# University of Zielona Góra

• Zielona Góra, Poland
Recent publications
Water is crucial for birds, especially during hot weather. However, the availability of water, and its use by birds in modern anthropogenic habitats, is far from understood, especially outside arid regions. Here, we analyze a large nationwide dataset collected in the temperate zone and present an overview of small water resources used by birds in urban and rural habitats in Poland. We investigated the proportion of birds using free-standing water, preferences for various water sources, and factors and threats influencing drinking and bathing behaviour. Birds using water resources are represented by various taxonomic and ecological groups. Species composition differed slightly due to environmental conditions in the vicinity of the water resource and the background species composition. In total 51 species were observed using water, representing 64% of the 80 species recorded in the vicinity. The probability of water usage was positively related to temperature, which further emphasizes the importance of water under future climate-warming scenarios. We show that small water resources, including those provided by people, were less likely to be used by birds than resources resembling natural waters (puddles, ponds, fountains). This novel finding may have particular importance for avian conservation planning, including appropriate behaviour for nature lovers (providing water sources and reducing stress to birds due to predation risk). Finally, we assessed potential threats to bathing and drinking birds, such as moving cars, risk of drowning, and the presence of predators. Any kind of surface water is currently beneficial for wild birds inhabiting human modified landscapes. During heatwaves and droughts access to water can be crucial for many birds. Unfortunately, such extreme events are predicted to become more frequent and more severe under climate change. Therefore, we would encourage further research in the use by birds of free-standing water, similar to the many studies of birdfeeders in winter, and to consider the maintenance of diverse sources of accessible water in environmental management.
Background There are several genes associated with ovarian cancer risk. Molecular changes in borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) indicate linkage of this disease to type I ovarian tumors (low-grade ovarian carcinomas). This study determined the prevalence and association of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C , and CHEK2 with the risk of BOTs. Methods The study group consisted of 102 patients with histologically confirmed BOT and 1743 healthy controls. In addition, 167 cases with ovarian cancer G1 were analyzed. The analyses included genotyping of 21 founder and recurrent mutations localized in 5 genes ( BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and CHEK2). The risk for developing BOT and low-grade ovarian cancer, as well as the association of tested mutations with survival, was estimated. Results The CHEK2 missense mutation (c.470T>C) was associated with 2-times increased risk of BOT (OR=2.05, p =0.03), at an earlier age at diagnosis and about 10% worse rate of a 10-year survival. Mutations in BRCA1 and PALB2 were associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer G1 (OR=8.53, p =0.005 and OR=7.03, p =0.03, respectively) and were related to worse all-cause survival for BRCA1 carriers (HR=4.73, 95%CI 1.45–15.43, p =0.01). Conclusions Results suggest that CHEK2 (c.470T>C) may possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of BOT, but due to the low number of BOT patients, obtained results should be considered as preliminary. Larger more in-depth studies are required.
Conditions for experimental detection of asymmetric one-way quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system are examined. We consider cases of collective steering in which two modes collectively interact with the third mode, and the case of separate modes steering in which two mutually independent modes interact with the third mode. We find that the occurrence of both collective and separate modes quantum steering results not from an asymmetry between thermal noise of the modes, as it has been realized in linear optics systems, but from an asymmetry between the damping rates of the modes. We show the requirement that the modes are damped with different rates to be the necessary and sufficient condition for collective steering. In the case of separate modes, we find that apart from unequal damping rates, an additional condition is required that the modes are coupled to the third mode with unequal strengths. Thus, the generation of quantum steering between separate modes is more restrictive to the parameters than the collective steering. Determination of conditions for experimental detection of one-way steering in multi-mode system could give a new stimulus to develop secure directional communication networks.
