Changes in the interactions between agents involved in the value chain of the palm oil sector in the municipality of Tibú (Colombia) over the period 1985-2020 have resulted in a reduction in the indices of poverty, social inequality, and unemployment for the inhabitants of the region, which can be explained by a process of socio-technical transition. The main objective of this study is to analyze the factors that determined the success of this process from a multilevel perspective. Exploratory research was developed based on a case study analysis using semi-structured interviews of commercial and non-commercial agents in the sector and information collected from secondary sources. The results show that changes in the legal and regulatory framework established by the government, landscape transformation, and the transition from small farmers to medium entrepreneurs of the farms in the region were important factors revolutionizing the system and are encouraging the emergence of new alternative practices in the palm oil sector.
Introducción: Los quironómidos forman parte de los macroinvertebrados esenciales en la tipificación de hábitats acuáticos, ya que albergan especies sensibles a la contaminación, mientras que otras son indicadoras de ambientes bien conservados. Son organismos claves por su abundancia, diversidad, y capacidad de respuesta a diversas presiones naturales y antropogénicas. Objetivo: Determinar las relaciones entre los géneros de la familia Chironomidae y la calidad fisicoquímica del agua. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron seis muestreos en tres quebradas del río Combeima (Las Perlas, La Plata y Cay; Tolima, Colombia). Resultados: Se registraron 15594 larvas distribuidas en tres subfamilias y 20 géneros. El análisis de correspondencia canónica (ACC) mostró que Cardiocladius, Polypedilum, Thienemannimyia, Cricotopus y Alotanypus se relacionaron con procesos de oxidoreducción, mientras que Chironomus, Larsia, Cladotanytarsus, Onconeura, Riethia, Paratanytarsus y Endotribelos se asociaron con procesos de mineralización. Adicionalmente, se evaluó la relación de los índices de calidad del agua (ICA, ICOMO, ICOSUS e ICOTRO) con los géneros de Chironomidae. Alotanypus y Cricotopus, presentaron asociación con los índices ICOSUS e ICOTRO, mientras que Cardiocladius, Thienemannimyia y Polypedilum, se asociaron con ICOMO; Saetheria, Riethia, Larsia, Endotribelos, Cladotanytarsus, Paratanytarsus, Onconeura y Dicrotendipes se asociaron con ICOMI. Respecto al ICA, los géneros que se asociaron fueron Chironomus, Rheocricotopus, Parametriocnemus, Pentaneura y Corynoneura; contrario a Cryptochironomus que se separa de cualquier asociación. Conclusión: Los resultados revelan que no solo la presencia de materia orgánica facilita el establecimiento de la familia Chironomidae en los cuerpos de agua, sino también las características geomorfológicas propias de las quebradas analizadas.
Introducción: Con el cómputo de modelos matemáticos es posible estimar el tiempo que toma una especie en conseguir un crecimiento máximo o asintótico. En este cálculo, el diámetro de un árbol, a la altura del pecho (D.A.P.), es una variable cómoda de medir durante largo tiempo. La diferencia entre cierto periodo de tiempo determinará incrementos que luego serán utilizados para el cálculo del crecimiento. El proceso se enriquece cuando se miden varios árboles de diferentes clases diamétricas. Objetivo. Calcular el crecimiento asintótico de Guarea guidonia (L.), con base en el Incremento Corriente Anual (ICA) de los D.A.P medidos en doce árboles, durante catorce años. Materiales y métodos. Los árboles se encuentran en una parcela permanente de investigación dentro de la reserva “Vallecita” en el municipio de Alvarado, al norte del departamento de Tolima, Colombia. Los modelos matemáticos no lineales utilizados fueron los de Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz y Logístico. Los perfiles obtenidos con las ecuaciones fueron comparados por medio del estadístico R2 de regresiones lineales. Resultados: Se obtuvo que G. guidonia presenta un ICA máximo de 0.58 cm/año y el promedio general fue de 0.51 cm/año. Por los modelos de Von Bertalanffy y Gompertz, se estima que, desde un diámetro base de 10 cm, G. guidonia tardaría 89 años en llegar a un diámetro de 50 cm., y que, con el modelo Logístico, alcanzaría el mismo diámetro en 83 años. Al comparar los tres perfiles del crecimiento diamétrico acumulado de la especie se encontró que entre ellos no se presentan diferencias estadísticas significativas. En general, se tiene que, comparado con otras especies como Anacardium excelsum (Kunt), la G. guidonia presenta un crecimiento diamétrico lento. Conclusión. G. guidonia es una especie que requiere de planes de manejo que propendan por la conservación y el óptimo desarrollo de esta especie.
