University of Trieste
  • Trieste, FVG, Italy
Recent publications
X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging (XPCI) techniques are gaining increasing interest not only within the synchrotron radiation community, where most of them were first developed and implemented, but also among X-ray imaging experts who make use of standard laboratory sources. While conventional X-ray imaging typically depicts the attenuation of an investigated sample, XPCI allows access to complementary information such as refraction and ultra-small-angle-scattering (USAXS). These additional contrast sources lead to a major enhancement in the visibility of structures featuring poor attenuation contrast such as in biological soft tissues and plastic-based samples. Additionally, the USAXS signal reveals inhomogeneities on a scale smaller than the system’s spatial resolution, being suited for the investigation of a wide range of microparticulate samples, spanning, e.g., from lung tissues to composite materials. Independently from XPCI, recent years have witnessed unprecedented development in the field of hybrid X-ray imaging detectors. Novel devices have both led to major advantages over conventional indirect conversion detectors, such as higher efficiency and/or higher spatial resolution, and opened up entirely new possibilities, such as pixel-based energy discrimination of photons, spectral performances, and super-resolution imaging. In this framework, the aim of the chapter is to provide a link between XPCI and novel detector technologies, focusing on the specific role of detectors in the phase signal formation process for the most common XPCI techniques. Adding to the theoretical background, several successful examples of state-of-the-art detectors’ integration with XPCI are provided, as well as a number of foreseeable applications strongly leveraging on novel detectors’ performances.
Background Non-painful diagnostic procedures require an inactive state for a prolonged time, so that sedation is often needed in younger children to perform the procedures. Our standard of care in this setting consists of the association between oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and intranasal dexmedetomidine (4 mcg/kg). One of the limits of this approach is that the onset of action is quite delayed (up to 55 min) and poorly predictable. We chose to compare this association with intranasal-ketamine and intranasal-dexmedetomidine. Methods This is a “pre-post” study. The study population included the first forty children receiving sedation with the “new” combination intranasal ketamine (3 mg/kg) and intranasal dexmedetomidine (4 mcg/kg) compared to a historical cohort including the last forty children receiving sedation with our standard of care combination of intranasal dexmedetomidine (4mcg/kg) and oral midazolam (0,5 mg/kg). Results The association intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal ketamine allowed for a significantly shorter sedation induction time than the combination intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam (13,5 min versus 35 min). Both group’s cumulative data showed a correlation between age and sedation effectiveness, with younger children presenting a higher success rate and shorter induction time (p 0,001). Conclusions: This study suggests that the ketamine and dexmedetomidine intranasal association may have a shorter onset of action when compared to intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam.
Background Italy was the first European country to experience a massive outbreak of Sars-coV-2 in March 2020. Severe measures were introduced to face the pandemic, significantly impacting all healthcare services, including pediatric palliative care (PPC) networks. We investigated how the Covid-19 pandemic modified the provision of PPC services in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. Both the acute and long-term impacts on the families were addressed. Methods We administered a retrospective three-sections online questionnaire to the eligible families assisted by our regional PPC network. Inclusion criteria were: child needing specialistic PPC, adequate knowledge of the Italian language, being in charge of the PPC regional network of Friuli Venezia Giulia from February 1, 2020. The three sections examined the same issues in different periods: the pre-covid period (until February 29, 2020), the lockdown period (March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020), and the post-lockdown period (May 2021). Results Twelve patients were included. During the lockdown period, 54.6% of children had to stop physiotherapy sessions, while, among those who continued, 80.0% experienced a reduction in the sessions’ frequency. In the post-lockdown period, 45.5% of children did not have physiotherapy as often as before the pandemic onset. Overall, the access to medical visits during the lockdown and after its end was significantly reduced ( p = 0.01). The level of support perceived by the families descended from grade 3 (intermediate) in the pre-covid period to 2 (low) during the lockdown ( p < 0.05) and returned to grade 3 in the post-lockdown period. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic and the related restrictions impacted the families and caused a transitory contraction of the perceived support. The most significant change was reduced access to medical visits and physiotherapy, which lasted over a year after the start of the pandemic.
