University of Wales
  • Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Objectives The objective of this study is to analyse retrospective, observational, longitudinal growth (weight, height and BMI) data in ambulatory boys aged 5–12 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Background We considered glucocorticoids (GC) use, dystrophin isoforms and amenability to exon 8, 44, 45, 51 and 53 skipping drug subgroups, and the impact of growth on loss of ambulation. We analysed 598 boys, with 2604 observations. This analysis considered patients from the UK NorthStar database (2003–2020) on one of five regimes: “GC naïve”, “deflazacort daily” (DD), “deflazacort intermittent” (DI), “prednisolone daily” (PD) and “prednisolone intermittent” (PI). A random slope model was used to model the weight, height and BMI SD scores (using the UK90). Results The daily regime subgroups had significant yearly height stunting compared to the GC naïve subgroup. Notably, the average height change for the DD subgroup was 0.25 SD (95% CI − 0.30, − 0.21) less than reference values. Those with affected expression of Dp427, Dp140 and Dp71 isoforms were 0.77 (95% CI 0.3, 1.24) and 0.82 (95% CI 1.28, 0.36) SD shorter than those with Dp427 and/or Dp140 expression affected respectively. Increased weight was not associated with earlier loss of ambulation, but taller boys still ambulant between the age of 10 and 11 years were more at risk of losing ambulation. Conclusion These findings may provide further guidance to clinicians when counselling and discussing GCs commencement with patients and their carers and may represent a benchmark set of data to evaluate the effects of new generations of GC.
Background Majority of research and commercial efforts have focussed on use of artificial intelligence (AI) for fracture detection in adults, despite the greater long-term clinical and medicolegal implications of missed fractures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the available literature regarding diagnostic performance of AI tools for paediatric fracture assessment on imaging, and where available, how this compares with the performance of human readers. Materials and methods MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were queried for studies published between 1 January 2011 and 2021 using terms related to ‘fracture’, ‘artificial intelligence’, ‘imaging’ and ‘children’. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified QUADAS-2 tool. Descriptive statistics for diagnostic accuracies were collated. Results Nine eligible articles from 362 publications were included, with most (8/9) evaluating fracture detection on radiographs, with the elbow being the most common body part. Nearly all articles used data derived from a single institution, and used deep learning methodology with only a few (2/9) performing external validation. Accuracy rates generated by AI ranged from 88.8 to 97.9%. In two of the three articles where AI performance was compared to human readers, sensitivity rates for AI were marginally higher, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Wide heterogeneity in the literature with limited information on algorithm performance on external datasets makes it difficult to understand how such tools may generalise to a wider paediatric population. Further research using a multicentric dataset with real-world evaluation would help to better understand the impact of these tools.
Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) using transient limb ischaemia failed to improve clinical outcomes following cardiac surgery and the reasons for this remain unclear. In the ERIC-GTN study, we evaluated whether concomitant nitrate therapy abrogated RIPC cardioprotection. We also undertook a post-hoc analysis of the ERICCA study, to investigate a potential negative interaction between RIPC and nitrates on clinical outcomes following cardiac surgery. In ERIC-GTN, 185 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to: (1) Control (no RIPC or nitrates); (2) RIPC alone; (3); Nitrates alone; and (4) RIPC + Nitrates. An intravenous infusion of nitrates (glyceryl trinitrate 1 mg/mL solution) was commenced on arrival at the operating theatre at a rate of 2–5 mL/h to maintain a mean arterial pressure between 60 and 70 mmHg and was stopped when the patient was taken off cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary endpoint was peri-operative myocardial injury (PMI) quantified by a 48-h area-under-the-curve high-sensitivity Troponin-T (48 h-AUC-hs-cTnT). In ERICCA, we analysed data for 1502 patients undergoing cardiac surgery to investigate for a potential negative interaction between RIPC and nitrates on clinical outcomes at 12-months. In ERIC-GTN, RIPC alone reduced 48 h-AUC-hs-cTnT by 37.1%, when compared to control (ratio of AUC 0.629 [95% CI 0.413–0.957], p = 0.031), and this cardioprotective effect was abrogated in the presence of nitrates. Treatment with nitrates alone did not reduce 48 h-AUC-hs-cTnT, when compared to control. In ERICCA there was a negative interaction between nitrate use and RIPC for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality at 12-months, and for risk of peri-operative myocardial infarction. RIPC alone reduced the risk of peri-operative myocardial infarction, compared to control, but no significant effect of RIPC was demonstrated for the other outcomes. When RIPC and nitrates were used together they had an adverse impact in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the presence of nitrates abrogating RIPC-induced cardioprotection and increasing the risk of mortality at 12-months post-cardiac surgery in patients receiving RIPC.
