University of Turku
  • Turku, Finland
Recent publications
Ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic treatments using Viscozyme®, Alcalase®, and feruloyl esterase were applied to recover proteins, avenanthramides, phenolic acids, free sugars, and organic acids from oat hulls (OH). The profiles of the chemical compounds in OH were markedly influenced by the nature of enzymes, ultrasonication frequency, and processing time. A significant increase in the contents of proteins and phenolic acids was observed in the liquid fraction of all enzymatic treatments, which was 2–19 folds higher than those detected in untreated OH. In contrast, avenanthramides were mostly degraded during enzyme hydrolyses. The highest content of proteins (68.9 g/100 g DM) was found in the liquid fraction after the feruloyl esterase treatment assisted with 90 min of ultrasonication at 25 kHz. This fraction also contained 0.07% phenolic acids, 14.1% free sugars, and 1.8% organic acids, which can be potentially used as the ingredient of novel food products.
The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii on phenolic composition and sensory quality were characterized in the production of alcoholic beverages from selected pear cultivars with diverse biochemical characteristics. The fermentation process generally affected the phenolic composition by increasing the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavan-3-ols and reducing the levels of hydroxybenzoic acids, procyanidins, and flavonols. Although the phenolic compositions and sensory properties of pear beverages depended primarily on pear cultivar selection, the applied yeast strains also played important roles in beverage quality. Fermentation with T. delbrueckii resulted in higher caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside contents, higher rated intensities of ‘cooked pear’ and ‘floral’ odors and a sweeter taste than fermentation with S. cerevisiae. Moreover, higher concentrations of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols correlated closely with astringency perception. Applying T. delbrueckii strains and breeding novel pear cultivars are important approaches to produce fermented beverages of high quality.
Run-time resource management is fundamental for efficient execution of workloads on Chip Multiprocessors. Application- and system-level requirements (e.g. on performance vs. power vs. lifetime reliability) are generally conflicting each other, and any decision on resource assignment, such as core allocation or frequency tuning, may positively affect some of them while penalizing some others. Resource assignment decisions can be perceived in few instants of time on performance and power consumption, but not on lifetime reliability. In fact, this latter changes very slowly based on the accumulation of effects of various decisions over a long time horizon. Moreover, aging mechanisms are various and have different causes; most of them, such as Electromigration (EM), are subject to temperature levels, while Thermal Cycling (TC) is caused mainly by temperature variations (both amplitude and frequency). Mitigating only EM may negatively affect TC and vice versa. We propose a resource orchestration strategy to balance the performance and power consumption constraints in the short-term and EM and TC aging in the long-term. Experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the average Mean Time To Failure at least by 17% and 20% w.r.t. EM and TC, respectively, while providing same performance level of the nominal counterpart and guaranteeing the power budget.
This paper's primary goal is to diagnose COVID‐19 contamination based on the artificial intelligence approach automatically. We used convolutional neural network deep learning algorithm for analyzing the ECG images to detect cardiac abnormalities, consequent of the contamination by the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus, responsible for the COVID‐19 epidemic. We designed, trained, and evaluated the performance of two deep learning models (MobileNetV2 and VGG16) in detecting and distinguishing between two different classes (healthy subjects and COVID‐19 positive cases). Indeed, this virus attacks the human respiratory system, which could affect the heart system. Thus, developing a deep learning model could help for a quick and efficient diagnosis, prediction, and physician decision‐making. The performed deep learning model will be used for predicting abnormal cardiac activities consequent to the contamination by the virus. The overall classification rate achieved by the models was 99.34% and 99.67% for MobileNetV2 and VGG16, respectively. Therefore, this approach can efficiently contribute to the diagnosis of COVID‐19 contamination.
Purpose Our aim was to develop a nationwide, computer-based, Spine Register (FinSpine) for monitoring surgical activity, quality of surgery, long-term outcomes, and effectiveness of treatment. In this paper, we describe our experiences in the development and implementation of the register. Methods The register was developed by a steering group, consisting of orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons from the whole country. We strived to develop a register which would be in active use by spine surgeons and enable collection of Patient Reported Outcome and Experience Measures (PROMs and PREMs) automatically and prospectively. We are actively promoting the use of the register in order to gain a nationwide coverage and achieve high response-rates from both surgeons and patients. Results The use of FinSpine started in 2016 and it has been granted continuous funding from the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare from the 1st of January 2023 onwards. Currently the register is used by 19/23 (83%) public hospitals and the use is expanding to private hospitals as well. The response-rate of surgeons is currently 80%. The response-rate of patients is on average 56% but reaches up to 90% in hospitals using register-coordinators. Conclusion The use of FinSpine is increasing. By gaining a larger coverage and completeness, the data can be used for research purposes which we believe will influence decision making and ultimately improve the outcomes and quality of life of the patients. Comparison with other national spine registers is possible, since FinSpine includes similar baseline characteristics and outcome measures (e.g., ODI, EQ-5D, VAS).