Background Median raphe cyst is usually benign and asymptomatic male genitalia lesions. Although uncommon, infection may be a complication. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old child presented to the emergency department for a serpiginous and redness lesion extended from the basis of the penis until the perineum. An infected median raphe cyst was suspected, and the patient underwent surgical treatment and antibiotic therapy with complete resolution of symptoms. Liquid culture resulted positive for Serratia Marcescens . Conclusion Infection is a rare complication, especially in childhood. To prevent relapses and clinical symptoms, the majority of authors recommend surgical excision followed by primary closure. In case of infections caused by Serratia Marcescens , chronic granulomatous disease should always be rule out.
Background Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a multi-factorial condition, with inheritance playing a major role. Recognizing parents’ ADHD represents a clue not only for an earlier diagnosis of the disease in their children, but also to optimize psycho-educational therapy outcomes, by addressing the impairment of parenting related to untreated ADHD. This study aimed to assess the frequency of features suggestive of ADHD during childhood among parents of affected children, and the presence of school and emotional impairment. Methods We administered the Wender Utah Rating Scale-25, a self-assessment tool for the retrospective identification of symptoms consistent with ADHD during childhood, to a cohort of 120 parents of 60 children with ADHD, and to a consistent number of “controls”. Results The WURS-25 proved positive in 49.1% of fathers and 30.0% of mothers of ADHD patients, compared to 1.7% of fathers and 1.7% of mothers of non-ADHD patients ( p < 0.0001). The questions addressing learning and emotional impairment provided significantly higher scores in parents with an overall positive test compared to those with negative test ( p < 0.0001). Conclusions This study demonstrates a remarkably high rate of symptoms consistent with ADHD during childhood in parents of affected children. Physicians should be aware that this is a relevant anamnestic clue and, given the relevance of parents’ role in the management of children with ADHD, an important issue to address in order to optimize patients’ treatment.
Background While several studies have been published so far on the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on health care for non-COVID-19 diseases, to date no study evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the entire field of pediatric endocrinology. This study aimed to evaluate differences in pediatric endocrine stimulation tests after the advent of COVID-19 pandemics. Methods Retrospective study with data collection for pediatric endocrine stimulation tests performed in 2019 and 2020 in a tertiary center. Results Overall, 251 tests were performed on 190 patients in 2020, compared to 278 tests on 206 patients in 2019 (− 10% tests; − 8% children evaluated). A significant reduction was found in tests to diagnose growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (− 35%), while LHRH tests increased (+ 22%). A reduction of 30% in GHD diagnosis was observed. Central precocious puberty (CPP) diagnosis increased by 38% compared to 2019, mainly in females. Conclusion This study found a significant reduction of tests investigating GHD during COVID-19 pandemics. It also showed a clinically meaningful increase in cases of CPP in girls. These results suggest the need for families and pediatricians to monitor children’s growth during isolation and enlighten new perspectives towards conditions associated with lockdown restrictions as increased screen time, social isolation, and children’s anxiety as possible triggers of CPP.
In 2012 the European Union adopted the Regulation No. 1151/2012, which, among others, defines the legal framework to protect the originality and authenticity of mountain foods through the “Mountain Product” quality scheme. The research aims to analyze people’s attitudes towards mountain foods and the EU Mountain Product label, as well as their area of origin, i.e., the mountains. For the purpose of this research, the Rasch model was used since its properties make it suitable to identify the measure of interest. The results allow us to identify potential leverage to plan promotional activities in order to enhance the value of mountain food, raise awareness on the EU label, thus improving the sustainability of mountain farms and regions.