The choice of a host and feeding site is particularly interesting in the case of species feeding on conifers, where the larvae usually have a choice of several age classes of needles. The subject of this research is to answer whether the larvae have a specific preference for a certain needle age class, as well as how such foraging decisions influence larval performance and overwintering. We present the results of food choice tests and the influence of food quality (different age classes of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris needles) on the performance and overwintering of Dendrolimus pini larvae. The obtained results indicate that larvae fed with the youngest needles have the highest performance; however, in the food choice tests, one year old needles were chosen significantly more often. It was also shown that feeding on one year old needles led to the best overwintering survival. Differences in the contents of elements and metabolites explained the cause of the worst food, the oldest needles, and also the differentiation between current year and one year old needles. Water content may be of key importance, which is lower in one year old needles than in current year needles; its lower content may elevate the concentration of cryoprotectant substances.
This article aims to establish which international-level legal standards and policy instruments apply to the growing problem of the pollution of the marine environment caused by irregular migration. The first part of the study is devoted to the characteristics and extent of the damage caused by life jackets, boats, and engines left on the coast, some of which are transformed into microplastics in the long run. Although pollution generated by the international movement of people arises regardless of whether it is legal or not, the marine litter associated with hidden migration poses a challenge owing mainly to the lack of control over its flow. Hence, the second part of the article will be devoted to the analysis of measures that should be taken in this specific context to achieve or maintain a good environmental status in marine waters, as well as fulfilling obligations under the UNCLOS regarding the observation and measurement of the risk or impact of pollutants on marine waters. Finally, consideration will be given to choosing the instruments of migration policy in such a way as to enhance and support marine policy goals. One of the most important dilemmas in this respect is whether we should aim at even tighter control over irregular migration or, conversely, develop greater opportunities for regular migration.
City clusters play an important role in air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in China, primarily due to their high fossil energy consumption levels. The “2 + 26” Cities, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and 26 other perfectures in northern China, has experienced serious air pollution in recent years. We employ the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model adapted to the “2 + 26” Cities (GAINS-JJJ) to evaluate the impacts of structural adjustments in four major sectors, industry, energy, transport and land use, under the Three-Year Action Plan for Blue Skies (Three-Year Action Plan) on the emissions of both the major air pollutants and CO2 in the “2 + 26” Cities. The results indicate that the Three-Year Action Plan applied in the “2 + 26” Cities reduces the total emissions of primary fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), SO2, NOx, NH3 and CO2 by 17%, 25%, 21%, 3% and 1%, respectively, from 2017 to 2020. The emission reduction potentials vary widely across the 28 prefectures, which may be attributed to the differences in energy structure, industrial composition, and policy enforcement rate. Among the four sectors, adjustment of industrial structure attains the highest co-benefits of CO2 reduction and air pollution control due to its high CO2 reduction potential, while structural adjustments in energy and transport attain much lower co-benefits, despite their relatively high air pollutant emissions reductions, primarily resulting from an increase in the coal-electric load and associated carbon emissions caused by electric reform policies..
The study introduces a framework for forecasting and decision-making in multi-criteria processes and proposes their application in the decarbonization of urban areas. Optimizing the multi-criteria decision-making process is an integrated set of information-processing-decision activities in which actual data, expert knowledge using fuzzy inference rules, Geographic Information System, and Bayesian networks are combined. Using proposed tools leads to designing a new approach to improving the energy efficiency of cities and reducing CO2 emissions using renewable energy. The integration of modern computational methods leads to rational planning of environmentally friendly and energy-conscious smart cities by the provisions of the Fit for 55 packages. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated in the example of three scenarios considering different types of renewable energy sources that can be implemented in urban areas. The success probability of decarbonizing these areas was calculated for defined quarters of the city of Zielona Góra with different parameters. Thereby the usefulness of the method was confirmed. Significantly, the likelihood of a successful deployment of photovoltaics (PV) in urban areas was estimated at 55.25% and for heat pumps at 28.79%. The proposed method enables a clear interpretation of the results, which may be the basis for urban energy efficiency planning.
