University of Zakho
  • Zaxo, Duhok, Iraq
Recent publications
A useful tool for expressing fuzziness and uncertainty is the recently developed n,m-rung orthopair fuzzy set (n,m-ROFS). Due to their superior ability to manage uncertain situations compared to theories of q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets, the n,m-rung orthopair fuzzy sets have variety of applications in decision-making in daily life. To deal with ambiguity and unreliability in multi-attribute group decision-making, this study introduces a novel tool called \(k^{n}_{m}\)-rung picture fuzzy set (\(k^{n}_{m}\)-RPFS). The suggested \(k^{n}_{m}\)-RPFS incorporates all of the benefits of n,m-ROFS and represents both the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the decision-makers. The presented model is a fruitful advancement of the q-rung picture fuzzy set (q-RPFS). Furthermore, numerous of its key notions, including as complement, intersection, and union are explained and illustrated with instances. In many decision-making situations, the main benefit of \(k^{n}_{m}\)-rung picture fuzzy sets is the ability to express more uncertainty than q-rung picture fuzzy sets. Then, along with their numerous features, we discover the basic set of operations for the \(k^{n}_{m}\)-rung picture fuzzy sets. Importantly, we present a novel operator, \(k^{n}_{m}\)-rung picture fuzzy weighted power average (\(k^{n}_{m}\)-RPFWPA) over \(k^{n}_{m}\)-rung picture fuzzy sets, and use it to multi-attribute decision-making issues for evaluating alternatives with \(k^{n}_{m}\)-rung picture fuzzy information. Additionally, we use this operator to pinpoint the countries with the highest expat living standards and demonstrate how to choose the best option by comparing aggregate findings and applying score values. Finally, we compare the outcomes of the q-RPFEWA, SFWG, PFDWA, SFDWA, and SFWA operators to those of the \(k^{n}_{m}\)-RPFWPA operator.
A topological index is a numerical representation of a chemical network in chemical graph theory. Similar to their chemical representation, a topological descriptor identifies specific the physical attributes of the underlying chemical compounds. We describe the third type of hex-derived networks rectangular hex-derived network \(RHDN_{3}\), chain hex-derived network \(CHDN_{3}\), in our work (r). In this paper, modified and efficient formulas based on multiplicative graph invariants will be constructed. Such as ordinary geometric-arithmetic (OGA), general version of harmonic index (GHI), sum connectivity indes (SI), general sum connectivity index (GSI), first and second Gourava and hyper- Gourava indices, Shegehalli and Kanabur indices, first generalised version of Zagreb index (GZI) and forgotten index (FI) for the subdivided hex -derived \(RHDN_{3}(r)\), \(CHDN_{3}(r)\) networks. In order to develop some new formulas we the compute the multiplicative topological properties. This study found several types of edges for computing and also discussed the order and size.To properly appreciate the chemical compounds, physical and biological characteristics we can combine the study of the networks described above with the chemical compounds and their graphical structures. These observations have the potential to evaluate bio and physiological activities.
Background This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with abnormal liver enzyme profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Zakho, to assess the association between demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, kidney function tests, lipid profiles, glucose levels, and T2D, and to identify resident risk factors. Research design and methods A cross-sectional analysis of T2D patients admitted to Zakho General Hospital was conducted utilizing hospital records. The primary endpoint of interest was attaining HbA1C levels ≥ 6.5%. Analytical methodologies encompassed linear and multivariate logistic regression analyses, with due consideration of the association between diverse parameters and glycemic alterations. Further, the predictive value of biomarkers was evaluated through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area Under the Curve (AUC) analyses, complemented by Spearman correlation analysis to explore relationships among laboratory parameters. Results The study found that 89.4% of participants had HbA1C levels above 6.5%, with a preference for T2D among older individuals (mean age: 52.93- 49.89 respectively) and females. Age, glucose levels, and liver enzymes positively correlated with HbA1C. Conclusions The study emphasizes the diagnostic importance of liver enzymes in individuals with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that these biomarkers could be valuable indicators of disease severity and progression.