Background Targeted temperature management at 33 °C (TTM33) has been employed in effort to mitigate brain injury in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Current guidelines recommend prevention of fever, not excluding TTM33. The main objective of this study was to investigate if TTM33 is associated with mortality in patients with vasopressor support on admission after OHCA. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of patients included in the TTM-2 trial, an international, multicenter trial, investigating outcomes in unconscious adult OHCA patients randomized to TTM33 versus normothermia. Patients were grouped according to level of circulatory support on admission: (1) no-vasopressor support, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) ≥ 70 mmHg; (2) moderate-vasopressor support MAP < 70 mmHg or any dose of dopamine/dobutamine or noradrenaline/adrenaline dose ≤ 0.25 µg/kg/min; and (3) high-vasopressor support, noradrenaline/adrenaline dose > 0.25 µg/kg/min. Hazard ratios with TTM33 were calculated for all-cause 180-day mortality in these groups. Results The TTM-2 trial enrolled 1900 patients. Data on primary outcome were available for 1850 patients, with 662, 896, and 292 patients in the, no-, moderate-, or high-vasopressor support groups, respectively. Hazard ratio for 180-day mortality was 1.04 [98.3% CI 0.78–1.39] in the no-, 1.22 [98.3% CI 0.97–1.53] in the moderate-, and 0.97 [98.3% CI 0.68–1.38] in the high-vasopressor support groups with regard to TTM33. Results were consistent in an imputed, adjusted sensitivity analysis. Conclusions In this exploratory analysis, temperature control at 33 °C after OHCA, compared to normothermia, was not associated with higher incidence of death in patients stratified according to vasopressor support on admission. Trial registration Clinical trials identifier NCT02908308 , registered September 20, 2016.
Background: Acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a rare condition that can be divided into complicated (CoTBAD) and uncomplicated (UnCoTBAD) based on certain presenting clinical and radiological features, with UnCoTBAD constituting the majority of TBAD cases. The classification of TBAD directly affects the treatment pathway taken, however, there remains confusion as to exactly what differentiates complicated from uncomplicated TBAD. Aims: The scope of this review is to delineate the literature defining the intervention parameters for UnCoTBAD. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE to collate and summarize all research evidence on intervention parameters and protocols for UnCoTBAD. Results: A TBAD without evidence of malperfusion or rupture might be classified as uncomplicated but there remains a subgroup who might exhibit high-risk features. Two clinical features representative of "high risk" are refractory pain and persistent hypertension. First-line treatment for CoTBAD is TEVAR, and whilst this has also proven its safety and effectiveness in UnCoTBAD, it is still being managed conservatively. However, TBAD is a dynamic pathology and a significant proportion of UnCoTBADs can progress to become complicated, thus necessitating more complex intervention. While the "high-risk" UnCoTBAD do benefit the most from TEVAR, yet, the defining parameters are still debatable as this benefit can be extended to a wider UnCoTBAD population. Conclusion: Uncomplicated TBAD remains a misnomer as it is frequently representative of a complex ongoing disease process requiring very close monitoring in a critical care setting. A clear diagnostic pathway may improve decision making following a diagnosis of UnCoTBAD. Choice of treatment still predominantly depends on when an equilibrium might be reached where the risks of TEVAR outweigh the natural history of the dissection in both the short- and long-term.