As the Hass avocado crop expands exponentially in Colombia, concern about its increasing water use is on the rise. This research aimed to develop IS-SAR, a free-access web application to schedule irrigation for Valle del Cauca’s Hass growers. We calibrated the water cloud (WCM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models using field data measurements from Hass avocado orchard plots in Valle del Cauca (Colombia) and Sentinel 1 (S1) satellite imagery measurements and evaluated their performance computing the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r). IS-SAR estimates the surface soil water content from the most recent S1 image, becomes it in water depth, and recommends to users apply irrigation according to allowable depletion limits, computed from a spatially distributed θ at field capacity and permanent wilting point obtained from a soil database of the study area. Our results indicate that the surface soil water content was retrieved with a better performance by the ANN (RMSE = 0.05 m ³ m ⁻³ , r=0.74), compared with the WCM (RMSE = 0.06 m ³ m ⁻³ , r = 0.47 ). IS-SAR simulations in validation orchard plots result in irrigation events of up to 107 L tree ⁻¹ for 3.4 h. The IS-SAR web application provides near-real-time irrigation information to assist Hass avocado growers in designing better irrigation routines and improving the regional understanding of water crop consumption.
Forests are a substantial terrestrial carbon sink, but anthropogenic changes in land use and climate have considerably reduced the scale of this system¹. Remote-sensing estimates to quantify carbon losses from global forests2–5 are characterized by considerable uncertainty and we lack a comprehensive ground-sourced evaluation to benchmark these estimates. Here we combine several ground-sourced⁶ and satellite-derived approaches2,7,8 to evaluate the scale of the global forest carbon potential outside agricultural and urban lands. Despite regional variation, the predictions demonstrated remarkable consistency at a global scale, with only a 12% difference between the ground-sourced and satellite-derived estimates. At present, global forest carbon storage is markedly under the natural potential, with a total deficit of 226 Gt (model range = 151–363 Gt) in areas with low human footprint. Most (61%, 139 Gt C) of this potential is in areas with existing forests, in which ecosystem protection can allow forests to recover to maturity. The remaining 39% (87 Gt C) of potential lies in regions in which forests have been removed or fragmented. Although forests cannot be a substitute for emissions reductions, our results support the idea2,3,9 that the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of diverse forests offer valuable contributions to meeting global climate and biodiversity targets.
ARTICLE Ongoing harlequin toad declines suggest the amphibian extinction crisis is still an emergency Biodiversity loss is extreme in amphibians. Despite ongoing conservation action, it is difficult to determine where we stand in overcoming their extinction crisis. Among the most threatened amphibians are the 131 Neotropical harlequin toads. Many of them declined since the 1980s with several considered possibly extinct. Recently, more than 30 species have been rediscovered, raising hope for a reversing trend in the amphibian extinction crisis. We use past and present data available for harlequin toads (Atelopus), to examine whether the amphibian extinction crisis is still in an emergency state. Since 2004 no species has improved its population status, suggesting that recovery efforts have not been successful. Threats include habitat change, pathogen spread and climate change. More mitigation strategies need implementation, especially habitat protection and disease management, combined with captive conservation breeding. With harlequin toads serving as a model, it is clear that the amphibian extinction crisis is still underway.
In Colombia, the planning of the territories has been determined through the Territorial Ordering Plans (POT). A part of the component of these POTs corresponds to decision-making regarding the rural land of the municipalities. In Ibagué, Colombia, is the Combeima Canyon, a rural area of great importance for the region due to its high environmental and tourist potential. The articulation between the reality of the sector with the POT of Ibagué was analyzed, its strengths and weaknesses were identified, compared to the dynamics of the territory and the perceptions of a population group. The results show a disinterested land use planning with rural land, disjointed planning trends and inconsistent with the minimum requirements and concepts of the national legal framework. Recommendations are proposed for the application of territorial ordering instruments that allow solving the problems and preserving the strengths of the Combeima Canyon.