The optical soliton solutions of the time-fractional higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Kudryashov nonlinear refractive index are studied in this paper using the new Kudryashov approach and Bernoulli's equation approach. The current model specializes in discerning the propagation of optical soliton pulses within optical fibers. Obtaining the optical solutions for this model, particularly the sextic power, is an essential yet challenging task. To generate the nonlinear ordinary differential equation, we insert the complex wave transformations into the present time-fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Here, a system of linear equations in polynomial form using the proposed approach is acquired. By solving the linear system of equations, various solution sets were generated, each containing different values for the parameters of the studied equation. Additionally, the process yielded distinct approaches for solving the problem. Several novel optical soliton solutions are constructed for the time-fractional Schrödinger equation with the Kudryashov nonlinear refractive index, and the obtained soliton solutions satisfy the model. The visual representations of the obtained solution functions through contour, three-dimensional, and two-dimensional depictions in various simulations are shown, as presented in the figures. The results suggest that the employed methods are efficient and powerful tools to be applied to various differential equations with fractional and integer orders.
This article focuses to extract the optical solitons in fiber optics modeled by (1 + 1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) by the assistance of truncated M-fractional derivative. Circularly polarized waves in fiber optics are described by the studied equation. The NLSEs have attracted greater attention due to their ability to effectively elucidate a diverse array of intricate physical phenomena and their capacity to exhibit deeper dynamical patterns through localised wave solutions. The solutions are obtained using the modified Sardar sub-equation method (MSSEM), which is a recently developed integration technique. Various types of optical pulses, including bright, dark, combo, and singular soliton solutions, are obtained. Considering appropriate parameters, a variety of graph shapes are sketched to describe the graphical presentation of the calculated outcomes. The findings indicate that the chosen technique is effective in improving nonlinear dynamical behaviour. We anticipate that many engineers who use engineering models will find this study to be of interest. The results validate the simplicity, effectiveness, and universality of the selected computational approach, even when applied to complex systems.
The [3+2] cycloaddition (32CA) reaction between cyclic azomethine ylide (generated from N-phenacylquinolinium bromide) and N-arylmaleimide, leading to pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolone, has been investigated using the Molecular Electron Density Theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) computational level with D3 correction. This study focuses on the zwitter-ionic type 32CA reaction, highlighting its polar character with the electronic flux from the azomethine ylide to the alkene. The reaction proceeds with complete endo-stereoselectivity, and the activation parameters show minimal variations in different solvents, consistent with experimental observations. The activation energy is associated with the depopulation of the N2–C1 and C4–C5 bonding regions, formation of non-bonding electron density at N2 nitrogen and creation of pseudoradical centers at C3, C4 and C5. These findings suggest that the formation of new covalent bonds does not occur at the transition states, in line with the presence of non-covalent interactions at the interatomic bonding regions, as revealed by the topological analysis of the Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules.
A key objective of the paper is to study the dynamical system for the two types of Sasa–Satsuma equations, namely; Sasa–Satsuma equation and higher-order Sasa–Satsuma equation. A Sasa–Satsuma equation is used to describe the propagation of femtosecond pulses through optical fiber systems. The bifurcation and chaotic characteristic of the Sasa–Satsuma equation and higher-order Sasa–Satsuma equation that arises in fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics are studied. For both models, by using the theory of planar dynamical system the bifurcation and chaotic characteristic of the Sasa–Satsuma equation and higher-order Sasa–Satsuma equation that arises in fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics are studied. For a better understanding of these dynamical behaviors, phase portraits in 2D and 3D figures are dawn. For both equations, the equilibrium points and their effects on the bifurcation behavior are analyzed. Moreover, from the presented results, both models have different dynamical behavior.
The solvability of a fractional differential equation depends on various factors such as the type of equation, the order of the fractional derivative, the domain and boundary conditions, and the properties of the solution sought. In this paper, The solution of a system of Caputo-Hadamard fractional differential equations (SCH) with integral boundary condition is investigated. The existence theorem of solutions is established by means of the Krasnoselskii and Schaefer’s fixed point theorem. Further, the uniqueness result is presented which is based on Banach’s contraction principle. Finally, the stability of the given system in Ulam-Hyers sense is applied. Examples are considered for the verification of theoretical works.