Background Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a well-defined disorder, whose core phenotype encompasses growth restriction, facial gestalt, intellectual disability and seizures. Nevertheless, great phenotypic variability exists due to the variable extent of the responsible 4p deletion. In addition, exome sequencing analyses, recently identified two genes, namely NSD2 and NELFA , whose loss-of-function variants contribute to a clinical spectrum consistent with atypical or partial WHS. The observation of patients exhibiting clinical features resembling WHS, with only mild developmental delay and without the typical dysmorphic features, carrying microdeletions sparing NSD2 , has lead to the hypothesis that NSD2 is responsible for the intellectual disability and the facial gestalt of WHS. While presenting some of the typical findings of WHS (intellectual disability, facial gestalt, microcephaly, growth restriction and congenital heart defects), NSD2 -deleted children tend to display a milder spectrum of skeletal abnormalities, usually consisting of clinodactyly, and do not exhibit seizures. We describe the clinical picture of a child with WHS due to a de novo mutation of NSD2 and discuss the clinical and diagnostic implications. Case presentation A 6-year-old boy was evaluated for a history of intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, neonatal hypotonia, and psychomotor delay. No episodes of seizure were reported. At physical examination, he displayed marphanoid habitus, muscle hypotrophy and facial dysmorphisms consisting in high frontal hairline, upslanting palpebral fissures and full lips with bifid ugula. Cryptorchidism, shawl scrotum, mild clinodactyly of the right little finger and bilateral syndactyly of the II and III toes with sandal gap were also noted. The radiographic essay demonstrated delayed bone age and echocardiography showed mild mitral prolapse. Whole genome sequencing analysis revealed a heterozygous de novo variant of NSD2 (c.2523delG). Conclusions Full WHS phenotype likely arises from the cumulative effect of the combined haploinsufficiency of several causative genes mapping within the 4p16.3 region, as a contiguous genes syndrome, with slightly different phenotypes depending on the specific genes involved in the deletion. When evaluating children with pictures resembling WHS, in absence of seizures, clinicians should consider this differential diagnosis.
Background Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by cardiovascular manifestations, especially aortic dilatations and arterial tortuosity, craniofacial and skeletal features, joint laxity or contractures, skin abnormalities, hypotonia and motor delay. Its diagnosis is established by the identification of a pathogenic variant in TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD2, SMAD3, TGFB2 or TGFB3 genes. In newborns and toddlers, vascular complications such as aneurism rupture, aortic dissection, and intracerebral incidents, can occur already in the weeks of life. To avoid these events, it is crucial to precociously identify this condition and to start an apunderwent a surgical procedurepropriate treatment which, depending on the severity of the vascular involvement, might be medical or surgical. Case presentation We report two cases of Loeys-Dietz syndrome precociously diagnosed. The first describes a male, born at 38 + 1 weeks of gestation, with hypotonia, joint hypermobility, arachnodactyly, and fingers joint contractures, as well as senile appearance and facial dysmorphisms. In the suspect of a connective tissue disorder, an echocardiography was performed and revealed an aortic root dilatation of 13 mm (Z score + 3). A trio based Whole Exome Sequencing found a novel de novo variant in the TGFBR2 gene. Despite the onset of a low-dose angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, the aneurysm progressed. The second case describes a female, born at 41 + 3 weeks of gestation. During the neonatal examination a cleft palate was noticed, as well as minor dysmorphisms. Since the family history was suspicious for connective tissue disorders, a genetic panel was performed and identified a pathogenetic variant in TGFB3 gene. In this case, the echocardiography revealed no abnormalities. Conclusions In addition to our cases, we identified 14 subjects with neonatal LDS in the medical literature. All of them had aortic involvement. Skeletal and face abnormalities, including eyes and palate malformations, were also highly frequent. Overall, 10 subjects required medical therapy to avoid aneurysm progression, and 8 patients underwent surgical procedures. Benefits of an early diagnosis of LDS are various and imply a potential modification of the natural history of the disease with early interventions on its complications.
To investigate the coping strategies of a group of adolescents with somatic symptom disorder compared to non-somatic symptom disorder peers during the COVID-19 related lockdown. This cross-sectional study is the second part of a previously published study showing an improved trend in depression and anxiety in a group of patients with somatic symptom disorder compared to non-somatic symptom disorder peers. An anonymous semi-structured survey was distributed to two groups of Italian adolescents to measure the impact of quarantine on their daily life and coping strategies. We recruited 115 adolescents, 58 (50.4%) mean age 15.3, with a recent diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder and 57 (49.6%) mean age 15.8, control peers. The aim of this study was to detect differences in coping strategies and relationships with parents and peers, during the lockdown period in a group of adolescents with somatic symptom disorder and low disease burden when compared with a non-somatic symptom disorder group. The relationship with parents significantly worsened in 4 (6.9%) of adolescents with somatic symptom disorder compared to 12 (21.1%) adolescents in the non-somatic symptom disorder group ( p = 0.048 ). The relationship with peers significantly improved in 13 (22.4%) of adolescents with symptom disorder versus 3 (5.3%) of peers of the non- somatic symptom disorder group (p = 0.013) . Adolescents with somatic symptom disorder with a low burden of physical symptoms experienced less deterioration in their relationships with parents and peers than the non-somatic symptom disorder group.