Neurogranin (NRGN) is a small brain protein expressed in various telencephalic areas and plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity by regulating the availability of calmodulin (CaM). The study aims to characterize the neurogranin gene in Colom-bian native fish, red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, its basal tissue expression and differential expression in brain injury and sublethal toxicity by organophosphates. NRGN gene contains an open reading frame of 183 nucleotides encoding for 60 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed an IQ motif necessary in the interaction with CaM. NRGN mRNA was detected in tissues with higher expression in brain, gills, and head kidney. In brain regions, NRGN showed high expression in the telencephalon (TE) and olfactory bulb (OB). In the sublethal toxicity experiment, NRGN mRNA was upregulated in individuals under organophosphate exposure in the OB and optic chiasm (OC). In brain injury experiment, NRGN showed upregulation at 14 days in OC and at 24 h and 7 days in TE. These findings demonstrate the differential expression of NRGN under different experimental conditions which make it a candidate for a biomarker in the brain of P. brachypomus.
Understanding what controls global leaf type variation in trees is crucial for comprehending their role in terrestrial ecosystems, including carbon, water and nutrient dynamics. Yet our understanding of the factors influencing forest leaf types remains incomplete, leaving us uncertain about the global proportions of needle-leaved, broadleaved, evergreen and deciduous trees. To address these gaps, we conducted a global, ground-sourced assessment of forest leaf-type variation by integrating forest inventory data with comprehensive leaf form (broadleaf vs needle-leaf) and habit (evergreen vs deciduous) records. We found that global variation in leaf habit is primarily driven by isothermality and soil characteristics, while leaf form is predominantly driven by temperature. Given these relationships, we estimate that 38% of global tree individuals are needle-leaved evergreen, 29% are broadleaved evergreen, 27% are broadleaved deciduous and 5% are needle-leaved deciduous. The aboveground biomass distribution among these tree types is approximately 21% (126.4 Gt), 54% (335.7 Gt), 22% (136.2 Gt) and 3% (18.7 Gt), respectively. We further project that, depending on future emissions pathways, 17–34% of forested areas will experience climate conditions by the end of the century that currently support a different forest type, highlighting the intensification of climatic stress on existing forests. By quantifying the distribution of tree leaf types and their corresponding biomass, and identifying regions where climate change will exert greatest pressure on current leaf types, our results can help improve predictions of future terrestrial ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling.
Objective Microfilariae parasites are common in tropical regions, and some species are reported as potentially zoonotic. The diagnosis of filarial infection in dogs by cytology or hematologic techniques showed lower sensibility and specificity, which may result in misdiagnosis. Thus, molecular techniques seem to be an alternative to identifying and detecting microfilariae infections. On the other hand, lymphoma is one of the main tumors in domestic animals, with a high prevalence in domestic canines. This study aims to report a mixed infection with microfilariae in a dog with lymphoma, emphasizing its diagnosis and the possible role of this infection in the development of the neoplasia. Materials and Methods An 8-year-old male mixed breed dog was referred to consultation due to the presence of lethargy, recumbency, skin ulceration lesions, nonspecific pain manifestations, emesis, myoclonus in the left temporalis muscle, and seizures. Routine blood and biochemistry tests were normal, and cytology of the skin evidenced a microfilariae infection. The dog died due to a cardiorespiratory arrest, and tissue sampling was done for histopathology and molecular analysis at the necropsy examination. Results Skin lesions were related to a microfilarial pyogranuloma related to Acanthocheilonema reconditum. Histopathology of the spleen and liver revealed a diffuse lymphoma composed of blast cells and large lymphocytes, distributed diffusely in the parenchyma and surrounding the vasculature. In the skin, microfilariae were seen in some superficial capillaries. Conclusion This study describes a microfilariae mixed infection with A. reconditum and Dirofilaria immitis in a dog with a lymphoma and its molecular detection. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of a mixed microfilariae infection in a tumor of a dog and highlights the use of molecular techniques, i.e., polymerase chain reaction, for an accurate diagnosis.