Background and aims Healthcare staff are at high risk of occupational exposure to Hepatitis B and other blood-borne diseases. Lack of education about the knowledge of Hepatitis B virus contributes to an increase in cases. This study aims to determine the knowledge of the Hepatitis B virus among the medical professionals in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and to determine their knowledge of the importance of vaccination. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, among medical science students from November 2022 to February 2023 and a total of 511 students participated in the study. A Self-administered questionnaire comprising 22 items categorized into five sections was distributed to the students either electronically or by paper and pen method. The survey utilized a Five-point Likert scale when assessing respondents’ opinions on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 9 were used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 511 responses were collected from medical, dental, pharmacy, and laboratory students. The average age of the participants was 20.74 ±1.43 years. Among the respondents, only 96 (18.8%) were fully vaccinated against the Hepatitis B virus (received 3 or more doses of the vaccine), while 294 (57.5%) were not vaccinated. Lack of vaccination programs was the major reason for not receiving a vaccination (n = 182, 62%). About 286 (55.96%) of the participants had good knowledge, attitude, and practice on Hepatitis B, manifesting median scores of 26, 18, and 20, respectively. Conclusion In our study, half of the students were found to be unvaccinated, mainly due to the absence of vaccination programs. Vaccinated students exhibited better knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the infection than non-vaccinated students. Therefore, we recommend the implementation of a vaccination program as well as training on infection prevention guidelines to increase awareness and encourage vaccination.
Angiotensin II (Ang II), a mitogen-activated peptide, exerts numerous effects on the cardiovascular system including the regulation of blood pressure. The current study focused on the potential mechanisms that seem to be involved in Ang II vasodilation using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAE-1) cell lines. Expression of the Ang II receptor (AT2) in BAE-1 was checked by western blots in the presence of valsartan (AT1 inhibitor). To check if Ang II’s vasodilator impact was mediated by the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the Griess reagent was used. Furthermore, cell-attached patch-clamp and fire-polished borosilicate electrodes with a resistance of 3–5 MΩ in the working solutions was used to record membrane currents from treated BAE-1. BEA-1 revealed 50 kDa immunoreactive bands that matched AT2. The concentration of AT2 was elevated in valsartan-treated cells in comparison to control cells. The biochemical experimental data indicated that the NO level increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, Ang II at a concentration of 1 µM, the level of NO increased more than at 100 µM. In patch-clamp experiments, K current and chord conductance were enhanced after incubation of Ang II with valsartan. When 100 µM Ang II was added, the current peaked rapidly and after 15 min of incubation, the maximum value was obtained, as opposed to 10 min and control (110.9 ± 13.3 pA control, 141.4 ± 30.4 pA after 10 min and 174.4 ± 49.3 pA after 15 min). Ang II type two receptor inhibitor (PD1231777) reduced the current and conductance induced by Ang II. The presented data revealed that Ang II released NO via the activation of AT2. K currents were stimulated by Ang II and evoked mainly a current consistent with the activation of K channels.
Over three major convenient steps, a series of some novel Bis-Schiff bases, and Bis 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives have been synthesized: Firstly, the etherification process through the reaction of the 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde substrate with o-, m-, and p-chlorobenzylchlorides under mild circumstances. Secondly, the condensation reaction between 4-((chlorobenzyl)oxy)benzaldehyde compounds with a number of aromatic diamines in an acidic environment produces the required Bis-Schiff intermediates. Finally, the practical cyclization step was finished by synthesizing the required Bis 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one products with 79-97% yields through refluxing reaction in benzene with thioglycolic acid.