Background There is emerging evidence to support pre‐emptive thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) intervention for uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (unTBAD). Pre‐emptive intervention would be particularly beneficial in patients that have a higher baseline risk of progressing to complicated TBAD (coTBAD). There remain debate on the optimal clinical, laboratory, morphological, and radiological parameters, which would identify the highest‐risk patients that would benefit most from pre‐emptive TEVAR. Aim This review summarizes evidence on the clinical, laboratory, and morphological parameters that increase the risk profiles of unTBAD patients. Methods A comprehensive literature search was carried out on multiple electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and Scopus to collate all research evidence on the clinical, laboratory, and morphological parameters that increase the risk profiles of unTBAD patients Results At present, there are no clear clinical guidelines using risk‐stratification to inform the selection of unTBAD patients for TEVAR. However, there are noticeable literature trends that can assist with the identification of the most at‐risk unTBAD patients. Patients are at particular risk when they have refractory pain and/or hypertension, elevated C‐reactive protein (CRP), larger aortic diameter, and larger entry tears. These risks should be considered alongside factors that increase the procedural risk of TEVAR to create a well‐balanced approach. Advances in biomarkers and imaging are likely to identify more pertinent parameters in the future to optimize the development of balanced, risk‐stratified treatment protocols. Conclusion There are a variety of risk profiling parameters that can be used to identify the high‐risk unTBAD patient, with novel biomarkers and imaging parameters emerging. Longer‐term evidence verifying these parameters would be ideal. Further randomized controlled trials and multicentre registry analyses are also warranted to guide risk‐stratified selection protocols.
This guideline, from a European Society of Organ Transplantation (ESOT) working group, concerns the management of kidney transplant patients with HLA antibodies. Sensitization should be defined using a virtual parameter such as calculated Reaction Frequency (cRF), which assesses HLA antibodies derived from the actual organ donor population. Highly sensitized patients should be prioritized in kidney allocation schemes and linking allocation schemes may increase opportunities. The use of the ENGAGE 5 ( (Bestard et al., Transpl Int, 2021, 34: 1005–1018) system and online calculators for assessing risk is recommended. The Eurotransplant Acceptable Mismatch program should be extended. If strategies for finding a compatible kidney are very unlikely to yield a transplant, desensitization may be considered and should be performed with plasma exchange or immunoadsorption, supplemented with IViG and/or anti-CD20 antibody. Newer therapies, such as imlifidase, may offer alternatives. Few studies compare HLA incompatible transplantation with remaining on the waiting list, and comparisons of morbidity or quality of life do not exist. Kidney paired exchange programs (KEP) should be more widely used and should include unspecified and deceased donors, as well as compatible living donor pairs. The use of a KEP is preferred to desensitization, but highly sensitized patients should not be left on a KEP list indefinitely if the option of a direct incompatible transplant exists.
Currently there is no guideline to support the use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) in primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders in UK. The UK Primary Immunodeficiency Network (UK-PIN) and the British Society of Immunology (BSI) joined forces to address this need. Given the paucity of evidence a modified Delphi approach was employed covering statements for the initiation, monitoring, discontinuation of IgRT as well as home therapy programme. A group of 6 consultant immunologists and 3 nurse specialists created the statements, reviewed responses and feedback and agreed on final recommendations. This guideline includes 22 statements for initiation, 22 statements for monitoring, 11 statement for home therapy and 19 statements for discontinuation of IgRT. Further areas of research are proposed to improve future delivery of care.
Introduction: Paediatric dentists care for children who are medically compromised and with orofacial disease, therefore trainees need appropriate training in these areas. Prevalence of congenital and chronic disease in children is increasing and future specialists need an understanding of human health and disease and oral medicine. This study aimed to determine if current teaching and assessments were fulfilling these requirements. Materials and methods: A survey distributed to UK and Ireland specialty trainees asked their opinions on whether knowledge gained prior to entering training, and teaching and learning during training, equipped them for future management of medically-compromised children and those with oral medicine diagnoses. Results: The response rate was 51% (26 trainees). Most were aware of curriculum elements for medically-compromised children and oral medicine. The majority felt that knowledge and experience gained as undergraduates and early graduates was insufficient and recognised the need for these topics in speciality training. For medically-compromised children, this learning was considered a good use of time by 96% of trainees, and 88% felt that this topic should be given more attention. For oral medicine, this learning was considered a good use of time by 96% of trainees, and 69% felt that this topic should have more attention CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric dentistry specialty trainees recognise that knowledge and experience of managing patients considered medically-compromised and those with oral medicine conditions are an important part of training, and need greater emphasis, especially in light of changing demographics with congenital and acquired chronic disease, and children with oral medicine disorders.
