crocodiles and turtles—require urgent, targeted action to prevent extinctions, efforts to protect other tetrapods, such as habitat preservation and control of trade and invasive species, will probably also benefit many reptiles.
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by a missing or structurally abnormal second sex chromosome. Subjects with TS are at an increased risk of developing intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, short stature, congenital heart diseases, infertility, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (stroke and myocardial infarction). The underlying pathogenetic mechanism of TS is unknown. The assumption that X chromosome-linked gene haploinsufficiency is associated with the TS phenotype is questioned since such genes have not been identified. Thus, other pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested to explain this phenotype. Morphogenesis encompasses a series of events that includes cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation, programmed cell death, and integration into organs and systems. The precise control of the growth and differentiation of cells is essential for normal development. The cell cycle frequency and the number of proliferating cells are essential in cell growth. 45,X cells have a failure to proliferate at a normal rate, leading to a decreased cell number in a given tissue during organogenesis. A convergence of data indicates an association between a prolonged cell cycle and the phenotypical features in Turner syndrome. This review aims to examine old and new findings concerning the relationship between a prolonged cell cycle and TS phenotype. These studies reveal a diversity of phenotypic features in TS that could be explained by reduced cell proliferation. The implications of this hypothesis for our understanding of the TS phenotype and its pathogenesis are discussed. It is not surprising that 45,X monosomy leads to cellular growth pathway dysregulation with profound deleterious effects on both embryonic and later stages of development. The prolonged cell cycle could represent the beginning of the pathogenesis of TS, leading to a series of phenotypic consequences in embryonic/fetal, neonatal, pediatric, adolescence, and adulthood life.
Two new species of the diving beetle genus Liodessus Guignot, 1939 are described from high mountain regions in Venezuela: Liodessus meridensis sp. nov. from Laguna de Mucabají, Mérida and L. venezuelensis sp. nov. from Laguna de Mucabají and below Pico Bolívar, Mérida. We delineate the species using morphological characters such as male genital structure and beetle size, shape and color. Mitochondrial cox1 sequence data provided an additional character source. Both new species occur at altitudes above 3,500 m and were collected in shallow water at the edge of high-altitude ponds.
El objetivo general de este trabajo es analizar al Maestro Rector de la reapertura de la Universidad del Zulia, Doctor Jesús Enrique Lossada, en su condición de Editor de la Revista de la Universidad del Zulia,desde el proceso histórico que sustenta la reapertura de la Universidad y la fundación de la revista antes mencionada. En este proceso histórico se detectó lo siguiente:a) la comunicación y difusión de las actividades académicas en los antecedentes institucionales que precedieron a la instalación de la Universidad,el 11 de septiembre de 1891;b) la continuidad de la misma en el funcionamiento de su instalación;c) la visión y la misión de la reapertura de la Universidad en la búsqueda de su permanencia ydesarrollo integral.Al analizar el proceso histórico de comunicación e información de las actividades académicas, se puede sostener que la fundación de la Revista de la Universidad del Zuliaes un aporte del Rector Lossada. Él valoróla proyección científica en su dimensión social y superóasí la tradicional misión de permanecer aisladosdel contexto social.
El artículo está orientado al análisis de los elementos que configuran el régimen jurídico de los Estudios de Postgrado o Estudios de Cuarto Nivel en Ciencias de la Salud, y los derechos y garantías que pueden ser vulnerados en el ejercicio de sus funciones administrativas, docentes y asistenciales. Se procedió a un análisis crítico-hermenéutico de un total de 16 sentencias vinculadas con los Postgrados en Ciencias de la Salud, con un predominio de las especialidades quirúrgicas (68.75%). El acto administrativo más frecuentemente impugnado fue la desincorporación de la especialidad (75%), y entre la objeción más frecuente al acto administrativo fue la ausencia de respeto al debido proceso y el derecho a la defensa (25%). Los recursos más frecuentes para impugnar el acto administrativo, fueron: el recurso administrativo de nulidad conjuntamente con amparo cautelar (50%) y el amparo cautelar (37.5%), que fue admitido en el 31.25% de los casos evaluados.