The mechanism of pattern formations has been widely studied and for different types of Reaction-Diffusion equations. This phenomenon has a wide range of applications in the fields of biology, chemistry, engineering, etc. In this paper, we have studied the pattern formation for a Reaction–Diffusion model with nonlinear reaction terms; this equation is different from RDM which has been studied before, and which derived from the interaction between Turing stationery and wave instability. Next, we study the possible traveling wave solution for our RDM and their stability close to the steady states. We discretize the system of Reaction-diffusion equations in one dimension using Semi-Implicit second-order difference method and we investigate the different types of travelling wave solutions (TWS). A finite element package namely COMSOL Multiphysics is used to show some types of pattern formations and for two types of initial conditions. The initial conditions are chosen to investigate the type of spots that can be formulated from the interaction. In parallel, we have proved theoretically the regions where those pattern formations can be found depending on the value of the diffusion coefficients and wave number.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is resistant to a wide range of extended spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) antibiotics because it produces several kinds of ESBLs. The goal of the current investigation was to identify the bacteria that produce extended spectrum -lactamases and the genes that encode three different ESBLs, such as bla OXA-10 , bla PER-1 and bla SHV genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients. In this investigation, 71 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were isolated from burn wounds in Burn and Plastic Surgery Hospital, Duhok City between July 2021 to June 2022. For the purpose of finding the bla OXA-10 , bla PER-1 , and bla SHV ESBL expressing genes, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used. Among 71 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 26.36% (29/71) were isolated from males and 38.18% (42/71) from females, and 76.06% (54/71) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. They exhibited higher resistance against Piperacillin with resistance rates of 98.59%. Among the ESBL-producing isolates tested, bla OXA-10 was found in 59.26% (32), bla PER-1 was found in 44.44% (24), and bla SHV was found in 11.11% (6). All isolates must undergo antimicrobial susceptibility testing because only a few numbers of the available antibiotics are effective for the treatment of this bacterium. This will prevent the development of resistance in burn units and aids in the management of the treatment plan.
The identification of land use/land cover (LULC) changes is important for monitoring, evaluating, and preserving natural resources. In the Kurdistan region, the utilization of remotely sensed data to assess the effectiveness of machine learning algorithms (MLAs) for LULC classification and change detection analysis has been limited. This study monitors and analyzes LULC changes in the study area from 1991 to 2021 using a quantitative approach with multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Five MLAs were applied: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). The results showed that the RF algorithm produced the most accurate maps of the three-decade study period, accompanied by a high kappa coefficient (0.93–0.97) compared with the SVM (0.91–0.95), ANN (0.91–0.96), KNN (0.92–0.96), and XGBoost (0.92–0.95) algorithms. Consequently, the RF classifier was implemented to categorize all obtainable satellite images. Socioeconomic changes throughout these transition periods were revealed by the change detection results. Rangeland and barren land areas decreased by 11.33 % (− 402.03 km2) and 6.68 % (− 236.8 km2), respectively. The transmission increases of 13.54 % (480.18 km2), 3.43 % (151.74 km2), and 0.71 % (25.22 km2) occurred in agricultural land, forest, and built-up areas, respectively. The outcomes of this study contribute significantly to LULC monitoring in developing regions, guiding stakeholders to identify vulnerable areas for better land use planning and sustainable environmental protection.
Background Traditional Chinese Medicines have been used for thousands of years but without any sound empirical basis. One such preparation is the Qijudihuang pill (QP), a mixture of eight herbs, that has been used in China for the treatment of various conditions including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in the aged population. In order to explain the mechanism behind the effect of QP, we used an AMD model of high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice to investigate cholesterol homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbiota. Methods Mice were randomly divided into three groups, one group was fed with control diet (CD), the other two groups were fed with high-fat-diet (HFD). One HFD group was treated with QP, both CD and the other HFD groups were treated with vehicles. Tissue samples were collected after the treatment. Cholesterol levels in retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), liver and serum were determined using a commercial kit. The expression of enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress was measured with qRT-PCR. Gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results In the majority of the lipid determinations, analytes were elevated by HFD but this was reversed by QP. Cholesterol metabolism including the enzymes of bile acid (BA) formation was suppressed by HFD but again this was reversed by QP. BAs play a major role in signaling between host and microbiome and this is disrupted by HFD resulting in major changes in the composition of colonic bacterial communities. Associated with these changes are predictions of the metabolic pathway complexity and abundance of individual pathways. These concerned substrate breakdowns, energy production and the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory factors but were changed back to control characteristics by QP. Conclusion We propose that the ability of QP to reverse these HFD-induced effects is related to mechanisms acting to lower cholesterol level, oxidative stress and inflammation, and to modulate gut microbiota.