Background and Aim: Salmonella spp. is frequently found in the digestive tract of birds and reptiles and transmitted to humans through food. Salmonellosis is a public health problem because of pathogenicity variability in strains for virulence factors. This study aimed to identify the virulence genes in Salmonella isolates from humans, crocodiles, broiler cloacas, and broiler carcasses from two departments of Colombia. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 31 Salmonella enterica strains from humans with gastroenteritis (seven), crocodiles (seven), broiler cloacas (six), and broiler carcasses (12) from Tolima and Santander departments of Colombia, belonging to 21 serotypes. All samples were tested for Salmonella spp. using culture method on selective and non-selective mediums. Extraction of genomic DNA was performed from fresh colonies, DNA quality was verified by spectrophotometry and confirmed by amplification of InvA gene using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). bapA, fimA, icmF, IroB, marT, mgtC, nlpI, oafA, pagN, siiD, spvC, spvR, spvB, Stn, and vexA genes were amplified by PCR. Results: The most prevalent gene was bapA (100%), followed by marT (96.77%), mgtC (93.55%), and fimA (83.87%). Likewise, IroB (70.97%), Stn (67.74%), spvR (61.29%), pagN (54.84%), icmF (54.8%), and SiiD (45.16%) were positive for more than 50% of the strains. Furthermore, none of the isolates tested positive for the vexA gene. Salmonella isolates presented 26 virulence profiles. Conclusion: This study reported 14 virulence genes in Salmonella spp. isolates from humans with gastroenteritis, crocodiles, and broiler cloacas and carcasses. The distribution of virulence genes differed among sources. This study could help in decision-making by health and sanitary authorities. Keywords: broilers cloaca, carcasses, crocodiles, gastroenteritis human, polymerase chain reaction, virulence genes.
Macrofungi, also known as mushrooms, can produce various bioactive compounds, including exopolysaccharides (EPS) with distinct biological properties and subsequent industrial applications in the preparation of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food products. EPS are extracellular polymers with diverse chemical compositions and physical properties secreted by macrofungi in the form of capsules or biofilms into the cellular medium. Submerged cultivation is an industrially implemented biotechnological technique used to produce a wide variety of fungal metabolites, which are of economic and social importance due to their food, pharmaceutical, and agronomic applications. It is a favorable technique for cultivating fungi because it requires little space, minimal labor, and low production costs. Moreover, it allows for control over environmental variables and nutrient supply, essential for the growth of the fungus. Although this technique has been widely applied to yeasts, there is limited knowledge regarding optimal growth conditions for filamentous fungi. Filamentous fungi exhibit different behavior compared to yeast, primarily due to differences in cell morphology, reproductive forms, and the type of aggregates generated during submerged fermentation. Furthermore, various growing conditions can affect the production yield of metabolites, necessitating the development of new knowledge to scale up metabolite production from filamentous fungi. This protocol implements the following culture conditions: an inoculum of three agar discs with mycelium, agitation at 150 rpm, a temperature of 28 °C, an incubation time of 72 h, and a carbon source concentration of 40 g/L. These EPS are precipitated using polar solvents such as water, ethanol, and isopropanol and solubilized using water or alkaline solutions. This protocol details the production procedure of EPS using submerged culture; the conditions and culture medium used are described. A detailed description of the extraction is performed, from neutralization to lyophilization. The concentrations and conditions necessary for solubilization are also described. Key features • Production and extraction of EPS from submerged cultures of mycelial forms of macrofungi. • Modification of the method described by Fariña et al. (2001), extending its application to submerged cultures of mycelial forms of the macrofungi. • Determination of EPS production parameters in submerged cultures of mycelial forms of macrofungi. • EPS solubilization using NaOH (0.1 N). Graphical overview
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydrated orange by-product on the productive parameters, carcass yield, and meat quality of rabbits in the fattening stage. Four diets with increasing levels of orange by-products (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated, each with six replicates of two 32-day-old crossbred rabbits that were randomly allocated. The experimental period was from 32 to 70 days of age of the rabbits. A higher weight gain (p < 0.05) was achieved for observed with 20% substitution, along with a better feed conversion, without any effects on carcass yield and meat quality parameters. The treatment with 30% citrus pulp showed no differences (p > 0.05) in the parameters evaluated. Based on our results, dehydrated orange by-product can replace up to 30% of the commercial feed concentrate without affecting performance, yield, and carcass quality in rabbits feeding since 32 to 72 days of age.