Background: Initial clinical evaluation (ICE) is traditionally considered a useful screening tool to identify frail patients during the preoperative assessment. However, emerging evidence supports the more objective assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) via cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to improve surgical risk stratification. Herein, we compared both subjective and objective assessment approaches to highlight the interpretive idiosyncrasies. Methods: As part of routine preoperative patient contact, patients scheduled for major surgery were prospectively "eyeballed" (ICE) by two experienced clinicians before more detailed history taking that also included the American Society of Anesthesiologists score classification. Each patient was subjectively judged to be either "frail" or "not frail" by ICE and "fit" or "unfit" from a thorough review of the medical notes. Subjective data were compared against the more objective validated assessment of postoperative outcomes using established CPET "cut-off" metrics incorporating peak pulmonary oxygen uptake, V̇O2PEAK at the anaerobic threshold (V̇O2 -AT), and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide that collectively informed risk stratification. These data were retrospectively extracted from a single-center prospective National Health Service database. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square automatic interaction detection decision tree method. Results: A total of 127 patients were examined that comprised 58% male and 42% female patients aged 69 ± 10 years with a body mass index of 29 ± 7 kg/m2 . Patients were poorly conditioned with a V̇O2PEAK almost 20% lower than predicted for age, sex-matched healthy controls with 35% exhibiting a V̇O2 -AT < 11 ml/kg/min. Disagreement existed between the subjective assessments of risk with ∼34% of patients classified as not frail on ICE were considered unfit by notes review (p < .0001). Furthermore, ∼35% of patients considered not frail on ICE and ∼31% of patients considered fit by notes review exhibited a V̇O2 -AT < 11 ml/kg/min, and of these, ∼28% and ∼19% were classified as intermediate to high risk. Conclusions: These findings highlight the interpretive limitations associated with the subjective assessment of patient frailty with surgical risk classification underestimated in up to a third of patients compared to the validated assessment of CRF. They reinforce the benefits of a more objective and integrated approach offered by CPET that may help us to improve perioperative risk assessment and better direct critical care provision in patients scheduled for "high-stakes" surgery including open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
Histopathology guidelines generally focus on standardised collection of data items to facilitate completeness and reproducibility of histopathology reporting. A data item is categorised as either core (mandatory) or non-core (recommended but not mandatory), irrespective of the clinical scenario. However, a data item that is critical for patient management in one clinical setting may have little clinical significance in another setting. A diagnosis of limited extent Gleason score 3+3=6 prostate cancer is critical in a patient being investigated for raised serum prostate-specific antigen but would be clinically irrelevant in a repeat biopsy from a patient on an active surveillance protocol. We outline an alternative approach that is focused on the clinical utility of the data items and the requirements of personalised medicine. While all core data items are required to be reported, understanding how these parameters are used to guide patient management will enable pathologists to focus time and resources on the critical aspects of an individual case. Detailed immunohistochemical workup and obtaining a second opinion would not be necessary if resolution of the differential diagnosis is of limited clinical significance. We also highlight some challenges encountered when adopting this approach and suggest some solutions that could positively impact histopathology reporting and patient care.
Currently, coastal erosion, extreme urbanization, woody debris, litter, sewage, noise, and beach driving are severely affecting the scenic value of the Caribbean Coast of Colombia. To determine the current state of this situation and give management inputs, this paper provides the scenic assessment of 300 coastal sites using the Coastal Scenery Evaluation System (CSES). The CSES assesses values from a checklist of 18 physical and 8 human parameters and allows calculation of a scenic evaluation index (D Value), which classifies coastal sites into five classes: Class I, usually natural areas of top scenic characteristics, to Class V, poor scenic natural areas with a higher impact of human interventions. Along the study area, 52 coastal sites (17.3%) appeared in Class I; 40 (13.3%) in Class II; 56 (18.7%) in Class III; 55 (18.3%) in Class IV, and 97 sites (32.3%) in Class V. This evaluation provides a complete assessment overview of the Caribbean Colombia coastal scenery and serves as baseline for implementation of management strategies. This management must be based on scientific knowledge and should address not only human use values, but also the maintenance and preservation of the environmental quality of the coast.
Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that acute emergency management of mandible fractures does not improve surgical outcomes yet is associated with increased financial burden. Current NHS policy advocating for increased adoption of day-case and semi-elective surgical procedures to reduce bed strain must be balanced with providing timely, effective treatment. Our research aims to determine patient groups currently managed via semi-elective admission and whether this can be extended to other groups to provide safe and effective management of mandible fractures. Methods: A multi-national trainee-led audit of mandibular fractures across 49 units was completed by the Maxillofacial Trainee Research Collaborative (MTReC). Each unit prospectively collected data on fractures on admission and at follow-up. Data collected included patient demographics, behaviour, health, injury, timing to intervention and surgical complications. Results: Data were collected on 947 mandibular fractures. Of the surgically managed patients, 649 (90%) were managed via acute emergency admission at the time of presentation, while 68 (10%) were managed semi-electively. Patient demographics, injury pattern and mechanism appeared to significantly affect timing of management, whereas patient behaviour, health status, timing of injury and presentation did not. Semi-elective management was associated with a significantly shorter inpatient duration (0.9 versus 1.9 days, p=0.000) with no differences in readmission, antibiotic usage or surgical complications (p=1.000, RR 1.030). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the efficacy of planned admissions and semi-elective management of mandibular fractures. Simple mandibular fractures in compliant patients are suitable for semi-elective treatment. Holistic patient assessment and tailored surgical planning is crucial in determining admission modality to effectively manage mandibular trauma.
Background: The number of citations an article receives is a marker of its scientific influence within a particular specialty. This bibliometric analysis intended to recognise the top 100 cited articles in Minimally-invasive Cardiac Surgery, to determine the fundamental subject areas that have borne considerable influence upon clinical practice and academic knowledge. This is increasingly relevant in a continually advancing specialty and one where minimally-invasive cardiac procedure have the potential for huge benefits to patient outcomes. Methods: The Thompson Reuters Web of Science citation index database was searched with the following terms: [Minimal* AND Invasive* AND Card* AND Surg*]. Results were limited to full text English language manuscripts and ranked by citation number. Further analysis of the top 100 cited articles was carried out according to subject, author, publication year, journal, institution and country of origin. Results: A total of 2567 eligible manuscripts were retrieved. Of the top 100 papers, the median (range) citation number was 101 (414-51). The most cited paper by Lichtenstein et al. (2006) published in Circulation with 414 citations focused on transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation as a viable alternative to aortic valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass in selected patients with aortic stenosis. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery published the most papers and received the most citations (n=35; 3036). The United States of America had the most publications and citations (n=52; 5303), followed by Germany (n=27; 2598). Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, published the most papers of all institutions. Minimally-invasive valve surgery (n=42) and coronary artery bypass surgery (n=30) were the two most frequent topics. Conclusions: This work establishes a comprehensive and informative analysis of the most influential publications in minimally-invasive cardiac surgery and outlines what constitutes a citable article. Undertaking a quantitative evaluation of the top 100 papers aids in recognising the contributions of key authors and institutions as well as guiding future efforts in this field to continually improve the quality of care offered to complex cardiac patients. Trial registration: Not applicable
Purpose: There is considerable variation in the management of foot drop secondary to lumbar degenerative disease (LDD) that occurs between centres and surgeons (spinal surgeons and neurosurgeons). The lack of standardised practice reflects the paucity in evidence base for management of this condition. In this survey, we aimed to assess current practice in the UK and identify the areas of variation. Methods: A case-based survey was distributed to members of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons and British Association of Spine Surgeons through an online questionnaire. The survey consisted of 10 questions designed to determine the management of foot drop secondary to LDD. Results: A total of 163 responses were collected among UK neurosurgeons and spinal surgeons with good geographical representation. 92% were Consultants. 86% of the respondents would offer surgery. The indication for offering surgery varied but 54% of respondents would offer surgery to patients who present with a painful foot drop. There was a huge variation in offering surgery dependent on the grade of weakness. The strongest prognostic indicator predicted was duration of weakness (92%). The timing of intervention was wide-ranging in the responses received. Almost all responded that they would be willing to participate in a prospective study in the future to determine best practice. Conclusions: This survey highlights the significant variability in management of foot drop secondary to LDD amongst consultant surgeons within the UK. It is also suggestive of a weak evidence base and indicates an urgent need for a high quality national prospective study.
Infection in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is of major concern, particularly for those receiving disease-modifying therapies. This article explores the risk of infection in people with MS and provides guidance—developed by Delphi consensus by specialists involved in their management—on how to screen for, prevent and manage infection in this population.