Objective Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors. This case-control study investigated the association between Sirtuin SIRT3 gene polymorphisms, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and CAD susceptibility. Methods Blood samples were collected from 70 CAD cases and 30 controls at the Cardiac Center, Azadi Teaching Hospital, Duhok, Iraq. Genomic DNA was extracted, and PCR-based allele genotyping determined SIRT3 rs11246029 T/C polymorphisms. Serum MDA levels were measured using ELISA. Statistical analysis included t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlations. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) assessed genotypes/alleles and CAD associations. The accuracy of serum MDA in predicting the severity of CAD was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results There were no significant variations in serum MDA levels between controls and CAD patients in the study. The diagnostic accuracy of serum MDA for CAD severity prediction was modest (Area Under Curve (AUC) = 0.56). Correlations revealed associations between MDA and total bilirubin (negative) and Troponin (positive). CRP correlated positively with LDH, glucose, cholesterol, LDL, CKmB, and Troponin. CKmB and Troponin are positively associated with clinical characteristics. Genotype analysis identified a significantly higher CAD risk with the CC genotype compared to controls. Conclusion These findings shed light on the potential role of SIRT3 gene polymorphisms and serum MDA levels in CAD susceptibility. Further research is needed to understand underlying mechanisms and therapeutic implications based on these markers.
With the rapid growth of online content written in the Kurdish language, there is an increasing need to make it machine-readable and processable. Part of speech (POS) tagging is a critical aspect of natural language processing (NLP), playing a significant role in applications such as speech recognition, natural language parsing, information retrieval, and multiword term extraction. This study details the creation of the DASTAN corpus, the first POS-annotated corpus for the Sorani Kurdish dialect. The corpus, containing 74,258 words and thirty-eight tags, employs a hybrid approach utilizing the bigram hidden Markov model in combination with the Kurdish rule-based approach to POS tagging. This approach addresses two key problems that arise with rule-based approaches, namely misclassified words and ambiguity-related unanalyzed words. The proposed approach’s accuracy was assessed by training and testing it on the DASTAN corpus, yielding a 96% accuracy rate. Overall, this study’s findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach and its potential to enhance NLP applications for Sorani Kurdish.
Electrodermal activity (EDA) usually relates to variations in the electrical properties of palmar or plantar skin sites. EDA responses, namely skin conductance responses (SCRs), skin potential responses (SPRs) and skin susceptance responses (SSRs) are shown to be sensitive indexes of sympathetic nervous system activation and are studied in many research projects. However, the association between EDA responses and the five basic human senses has not been investigated yet. Our study aimed to explore the relationship between the three EDA responses (SCRs, SSRs and SPRs) and the five basic human senses. These three EDA responses were measured simultaneously at the same skin site on each of the 38 volunteers. The tested five senses were sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. The results showed that the different tested senses led to different degrees of EDA responses due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and corresponding secretion of sweat. Although a controlled study on the degree of EDA as a function of the strength of each stimulus was not performed, we noted that the largest EDA responses were typically associated with the smell sense test. We conclude that EDA responses could be utilized as measures for examining the sensitivity of the human senses. Hence, EDA devices may have important roles in sensory systems for future clinical applications.
Background: Cervix intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) refers to abnormal changes in the squamous cells of the cervix, with more significant changes known as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) occurring in grades II and III.
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866 members
Ramadhan J. Mstafa
  • Computer Science
Yaseen T. Mustafa
  • Department of Environmental Science
Lokman Aziz Abdulkareem
  • Department of Petroleum Engineering
Hajar Farhan Ismael
  • Department of Mathematics
Zakho-Duhok Road, 42002, Zaxo, Duhok, Iraq
Head of institution
Asst.Prof.Dr. Lazgin A. Jameel
+964750 4738150