Young consumers (children and adolescents) play an increasingly important role in the functioning of the modern consumer market. Accordingly, it is becoming more important to promote sustainable, ecological consumption patterns among this group. The authors of the article analysed the results of a survey conducted on a group of 1326 children aged 9 to 15. The purpose was to diagnose the awareness and functioning patterns of consumption among the studied group of young consumers from the Polish market and to formulate a set of recommendations for the process of their ecological, economic and social education aimed at building sustainable consumption patterns. During the research process, an attempt was made to diagnose the ability to identify eleven selected, popular, pro-ecological graphic symbols placed on consumer products, aimed at assessing the skills of young consumers to identify products with better environmental parameters. The collected empirical data was analysed with the R-project program using the following methods: descriptive statistics, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson Chi-square test of independence. As a result of the use of the comparative analysis method, the results of research in individual age groups of young consumers were compared and interpreted. After the research, the authors concluded that the education system lacks actions to consolidate the acquired knowledge in the field of ecolabeling, which results in large disproportions in the recognition of eco-labels both in individual age groups and in relation to selected symbols. It is disturbing that only 12.2% of the interviewed learners indicated the eco-label as a decisive factor in purchasing a food product. The authors of the article believe that among the group of young consumers, actions should be taken to raise awareness of sustainable consumption, and this requires consistent and differentiated steps at all levels of their education.
Introduction: ERAS protocols have been shown to improve surgical and clinical outcomes. The aim of this survey was to acquire a comprehensive assessment of the current status of implementation of ERAS protocols across Europe. Methods: The survey was launched by The European Network of Young gynecologic oncologists (ENYGO). A 45 item survey was disseminated online through the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) Network database. Results: A total of 116 ESGO centers participated in the survey between December 2020 and June 2021. Overall, 80 (70%) centers reported that ERAS was implemented at their institution. 63% reported a length of stay (LOS) for advanced ovarian cancer surgery between 5-7 days; 57 (81%) centers reported a LOS between 2-4 days in patients who underwent an early-stage gynecological cancer surgery. The ERAS items with high reported compliance (>75% 'normally-always') included deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis (89%), antibiotic prophylaxis (79%), prevention of hypothermia (55%) and early mobilization (55%). The ERAS items that were poorly adhered to (less than 50%) included early removal of urinary catheter (33%), and avoidance of drains (25%). Conclusion: This survey shows broad implementation of ERAS protocols across Europe, however, a wide variation in adherence to the various ERAS protocol items were reported.
Ket is the sole surviving member of the Yeniseian language family, spoken in the central part of North Asia. This large territory is also home to other language families: Samoyedic, Ob-Ugric, Tungusic, and Turkic. Apart from Yeniseian, which are strikingly unique, all language groups in the area conform to a common typological profile. Subsequent to contact over several hundred years, many of the core grammatical features that distinguish Yeniseian from the other language families have undergone a ‘typological accommodation,’ a phenomenon most prominent in Modern Ket, to mimic the dominant language type in the area. The present article aims to provide an overview of some ways in which typological accommodation has affected the phonemic tones and nominal and verbal morphology in Modern Ket, and to show that this peculiar phenomenon is also attested at the syntactic level in formation of adverbial and relative clauses. As such, the paper presents that the phonemic and morphological structures of Modern Ket uniquely position the language for discourse and communication. Here, its speakers deploy these communicative devices, specifically designed followed extended contact with other languages, as representative of their language community.
The present study examines the direct and indirect relationships between classroom environment (CE), L2 (second/foreign language) learner emotions (i.e. enjoyment, anxiety and boredom), and their willingness to communicate (WTC) in classes for English as a foreign language (EFL). Participants were 2,268 university students in China. Pearson correlation analyses showed significant correlations between CE, L2 emotions, and WTC, with effect sizes ranging from small to large. In addition, the three L2 emotions were found to mediate the relationship between CE and WTC in parallel, with enjoyment having the largest mediating effect, followed by anxiety and boredom. The findings offer insights into how to improve students’ WTC in an L2.
Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) that also contributes to depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. Agricultural soils account for about 60% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions. Most national GHG reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change assumes nitrogen (N) additions drive emissions during the growing season, but soil freezing and thawing during spring is also an important driver in cold climates. We show that both atmospheric inversions and newly implemented bottom-up modeling approaches exhibit large N 2 O pulses in the northcentral region of the United States during early spring and this increases annual N 2 O emissions from croplands and grasslands reported in the national GHG inventory by 6 to 16%. Considering this, emission accounting in cold climate regions is very likely underestimated in most national reporting frameworks. Current commitments related to the Paris Agreement and COP26 emphasize reductions of carbon compounds. Assuming these targets are met, the importance of accurately accounting and mitigating N 2 O increases once CO 2 and CH 4 are phased out. Hence, the N 2 O emission underestimate introduces additional risks into meeting long-term climate goals.
Full manuscript #### https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1f65R3IhXMtgTE ### Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is an ideal, non-invasive remote sensing technology for all measurements related to examining the condition of building walls. Based on the point clouds, users can carry out dimensioning and 3D modeling of bas-reliefs. TLS gives the opportunity to obtain point clouds with high resolution, which allows for accurate mapping of objects, but on the other hand is troublesome during data processing. Therefore, this paper presents a methodology of TLS point cloud optimization based on a modified Optimum Dataset method (OptD v.A). OptD v.A allows the number of observations to be reduced. The reduction does not happen in a random manner, the points are examined for their usefulness and relevance. The research was carried out using real walls with bas-reliefs. The tests showed that the OptD v.A method did not disturb the nature of the tested objects. Optimized TLS point clouds were used for 3D modeling.
In this paper we consider some deferred matrix means of Fourier series. We give the degree of seminormed approximation of functions from the spaces HP(w)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$H_{P}^{(w)}$$\end{document} space by such matrix means. As a measure of the approximation is used an almost nondecreasing function of the form wv\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\frac{w}{v}$$\end{document} with moduli of continuity type w and v.The obtained results generalize and improve the results from Deǧer and Küçükaslan (J. Inequal. Appl., 2015:14 ,16 pp 2015) and Das et al. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 420(1), 563–575 2014).
One way to estimate ammonia emission rates from naturally ventilated housing systems is to scale-up mechanistic modeling results. However, obtaining the relevant data to set initial and boundary conditions adequately is usually very challenging and for a whole barn barely possible. This study has investigated the potential of coupling different mechanistic modeling approaches towards an overarching barn scale ammonia emission model, which might permit ammonia emission projections for naturally ventilated housing systems with minimal measurement efforts. To this end, we combined an ammonia volatilization model for shallow urine or slurry puddles with a dynamic mechanistic model of digestion and excretion of nitrogen, an empirical model to estimate urination volumes, semi-empirical models for pH and temperature dynamics of the puddles and a mechanistic air flow model. The ammonia volatilization model was integrated with a time step of one second over a period of twenty-four hours, while the relevant boundary conditions were updated on an hourly base (determined by the other mentioned submodels). Projections and uncertainties of the approach were investigated for a farm case with about ten months of on-farm measurements in a naturally ventilated dairy cattle building with scraped solid floor in Northern Germany. The results showed that the nested model was in general capable to reproduce the long-term emission trend and variability, while the short-term variability was damped compared with the emission measurements. A sensitivity study indicated that particularly a refinement of the submodules for urine puddle alkalizing, urination volume and urea concentration distributions as well as for local near-surface wind speeds have a great potential to further improve the overall model accuracy. The cleaning efficiency of the scraper has turned out to be a crucial and sensitive parameter in the modeling, which so far has been described insufficiently by measurements or modeling approaches.