We describe a user-friendly, production quality R implementation of the maximum likelihood estimator of the generalized spatial random effects (GSRE) model of Baltagi, Egger and Pfaffermayr within the well known ’splm’ package for spatial panel econometrics. We extend the maximum likelihood estimator for the GSRE to including a spatial lag of the dependent variable (SAR), and we discuss the theoretical and computational approach. This is the first implementation of the SAR+GSRE, and the second of the original GSRE. Until recently only estimators restricting the spatial structure of individual effects in an arbitrary way have been available and widely employed in applied practice. We present results from the SAR+GSRE and the restricted estimators side by side, drawing on some well-known examples from the spatial econometrics literature. The potential biases from imposing inappropriate restrictions to the spatial error process and/or from omitting the SAR term are illustrated by simulation.
This work presents an original approach to preparing pure and Ni-doped CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) that can be directly drop-casted on a substrate or calcined to form powders. The reduction of the NPs in H2 is very different than the one usually anticipated for supported Ni–CeO2 catalysts. In situ soft X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopies revealed that the reduction of Ce⁴⁺ into Ce³⁺ in H2 proceeds via simultaneous oxidation of Ni²⁺ ions into Niδ+ (2<δ<3). Comparison with reference samples indicates that Ce⁴⁺ ions reduction is promoted over Ni-doped CeO2 NPs, whereas that of Ni²⁺ is hindered. Theoretical simulation of Ni L-edge spectra suggested that Ni dopant into ceria is in a square planar four-coordinate environment, in contrast to the familiar octahedral symmetry of bulk nickel oxides. Our results reveal that the surface chemistry of Ni-doped CeO2 is quite distinct as compared to that of the individual bulk oxides, which potentially can lead to a different performance of this material, notably in catalytic applications.
Although political risk in banking has received much more attention in recent years, there is no review that synthesizes these incoherent studies and provides a comprehensive image of the field in the past, present, and future. This paper is a meta-synthesis literature review on political risk in banks over a 35-year period from 1985 to 2019. We summarize the studies on political risk in banks in terms of the underlying theories to highlight the research streams, trends, and thematic structure of the field. By applying bibliometric and content analyses, we identified four main clusters in the literature: (1) political interference in bank lending and its consequences, (2) effects of government and regulatory interventions on bank risk-taking, (3) effects of the institutional and political environment on banking development and performance, and (4) economic models related to political risk in banks. Finally, this study poses 14 questions for future research.
Children’s performance in arithmetic word problems (AWPs) predicts their academic success and their future employment and earnings in adulthood. Understanding the nature and difficulties of interpreting and solving AWPs is important for theoretical, educational, and social reasons. We investigated the relation between primary school children’s performance in different types of AWPs and their basic cognitive abilities (reading comprehension, fluid intelligence, inhibition, and updating processes). The study involved 182 fourth- and fifth-graders. Participants were administered an AWP-solving task and other tasks assessing fluid intelligence, reading comprehension, inhibition, and updating. The AWP-solving task included comparison problems incorporating either the adverb more than or the adverb less than, which demand consistent or inconsistent operations of addition or subtraction. The results showed that consistent problems were easier than inconsistent problems. Efficiency in solving inconsistent problems is related to inhibition and updating. Moreover, our results seem to indicate that the consistency effect is related to updating processes’ efficiency. Path analyses showed that reading comprehension was the most important predictor of AWP-solving accuracy. Moreover, both executive functions—updating and inhibition—had a distinct and significant effect on AWP accuracy. Fluid intelligence had both direct and indirect effects, mediated by reading comprehension, on the overall measure of AWP performance. These domain-general factors are important factors in explaining children’s performance in solving consistent and inconsistent AWPs.