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are essential nucleic acid building blocks and serve as energy molecules for a wide range of cellular reactions. Cellular GTP concentration fluctuates independently of ATP and is significantly elevated in numerous cancers, contributing to malignancy. Quantitative measurement of ATP and GTP has become increasingly important to elucidate how concentration changes regulate cell function. Liquid chromatography–coupled mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and capillary electrophoresis-coupled MS (CE–MS) are powerful methods widely used for the identification and quantification of biological metabolites. However, these methods have limitations related to specialized instrumentation and expertise, low throughput, and high costs. Here, we introduce a novel quantitative method for GTP concentration monitoring (GTP-quenching resonance energy transfer (QRET)) in homogenous cellular extracts. CE–MS analysis along with pharmacological control of cellular GTP levels shows that GTP-QRET possesses high dynamic range and accuracy. Furthermore, we combined GTP-QRET with luciferase-based ATP detection, leading to a new technology, termed QT-Luc GTP&ATP , enabling high-throughput compatible dual monitoring of cellular GTP and ATP in a homogenous fashion. Collectively, GTP-QRET and QT-Luc GTP&ATP offer a unique, high-throughput opportunity to explore cellular energy metabolism, serving as a powerful platform for the development of novel therapeutics and extending its usability across a range of disciplines. Graphical Abstract
The quantitative archaeological record of the Åland Islands (Finland) indicates a population boom in the mid-sixth century CE. Yet the number of palynological investigations on Åland is limited, resulting in a knowledge gap of anthropogenic landscape modification generated by the land use that followed the increased population. This article presents the results of a pollen analysis from Lake Lavsböle Träsk in central Åland, covering the period from the end of the Bronze Age into the modern period. The results of this study provide evidence of continuous land use throughout the Iron Age and the medieval period, and the population boom during the sixth century CE is indicated in the pollen signal. Altogether we argue for an economy based on cereal cultivation, animal husbandry, and maritime resource utilization (e.g. seal hunting, fishing, and fowling) as well as trading. The results indicate a society able to manage risks connected to their subsistence strategies, in which versatility seems to have had a key role.
This paper explicates the role of language and communication in Kant’s account of objective judgment and objective reference. I take it that the basic units of proper objective reference for Kant are objective judgments, which according to Kant are acts of relating given cognitions to other cognitions in the unity of apperception. The question is, does language play any role in this activity, or is this activity reflected in language somehow? I argue that, unlike early critics such as Herder and Hamann (and many after them) have suggested, Kant does not overall neglect language and communication in his philosophy, but rather can be taken to give an account of how it is possible to use language objectively and communicate objective judgments in the first place. Even though I do not find it a plausible view that according to Kant there is no thinking at all without or prior to language, Kant’s account does not rule out the importance of language for our thinking, judging and communicating. My claim is that Kant’s account of categorical experience as universal and necessary cognition of objects provides a ground for languages and their objective use, that is, for the possibility of objective reference in language.
This study uses the public discussion boards of Overwatch to see how context-based gaming capital is present, accumulated and expended through the messages. The data consists of a 1-month snapshot from which 50 most viewed threads were analyzed. The following aspects were recorded from each thread and first 10 replies: views, number of comments, users’ role in forums, has the developer replied to thread, topic, date, whether there are types of capital (social, economic, cultural, symbolic) present, and in what linguistic form is the message posted. Findings: while discussions are within Overwatch's framework, there is scarcely any demonstrable amount of gaming capital in a single post or reply. Certain topics elicited more discussion, articulation methods varied but greatly leaned on the user's anecdotal experiences. Further, it was found that gaming capital is used to validate users’ own views and argument for the credibility of the user and their messages.