To describe the overlap between structural abnormalities typical of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and physiological right ventricular adaptation to exercise and differentiate between pathologic and physiologic findings using CMR. We compared CMR studies of 43 patients (mean age 49 ± 17 years, 49% males, 32 genotyped) with a definitive diagnosis of ARVC with 97 (mean age 45 ± 16 years, 61% males) healthy athletes. CMR was abnormal in 37 (86%) patients with ARVC, but only 23 (53%) fulfilled a major or minor CMR criterion according to the TFC. 7/20 patients who did not fulfil any CMR TFC showed pathological finding (RV RWMA and fibrosis in the LV or LV RWMA). RV was affected in isolation in 17 (39%) patients and 18 (42%) patients showed biventricular involvement. Common RV abnormalities included RWMA (n = 34; 79%), RV dilatation (n = 18; 42%), RV systolic dysfunction (≤ 45%) (n = 17; 40%) and RV LGE (n = 13; 30%). The predominant LV abnormality was LGE (n = 20; 47%). 22/32 (69%) patients exhibited a pathogenic variant: PKP2 (n = 17, 53%), DSP (n = 4, 13%) and DSC2 (n = 1, 3%). Sixteen (16%) athletes exceeded TFC cut-off values for RV volumes. None of the athletes exceeded a RV/LV end-diastolic volume ratio > 1.2, nor fulfilled TFC for impaired RV ejection fraction. The majority (86%) of ARVC patients demonstrate CMR abnormalities suggestive of cardiomyopathy but only 53% fulfil at least one of the CMR TFC. LV involvement is found in 50% cases. In athletes, an RV/LV end-diastolic volume ratio > 1.2 and impaired RV function (RVEF ≤ 45%) are strong predictors of pathology.
This meta-review aimed to appraise and synthesise findings from existing systematic reviews that measured the impact of compression therapy on venous leg ulcers healing. We searched five databases to identify potential papers; three authors extracted data, and a fourth author adjudicated the findings. The AMSTAR-2 tool was used for quality appraisal and the certainty of the evidence was appraised using GRADEpro. Data analysis was undertaken using RevMan. We identified 12 systematic reviews published between 1997 and 2021. AMSTAR-2 assessment identified three as high quality, five as moderate quality, and four as low quality. Seven comparisons were reported, with a meta-analysis undertaken for five of these comparisons: compression vs no compression (risk ratio [RR]: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.78; P < .00001; moderate-certainty evidence); elastic compression vs inelastic compression (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96-1.08; P < .61 moderate-certainty evidence); four layer vs <four-layer bandage systems (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.82-1.40; P < .63; moderate-certainty evidence); comparison between different four-layer bandage systems (RR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.93-1.25; P = .34; moderate-certainty evidence); compression bandage vs compression stocking (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.87-1.03; P = .18; moderate-certainty evidence). The main conclusion from this review is that there is a statistically significant difference in healing rates when compression is used compared with no compression, with moderate-certainty evidence. Otherwise, there is no statistically different difference in healing rates using elastic compression vs inelastic compression, four layer vs <four-layer bandage systems, different four-layer bandage systems, or compression bandages vs compression stockings.
Background: Sustained blood pressure reductions after radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation (RDN) have been reported to 3 years in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. However, mechanistic data to support procedural durability are lacking. We aimed to quantify the long-term nerve anatomic and functional effects of RF RDN in a preclinical model. Methods: Bilateral RF RDN was performed in 20 normotensive swine. Renal tissue samples were obtained in the RDN-treated groups at 7 (n = 6), 28 (n = 6), and 180 days (n = 8) postprocedure for quantification of cortical norepinephrine (NE) levels and renal cortical axon density. Tissue fibrosis, necrosis and downstream nerve fiber atrophy (axonal loss) were also scored for each sample. Three additional untreated groups (n = 6, n = 6 and n = 8, respectively) served as control. Results: Pathologic nerve changes were characterized by necrosis in the ablated region at 7 days that partially resolved by 28 days and fully resolved at 180 days. Axonal loss was apparent within and downstream to the ablation regions and was evident at 7, 28 and 180 days in the main vessel and branch vessels. Consequently, renal cortical axon density and corresponding cortical NE levels were significantly reduced at 7 days in the RDN vs. control group and remained suppressed at 180 days. Conclusions: Reductions in renal NE, cortical axon density and downstream axonal loss caused by axonal destruction persisted through 180 days post-RDN in a normotensive swine model. These results suggest functional nerve regrowth after RF RDN is unlikely and support published clinical evidence that the procedure results in durable blood pressure reduction.
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312 members
Simon Christopher Moore
  • School of Dentistry
Simon C Hodder
  • College of Medicine
Paul Blake
  • College of Medicine
Jeremy Camilleri
  • Rheumatology
King Edward VII Avenue, CF10 3NS, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
Head of institution
Professor Medwin Hughes (Vice-Chancellor)