Background In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) detection of pathological α-synuclein (α-syn) in olfactory mucosa (OM) is not as accurate as in other α-synucleinopathies. It is unknown whether these variable results might be related to a different distribution of pathological α-syn in OM. Thus, we investigated whether nasal swab (NS) performed in areas with a different coverage by olfactory neuroepithelium, such as agger nasi (AN) and middle turbinate (MT), might affect the detection of pathological α-syn. Methods NS was performed in 66 patients with PD and 29 non-PD between September 2018 and April 2021. In 43 patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also obtained and all samples were analyzed by RT-QuIC for α-syn. Results In the first round, 72 OM samples were collected by NS, from AN (NS AN ) or from MT (NS MT ), and 35 resulted positive for α-syn RT-QuIC, including 27/32 (84%) from AN, 5/11 (45%) from MT, and 3/29 (10%) belonging to the non-PD patients. Furthermore, 23 additional PD patients underwent NS at both AN and MT, and RT-QuIC revealed α-syn positive in 18/23 (78%) NS AN samples and in 10/23 (44%) NS MT samples. Immunocytochemistry of NS preparations showed a higher representation of olfactory neural cells in NS AN compared to NS MT . We also observed α-syn and phospho-α-syn deposits in NS from PD patients but not in controls. Finally, RT-QuIC was positive in 22/24 CSF samples from PD patients (92%) and in 1/19 non-PD. Conclusion In PD patients, RT-QuIC sensitivity is significantly increased (from 45% to 84%) when NS is performed at AN, indicating that α-syn aggregates are preferentially detected in olfactory areas with higher concentration of olfactory neurons. Although RT-QuIC analysis of CSF showed a higher diagnostic accuracy compared to NS, due to the non-invasiveness, NS might be considered as an ancillary procedure for PD diagnosis.
Background Primary Synovial Chondromatosis (PSC) is a rare benign tumor of the synovial membrane in which cartilage metaplasia produces calcific loose bodies within the articular space. Only a few cases are reported in the pediatric population and its etiology remains unknown. This condition typically affects large weight-bearing joints with pain, swelling and decrease range of motion. Due to its slow progressions, delayed diagnosis is frequent and differential diagnosis should consider other chronic arthritis and malignancies. While arthroscopic removal of loose bodies is the current treatment up to now, the association of partial or complete synovectomy is debated. Case presentation We report about a 14-year-old girl with a long-lasting right shoulder pain, especially during movements or exercise, localized tenderness and hypotonia of the glenohumeral joint. No previous trauma was mentioned. Blood exams, Mantoux test and plain radiography of the right shoulder were unremarkable. Ultrasound imaging revealed echogenic and calcified bodies stretching the glenohumeral joint and dislocating the long head of biceps tendon. Magnetic resonance showed a “rice-grain” pattern of the right shoulder. From an arthroscopic surgery, multiple loose white bodies were removed within the synovial membrane, and synovial chondromatosis was confirmed by histological analysis. At one month follow up visit, the patient completely recovered without pain. Conclusion Synovial chondromatosis is a very uncommon cause of mono articular pain in children, especially when it affects shoulder. Pediatricians should keep in mind this condition to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, even in consideration of the low risk of malignant transformation. Through this case, we would highlight common diagnostic pitfalls and treatment of synovial chondromatosis.
Truffles produced by Tuber species (Ascomycota) represent an additional income in economically marginal areas, especially if cultivating mycorrhized seedlings in dedicated truffle orchards. However, despite the great progress made in cultivation, truffle production has not increased substantially. One of the reasons may be the lack of knowledge on soil as a key component of truffle species habitats. This is the case for Tuber aestivum, whose soil environment has been studied less than those of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum due to the lower economic value of its ascocarps. We did the present study in an experimental truffle orchard submitted to a light tillage before our investigation and characterized by the presence of different host tree species and soil variation in space. We assessed whether truffle production and T. aestivum mycelial DNA in soil varied depending on symbiont tree species, soil type or both by comparing sub-areas characterized by the presence/absence of: i) two landforms; ii) four host tree species; and iii) the truffle brûlé, i.e., the area lacking herbaceous cover when root colonization by T. aestivum occurs. Results show that combined variations in chemical and physical properties determined by soil forming processes can make an area suitable or not for T. aestivum. The establishment of brûlé and higher ascocarp production occurred in the more alkaline and less compact soil type, where the resistance to ascocarp volume enlargement is lower and aeration of the soil surface layer is higher. The tillage carried out in the truffle orchard presumably mimicked the effect of the brûlé on the soil structure, allowing the enlargement of the productive area outside the brûlé itself and showing how the management of a truffle plantation, even if sub-optimal for T. aestivum colonization, can influence its productive capacity. Our results further suggest that even in the best environmental conditions not all host trees will enter in production, while in less suitable soil conditions little or no production should be expected.