Creativity has traditionally been considered an ability exclusive to human beings. However, the rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) has resulted in generative AI chatbots that can produce high-quality artworks, raising questions about the differences between human and machine creativity. In this study, we compared the creativity of humans (n = 256) with that of three current AI chatbots using the alternate uses task (AUT), which is the most used divergent thinking task. Participants were asked to generate uncommon and creative uses for everyday objects. On average, the AI chatbots outperformed human participants. While human responses included poor-quality ideas, the chatbots generally produced more creative responses. However, the best human ideas still matched or exceed those of the chatbots. While this study highlights the potential of AI as a tool to enhance creativity, it also underscores the unique and complex nature of human creativity that may be difficult to fully replicate or surpass with AI technology. The study provides insights into the relationship between human and machine creativity, which is related to important questions about the future of creative work in the age of AI.
The effects of tree pollen on precipitation chemistry are not fully understood and this can lead to misinterpretations of element deposition in European forests. We investigated the relationship between forest throughfall (TF) element fluxes and the Seasonal Pollen Integral (SPIn) using linear mixed-effects modelling (LME). TF was measured in 1990–2018 during the main pollen season (MPS, arbitrary two months) in 61 managed, mostly pure, even-aged Fagus, Quercus, Pinus, and Picea stands which are part of the ICP Forests Level II network. The SPIn for the dominant tree genus was observed at 56 aerobiological monitoring stations in nearby cities. The net contribution of pollen was estimated as the TF flux in the MPS minus the fluxes in the preceding and succeeding months. In stands of Fagus and Picea, two genera that do not form large amounts of flowers every year, TF fluxes of potassium (K+), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) showed a positive relationship with SPIn. However- for Fagus- a negative relationship was found between TF nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) fluxes and SPIn. For Quercus and Pinus, two genera producing many flowers each year, SPIn displayed limited variability and no clear association with TF element fluxes. Overall, pollen contributed on average 4.1–10.6% of the annual TF fluxes of K+ > DOC > DON > NH4+-N with the highest contribution in Quercus > Fagus > Pinus > Picea stands. Tree pollen appears to affect TF inorganic nitrogen fluxes both qualitatively and quantitatively, acting as a source of NH4+-N and a sink of NO3−-N. Pollen appears to play a more complex role in nutrient cycling than previously thought.
This chapter focuses on a plaything of current interest to young females in the Nordics and Northern Europe-the hobby horse. In a study conducted in Finland, the author explored hobby horse cultures by studying online coverage through netnography: By analysing online media articles, Instagram photography and YouTube videos (collection run throughs, how-to-make tutorials, training videos, etc.) created and shared by the hobby horse enthusiasts, the author sought to conceptualize what hobby horses are and how they are used. Hobby horses are zoomorphised character toys with personalities: They offer possibilities for imaginative object play (nurturing, narrativizing and creative cultivation) and use as sports equipment-physical exercise and participation in a competitive sport. The chapter discusses how girls in their teenage years debate on and negotiate between hobbying, sports and play during leisure activities. The meanings of physicality, functionality, fictionality, and affectivity associated with the hobby horses are central when accentuating their roles as toys, hobbyist articles or sporting equipment. Playing with hobby horses undergoes sportification and mediatization once mobile and social media merge with documentation and sharing of play. In this way, girlhood activities with hobby horses mirror the digitalisation of play and mobilizing tendencies of physical playthings.
Background Improving the healthcare providers (HCP) basic resuscitation skills can reduce intrapartum related mortality in low- and middle-income countries. However, the resuscitation intervention’s successful implementation is largely dependent on proper facilitation and context. This study aims to identify the facilitators and barriers for the implementation of a novel resuscitation package as part of the quality improvement project in Nepal. Methods The study used a qualitative descriptive design. The study sites included four purposively chosen public hospitals in Nepal, where the resuscitation package (Helping Babies Breathe [HBB] training, resuscitation equipment and NeoBeat) had been implemented as part of the quality improvement project. Twenty members of the HCP, who were trained and exposed to the package, were selected through convenience sampling to participate in the study interviews. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted via telephone and video calls. Twenty interview data were analyzed with a deductive qualitative content analysis based on the core components of the i-PARiHS framework. Results The findings suggest that there was a move to more systematic resuscitation practices among the staff after the quality improvement project’s implementation. This positive change was supported by a neonatal heart rate monitor (NeoBeat), which guided resuscitation and made it easier. In addition, seeing the positive outcomes of successful resuscitation motivated the HCPs to keep practicing and developing their resuscitation skills. Facilitation by the project staff enabled the change. At the same time, facilitators provided extra support to maintain the equipment, which can be a challenge in terms of sustainability, after the project. Furthermore, a lack of additional resources, an unclear leadership role, and a lack of coordination between nurses and medical doctors were barriers to the implementation of the resuscitation package. Conclusion The introduction of the resuscitation package, as well as the continuous capacity building of local multidisciplinary healthcare staff, is important to continue the accelerated efforts of improving newborn care. To secure sustainable change, facilitation during implementation should focus on exploring local resources to implement the resuscitation package sustainably. Trial Registration Not applicable.