Based on studies of the wintering population of mute swans in large urban agglomerations, it is possible to identify and infer the impact of environmental pollution in coastal regions near Baltic Sea on the physiological and biochemical changes in the blood of waterfowls. Hematological and biochemical changes in the blood in relation to chemical elements in their feathers are a useful tool for general ecophysiological conclusions. Hematological changes and blood chemistry in Mute Swan Cygnus olor is particularly environmentally dependent, therefore we examined hematological picture (red blood cells RBC, white blood cells WBC, heterophiles, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, heterophile to lymphocyte ratio H/L, biochemical indicators (glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, total protein), stability of erythrocyte membranes, concentration of Ca, P, Mg in the blood, concentration of Al, Zn, Rh, Cu, Ru, Fe, Pb in feathers, in wintering population of 172 mute swans of different age (juvenile, adult) and gender, in three coastal types of areas of Southern Polish zone of Baltic Sea (Słupsk, Gdynia, Sopot). Percentage of changes in the morphological indices in the blood of mute swans with three independent characteristics (environment, sex, age) revealed that hemoglobin content exhibited the highest value (R² = 53.8%) in the analysis of morphological indices; the effect of RBC, WBC, and basophils was much lower (WBC > RBC > basophils). Male and female erythrocytes from the coastal of Gdynia were more fragile than those of birds from coasts of Sopot and Słupsk. We found that osmotic fragility is altered in juvenile swans from Słupsk area and males from Gdynia area. The consequence was a higher level of hemolyzed erythrocytes in their blood. The effect of type of environment, age-, and sex-related impact on hematological indices and biomarkers of biochemical alterations in the blood of swans and comparison of these data with bioaccumulation of chemical elements in feathers of swans inhabiting 3 types of environment of Baltic coastal zone show significant differences in the hematological and biochemical indices. Albumins and globulins maintain the blood cations balance, however, changes in their concentrations in the blood suggest an impact on physiological mechanisms and body condition of swans.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the main diagnostic tests for epilepsy. The detection of epileptic activity is usually performed by a human expert and is based on finding specific patterns in the multi-channel electroencephalogram. This is a difficult and time-consuming task, therefore various attempts are made to automate it using both conventional and Deep Learning (DL) techniques. Unfortunately, authors do not often provide sufficiently detailed and complete information to be able to reproduce their results. Our work is intended to fill this gap. Using a carefully selected 79 neonatal EEG recordings we developed a complete framework for seizure detection using DL approch. We share a ready to use R and Python codes which allow: (a) read raw European Data Format files, (b) read data files containing the seizure annotations made by human experts, (c) extract train, validation and test data, (d) create an appropriate Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model, (e) train the model, (f) check the quality of the neural classifier, (g) save all learning results.
Purpose of Review. The aim of creating an orally active non-statin cholesterol lowering drug was achieved with bempedoic acid, a small linear molecule providing both a significant low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction as well as an anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Bempedoic acid antagonizes ATP citrate-lyase, a cytosolic enzyme upstream of HMGCoA reductase which is the rate limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis. Bempedoic acid is a pro-drug converted to its active metabolite by very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 which is present mostly in liver and absent in skeletal muscles. This limits the risk of myalgia and myopathy. The remit of this review is to give clinical insights on safety and efficacy of bempedoic acid and to understand for whom it should be prescribed. Recent Findings. Bempedoic acid with a single daily dose (180 mg) reduces LDL-C by a mean 24.5% when given alone, by 18% when given on top of a major statin and by 38-40% when given in a fixed-dose combination with ezetimibe. Bempedoic acid does not lead to the risk of new onset diabetes, and even moderately improves the glycaemic profile. Summary. The extensive knowledge on bempedoic acid mechanism, metabolism and side effects has led to an improved understanding of the potential benefits of this agent and offers a possible alternative to cardiologists and clinical practitioners somewhat worn out today by the occurrence of the muscular side effects of statins.
The available keys for European Hippoboscidae are outdated and do not cover all species currently known from Europe. Therefore, identification keys to the eleven genera and 31 species of the European hippo-boscids are provided here. Ornithomya comosa (Austen, 1930) (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) is recorded for the first time from the territory of Slovakia based on one female found on a sand martin, Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758). The list of keds and louse flies recorded from the territory of Slovakia is increased to 20 species. New host records for Slovakia are presented.
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• University of Zielona Gora
• Department of Biomedical Engineering
• Institute of Control and Computational Engineering
• Institute of Mechanical Engineering
• Faculty of Physics and Astronomy
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