The present study is aimed at implementing the morphological identification-free amplicon sequence variant (ASV) concept for describing meiofaunal species composition, while strongly indicating reasonable compatibility with the underlying species. A primer pair was constructed and demonstrated to PCR amplify a 470–490 bp 18S barcode from a variety of meiofaunal taxa, high throughput sequenced using the Illumina 300 × 2 bps platform. Sixteen 18S multi-species HTS assemblies were created from meiofaunal samples and merged to one assembly of ~2,150,000 reads. Five quality scores (q = 35, 30, 25, 20, 15) were implemented to filter five 18S barcode assemblies, which served as inputs for the DADA2 software, ending with five reference ASV libraries. Each of these libraries was clustered, applying 3% dissimilarity threshold, revealed an average number of 1.38 ± 0.078 ASVs / cluster. Hence, demonstrating high level of ASV uniqueness. The libraries which were based on q ≤ 25 reached a near-asymptote number of ASVs which together with the low average number of ASVs / cluster, strongly indicated fair representation of the actual number of the underlying species. Hence, the q = 25 library was selected to be used as metabarcoding reference library. It contained 461 ASVs and 342–3% clusters with average number of 1.34 ± 1.036 ASV / cluster and their BLASTN annotation elucidated a variety of expected meiofaunal taxa. The sixteen assemblies of sample-specific paired reads were mapped to this reference library and sample ASV profiles, namely the list of ASVs and their proportional copy numbers were created and clustered.
We introduce q-deformed connections on the quantum 2-sphere and 3-sphere, satisfying a twisted Leibniz rule in analogy with q-deformed derivations. We show that such connections always exist on projective modules. Furthermore, a condition for metric compatibility is introduced, and an explicit formula is given, parametrizing all metric connections on a free module. On the quantum 3-sphere, a q-deformed torsion freeness condition is introduced and we derive explicit expressions for the Christoffel symbols of a Levi–Civita connection for a general class of metrics. We also give metric connections on a class of projective modules over the quantum 2-sphere. Finally, we outline a generalization to any Hopf algebra with a (left) covariant calculus and associated quantum tangent space.
In this paper, sea-level fluctuations during the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) are investigated. A revision of published data from multiple successions worldwide indicates a sea-level drop that occurred in different geodynamic settings after the onset of the first of multiple carbon-isotope perturbations that characterize the CPE. New stable isotope data, zircon U-Pb geochronology, carbonate petrology, conodont and foraminifer biostratigraphy from the Carnian of the Sichuan Basin and comparison to the well-dated coeval successions of the Dolomites allow pinpointing with unprecedented precision this sea-level fall and determine that it occurred after the onset of the first, but prior to the third negative δ13C shift of the CPE. These lines of evidence indicate that such sea-level oscillation was eustatic. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of units deposited during the ensuing sea-level rise in the Sichuan and Dolomites, further show that a Tethys-wide crisis of microbial carbonate production and drowning of carbonate platforms were followed by a recovery of marine calcification, widely testified by the deposition of oolitic bodies. Whereas a Tethys-wide recovery of microbial carbonate production is documented at the end of the Carnian, this increase in chemical calcification occurred earlier, at the beginning of the Tuvalian, and suggest that global transformations in carbonate systems coincident with the CPE were complex and share commonalities with other times in the geological record when a similar evolution was linked to ocean acidification.
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Renato Pelessoni
  • Department of Economics, Business, Mathematics and Statistics
Giuseppe Borruso
  • Department of Economics, Business, Mathematics and Statistics
Dritan Hasa
  • Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Francesca Cosmi
  • Department of Engineering and Architecture
Cinzia Chiandetti
  • Department of Life Sciences
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