In this article, we investigated a creative learning process aimed at a shared story with humor in a group of 7- and 8-year-olds. In this integrated learning process, children first created an individual drawing and a guided writing assignment on a character that would make others laugh and then placed these characters in a story. The stories were collected via collaborative storytelling and the activity was a problem-solving assignment on a humorous children’s book. The data were analyzed via theory-driven content analysis using Kyriakou and Loizou’s categories of flexibility and originality, as well as the theories of empowerment and the absurd. The results showed that the children preferred scatological humor, which evolved from non-flexible humor to flexible and original humor during the process. The shared stories were divided into static and dynamic stories: static stories presented a solution to the problem, but the humor did not evolve during the collaborative storytelling. The dynamic stories concentrated on the process of problem solving and contained versatile, flexible and original features. It seems that the structure of the creative learning process supported participation and sharing individual perceptions of humor. Further, humor created an engaging starting point for the process and underlines the pedagogical possibilities of humor.
The health hazards of smoking are well recognised and recently knowledge about the harmful effects of nicotine and snus is accumulating. We investigated the factors increasing the willingness of young Finnish males to quit snus and cigarette smoking. We conducted a questionnaire study conducted in 3 out of 16 Finnish Defence Forces units which included 6508 male conscripts, of whom 4706 responded (response rate 72%, mean age 19.4 years). Factors related to the willingness to quit use were analysed by ordinal regression models. Backward selection following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used for the model. The prevalence figures of daily snus use and smoking were 17% and 25%, respectively. 16% of the daily snus users were also daily smokers and 29% were occasional smokers. Multivariate analysis showed that the willingness to quit snus use was associated with the perception of health hazards (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.94–4.93) and with ≥ 2 quit attempts (OR 3.63, 95% CI 2.44–5.40). The willingness to quit smoking was associated with ≥ 2 quit attempts (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.32–4.49), and with advice to quit smoking (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.17–2.32). We created a brief two-question assessment model for snus dependence. With this model, nicotine dependence of daily snus users was congruent with that of nicotine dependence of smokers. A direct comparison with serum cotinine levels is necessary before our assessment model can be used as a proxy for dependence. Regular snus use predisposes to nicotine addiction and accumulated health hazards. Our findings underscore the importance of health promotion efforts in early adolescence and of active support for quitting snus use. Easily applicable tools to estimate nicotine addiction are needed for everyday clinical use.
We characterize the limiting behavior of partial sums of multiplicative functions f:Fq[t]→S1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$f:\mathbb {F}_q[t]\rightarrow S^1$$\end{document}. In contrast to the number field setting, the characterization depends crucially on whether the notion of discrepancy is defined using long intervals, short intervals, or lexicographic intervals. Concerning the notion of short interval discrepancy, we show that a completely multiplicative f:Fq[t]→{-1,+1}\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$f:\mathbb {F}_q[t]\rightarrow \{-1,+1\}$$\end{document} with q odd has bounded short interval sums if and only if f coincides with a “modified" Dirichlet character to a prime power modulus. This confirms the function field version of a conjecture over Z\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbb {Z}$$\end{document} that such modified characters are extremal with respect to partial sums. Regarding the lexicographic discrepancy, we prove that the discrepancy of a completely multiplicative sequence is always infinite if we define it using a natural lexicographic ordering of Fq[t]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbb {F}_{q}[t]$$\end{document}. This answers a question of Liu and Wooley. Concerning the long sum discrepancy, it was observed by the Polymath 5 collaboration that the Erdős discrepancy problem admits infinitely many completely multiplicative counterexamples on Fq[t]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbb {F}_q[t]$$\end{document}. Nevertheless, we are able to classify the counterexamples if we restrict to the class of modified Dirichlet characters. In this setting, we determine the precise growth rate of the discrepancy, which is still unknown for the analogous problem over the integers.
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7,655 members
Vesa Oikonen
  • Turku PET Centre
Anne Kovalainen
  • Turku School of Economics
Veli-Matti Kähäri
  • Department of Dermatology and Venereology
Ivan Jambor
  • Department of Diagnostic Radiology
Kiinamyllynkatu 134, 20520, Turku, Finland