Diferentes investigadores han buscado establecer una medición precisa de fenómenos no observables como es la cultura organizacional; como condición inicial al cambio y adaptación organizacional ante ambientes dinámicos. Por ello, se plantea como objetivo de esta investigación analizar la cultura organizacional en empresas agropecuarias del sur del lago de Maracaibo, Zulia-Venezuela, de manera que se pueda precisar el tipo de cultura que prevalece en dichas unidades de producción. La investigación posee un enfoque mixto en un diseño de triangulación concurrente, con una concepción de verdad empirista y con un paradigma pragmático. Para sustentar la variable central del estudio fue necesario consultar a autores como Barrientos et al (2021); Cancino y Mellado (2019); Denison (1996); Falcones (2014), entre otros. La muestra fue constituida con 14 unidades productivas agropecuarias del municipio Sucre del estado Zulia-Venezuela, donde se realizaron encuestas a 42 individuos, apoyadas en cuestionarios como instrumentos de recolección de datos, permitiendo la triangulación de datos, procesados a partir de la estadística descriptiva mediante el software SPSS25®. Como resultado, resalta una cultura organizacional estable, haciendo énfasis en el liderazgo y los procesos decisorios en el mantenimiento del status quo de las empresas, e inclinación hacia actividades organizacionales, de las cuales ha dependido su continuidad productiva y adaptación a los factores del entorno. Se concluye que la cultura organizacional de la empresa agropecuaria posee las características distribuidas en la estabilidad, respetan principios de coherencia y confiabilidad, socialización y los códigos éticos.
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the study of drugs, most notably ivermectin and more recently Paxlovid (PF-07321332) which is in phase III clinical trials with experimental data showing covalent binding to the viral protease Mpro. Theoretical developments of catalytic site-directed docking support thermodynamically feasible non-covalent binding to Mpro. Here we show that Paxlovid binds non-covalently at regions other than the catalytic sites with energies stronger than reported and at the same binding site as the ivermectin B1a homologue, all through theoretical methodologies, including blind docking. We volumetrically characterize the non-covalent interaction of the ivermectin homologues (avermectins B1a and B1b) and Paxlovid with the mMpro monomer, through molecular dynamics and scaled particle theory (SPT). Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT), we estimated the electric dipole moment fluctuations at the surface of each of complex involved in this study, with similar trends to that observed in the interaction volume. Using fluctuations of the intrinsic volume and the number of flexible fragments of proteins using anisotropic and Gaussian elastic networks (ANM+GNM) suggests the complexes with ivermectin are more dynamic and flexible than the unbound monomer. In contrast, the binding of Paxlovid to mMpro shows that the mMpro-PF complex is the least structurally dynamic of all the species measured in this investigation. The results support a differential molecular mechanism of the ivermectin and PF homologues in the mMpro monomer. Finally, the results showed that Paxlovid despite beingbound in different sites through covalent or non-covalent forms behaves similarly in terms of its structural flexibility and volumetric behaviour.
This research combines the art of designing programmatic contents by competencies and the technological variable as an innovative resource in the context of higher education. The objective of this study was focused on the development of a technological system for the generation of programmatic contents by competencies in the curricular units of university careers. This research was carried out under the empirical approach; it is of an applicative type, since it generates a proposal and it was structured methodologically by phases: Phase I of approaching the manual system and user requirements was deployed under a field design in which the current situation and user expectations were described through the techniques of participant observation and meetings of experts in the area of educational technology (teaching staff of the different academic programs, heads of departments and coordinators of the Curriculum Commission), in order to carry out business rounds as a strategy of characterization and permanent consultation of the evolution of the system design to generate agreements. Phase II led to the establishment of the structural components of the prototype, and integrated the essentials from the systems theory, software engineering, and pedagogical didactic theories. Phase III was based on the methodology of system design by prototyping. As for the results, it was evidenced that the stakeholders considered feasible the use of the system to generate programmatic contents by competence, and finally the functionality of the system and the operational advantages for the generation of programmatic contents were demonstrated.
Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. The symptoms of PD are characterized not only by motor alterations but also by a spectrum of nonmotor symptoms. Some of these are psychiatric manifestations such as sleep disorders; depression; cognitive difficulties that can evolve into dementia; and symptoms of psychosis, which include hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. Parkinson’s disease psychosis (PDP) occurs in 18%–50% of patients with PD. Treating PDP is challenging because antipsychotic drugs tend to be inefficient or may even worsen the motor symptoms of the disease. Methods: This is a narrative review in which an extensive literature search was performed on the Scopus, EMBASE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases, from inception to August 2021. The terms “Parkinson’s disease psychosis,” “Parkinson psychosis,” “neurodegenerative psychosis,” and “dopamine psychosis” were among the keywords used in the search. Objective: This review aims to summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in PDP, as well as recent innovative alternatives for its treatment. Results: Recently, views on the etiology of hallucinations and illusions have evolved remarkably. PDP has been cemented as a multifactorial entity that is dependent not only on extrinsic mechanisms but also novel intrinsic mechanisms including genetic factors, neurostructural alterations, functional disruptions, visual processing disturbances, and sleep disorders. Consequently, innovative pharmacological and biological treatments have been proposed. Pimavanserin, a selective 5-HT2A inverse agonist, stands out after its approval for the treatment of PDP-associated hallucinations and illusions. Conclusion: Future results from upcoming clinical trials should further characterize the role of this drug in the management of PDP as well as other treatment options with novel mechanisms of action, such as saracatinib, SEP-363856, cannabidiol, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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