Background Canine hip dysplasia is a common orthopedic disease in veterinary practice. The diagnosis is made by radiographic examinations that evaluate bone alterations associated with hip dysplasia. Although radiographic examination is the gold standard for diagnosis, it does not allow a detailed evaluation of soft tissues such as the joint capsule and periarticular muscles. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of B-mode ultrasonography and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in assessing the joint capsule and periarticular muscles of dogs using the Orthopedic Foundation of Animals (OFA) classification and the distraction index (DI) in the early and late diagnosis of hip dysplasia. This study sought to propose a protocol for the ultrasonographic evaluation of the structures involved in canine hip dysplasia. Methods Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were performed on 108 hip joints of 54 dogs. Thirty dogs were older than 2 years and 24 were aged between 4 and 10 months. Results It was verified that an increase in pectineus muscle stiffness (cutoff value > 2.77 m/s) by elastography in some dysplastic dogs and an increase in the thickness of the joint capsule (cutoff value > 0.9 mm) in B-mode ultrasonography, were associated with a distraction index > 0.5, with both having a positive correlation. In B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation, the presence of signs of degenerative joint disease, such as irregularities of the cranial edge of the acetabulum and femoral head, were associated with a distraction index > 0.5 in canines, with a specificity of 94%. In adult dogs, the findings of degenerative joint disease on ultrasound were associated with a diseased OFA classification (P < 0.05). Measurement of the joint capsule > 1.10 mm was diagnostic for dysplasia in unhealthy dogs by OFA. Conclusions ARFI elastography has shown that the pectineus muscle may experience changes in stiffness in dysplastic animals. Additionally, changes in joint capsule thickness can be identified in B-mode in young and adult dogs with dysplastic joints, which contributes to the diagnosis of hip dysplasia.
The absence of comprehensive and structured planning strategies for pedestrians, especially for those with functional diversity, promotes the need to address tools that allow broadening the spectrum of their assessment and prioritizing the inclusive development of cities. Therefore, this document describes the application of the Transit Oriented Development Standard guide in an area with mixed uses in Ibague city, as an evaluation tool in the analysis of the principles of walking and connecting. For its general understanding, the terms of Transit Oriented Development, walkability and functional diversity are analyzed. Evidence is presented on the need to project balanced intermodal systems that demonstrate the importance of universal accessibility in urban mobility.
Indoor agricultural offers efficient alternatives for intensive food production through automation technologies and controlled environments. Light plays a crucial role in plant development; however, photons captured by the crop are often wasted in empty spaces, resulting in low light efficiency and high energy costs. This research aims to simulate eight structural designs for an indoor lettuce crop, exploring different planting systems and light and culture bed combinations (static and mobile) to identify the most effective mechanism for light efficiency during crop growth. The simulations were carried out with spreadsheets based on applying formulas of yield in dry biomass per photosynthetic photons, lighting costs, harvest, and production. The results indicate that Circular Moving Light and Mobile Culture Bed with Quincunx Planting (CML-QM) and Circular Moving Light and Mobile Culture Bed with Linear Planting (CML-LPM) exhibit higher photon capture percentages (85% and 80%, respectively) and lower electricity consumption compared to static designs. The simulation results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in photon capture and cost savings through optimized system designs. This investigation provides valuable insights for designing more efficient systems and reducing electricity consumption to enhance the capture of photosynthetic photons in indoor lettuce cultivation.
Background Sepsis is a condition characterized by organic dysfunction, leading to hemodynamic instability and high morbidity and mortality rates in humans and animals. Early identification of perfusion changes and appropriate management of sepsis are crucial for improving patient prognosis. Currently, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores are widely studied for sepsis identification and evaluation of organ dysfunction. However, these scores do not assess gastrointestinal involvement, which is common in this condition. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and Doppler have been considered promising diagnostic techniques for detecting changes in vascularization and microcirculation in a non-invasive and safe manner, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. This study aimed to evaluate duodenal perfusion using CEUS, as well as abdominal aortic and cranial mesenteric artery blood flow using Doppler ultrasound, and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) in 17 bitches with pyometra and in 10 healthy animals. Results The variables were compared between the pyometra and control groups, as well between patients with and without sepsis determined by the SOFA or SIRS scores. Pyometra was found to cause a reduction in abdominal aortic blood flow volume, aortic peak systolic velocity, and resistivity index as evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. Patients with sepsis according to the SOFA criteria only presented lower SAP. In contrast, sepsis animals identified by the SIRS score exhibited lower SAP, aortic peak systolic velocity, aortic blood flow volume, and aortic resistivity index and additionally, higher peak intensity of contrast in the duodenal wall. Conclusions Pyometra causes a reduction in abdominal aortic blood flow, which is more pronounced in animals with sepsis identified by the SIRS criteria. These animals also exhibited a decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in duodenal perfusion, as evident by CEUS. However, these changes were not observed in patients with sepsis identified by the SOFA criteria. The alterations in intestinal perfusion observed in animals with sepsis indicate the presence of inflammation or dysfunction. In this regard, CEUS proves to be a valuable technique for detecting subtle changes in tissue hemodynamics that may not be apparent in conventional exams.
The fruits of Tamarindus indica L. are consumed worldwide, with various parts of the plant being used for medicinal purposes. The residues (pericarp and seeds) generated during cellulose processing are of significant value as they contain bioactive compounds with diverse biological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction as possible substitutes for synthetic compounds with biological properties using ultra‐high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high‐resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC‐HRMS/MS) analysis and the evaluation of the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], 2,2'‐azino‐bis‐3‐ethylbenzthiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid [ABTS], and 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]), total phenolic compounds (TPC), and antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract and tamarind seed fractions were also performed. The chemical investigation of the acetate fraction using UHPLC‐HRMS/MS resulted in the putative identification of 14 compounds, including flavonoids, (+)‐catechin/(−)‐epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C2, isoquercetin, quercetin, luteolin, rutin, taxifolin, eriodictyol, kaempferide, hydroxybenzoic acid, protocathecuic acid, and protocathecuic acid methyl and ethyl esters derivatives. The crude hydroalcoholic extract exhibited the best results in terms of TPC: 883.87 gallic acid equivalent (GAE; mg/g) and antioxidant activity: FRAP: 183.29 GAE (mg/g), ABTS: 39.67%, and DPPH: 91.08%. The extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against gram‐positive bacteria, specifically Staphylococcus aureus minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC; 62.5/125 g/mL) and Bacillus cereus MIC/MBC (125/250 g/mL), and gram‐negative bacteria, specifically Aeromonas hydrophila MIC/MBC (125/250 µg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MIC/MBC (250/500 g/mL). Morphological damage to cells was observed using flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy. Tamarind seeds contain unique bioactive compounds that should be explored for their use as novel food preservatives. Practical Application Original data were obtained regarding the Tamarindus indica L. seed extract and the ethyl acetate and hexane fractions. This research aimed to investigate the potential of these for food preservation and as alternatives to additives and synthetic compounds added to cattle feed. This paper reports novel findings regarding the chemical composition of the extract and its antioxidant activity, along with its antimicrobial activity against bacteria (gram‐positive: Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , and gram‐negative: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Aeromonas hydrophila ) and yeasts ( Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ).
Introduction/Background Colombia is a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Cervical cancer is the third cause of cancer incidence and mortality among Colombian women. The objective of this study is to assess acceptability and adherence to cervical cancer screening algorithms based on self-collected HPV testing among hard-to-reach women in Colombia Methodology A randomized trial with three arms included: 1) HPV and pap-smear samples collected by clinicians in one visit and followed by colposcopy/biopsy and treatment; 2) HPV self-collection followed by colposcopy/biopsy and treatment; and 3) HPV self-collected followed by ablative treatment. Women 30 to 65 years without history of cervical cancer screening in the previous 3-years were invited to participate. Invitation and sample collection were planned by home visits and by mail. Acceptability was defined as percentage of women tested among invited, and adherence as percentage of women compliant with the diagnostic and treatment workup among HPV-positive women Results No women could be recruited as planned given the low efficacy for home visits and mail/post. Alternative strategies were implemented including invitation by phone call, in-person invitation in health centers, and screening campaigns. Two hundred and fifteen women were included. The patients recruited in arms 1, 2 and 3 were 68, 72, and 75, respectively. 4.7% of women of the target population were reached by call, and 21.1% of women attending the screening campaigns were eligible. Acceptability was 74.4%, 94.7%, and 92.8% with the phone calls, in-person invitation, and screening campaigns respectively. the compliance with the diagnostic work-up was 100.0% and 53.3% in arms 1 and 2. Treatment compliance was not assessable Conclusion HPV self-collection is highly acceptable; however, coverage of hard-to-reach populations is challenging for scenarios without organized programs Disclosures None
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