University of Thi-Qar
Recent publications
Background Despite several hundred clinical trials of drugs that initially showed promise, there has been limited clinical improvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This may be attributed to the existence of at least 25 abnormal cellular pathways that underlie the disease. It is improbable for a single drug to address all or most of these pathways, thus even drugs that show promise when administered alone are unlikely to produce significant results. According to previous studies, eight drugs, namely, dantrolene, erythropoietin, lithium, memantine, minocycline, piracetam, riluzole, and silymarin, have been found to target multiple pathways that are involved in the development of AD. Among these drugs, riluzole is currently indicated for the treatment of medical conditions in both adult patients and children and has gained increased attention from scientists due to its potential in the excitotoxic hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drugs on AD based on cellular and molecular mechanisms. Methods The literature search for this study utilized the Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles. Results Riluzole exerts its effects in AD through diverse pathways including the inhibition of voltage‐dependent sodium and calcium channels, blocking AMPA and NMDA receptors and inhibiting the release of glutamic acid release and stimulation of EAAT1‐EAAT2. Conclusion In this review article, we aimed to review the neuroprotective properties of riluzole, a glutamate modulator, in AD, which could benefit patients with the disease.
Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a serious disorder characterized by the adrenal glucocorticoid deficiency. Regardless of the etiology, AI patients need long-term replacement therapy for glucocorticoids and, in some cases, for mineralocorticoids. The replacement therapy cannot completely mirror the physiological secretion patterns, and therefore, glucocorticoid excess is a common sequela in AI patients. Moreover, due to the absence of the reliable clinical markers to monitor the adequacy of the replacement therapy, clinicians often over-treat the AI patients to avoid adrenal crisis. Long-term glucocorticoid use is associated with the loss of bone density and osteoporosis, increasing the risk of fractures. Moreover, glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus further aggravates the bone disorders. In the recent years, ameliorating effects of metformin on glucocorticoid-induced bone disorders, as well as hyperglycemia, have been reported by a multitude of studies; and here, we reviewed and discussed the most recent findings regarding the positive effects of metformin on alleviating the bone disorders, and their implications in the AI patients.
Melamine (ML) is a common environmental contaminant, commonly used in food fraud, representing a serious health hazard and jeopardizing human and animal health. Recently, nootkatone (NK), a naturally occurring sesquiterpenoid, has garnered considerable attention due to its potential therapeutic advantages. We investigated the potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects of NK against ML-induced liver injury in rats. Five groups were utilized: control, ML, NK10, ML-NK5, and ML-NK10. ML induced substantial hepatotoxicity, including considerable alterations in biochemical parameters and histology. The oxidative distress triggered by ML increased the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. In addition, decreased expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) expression levels were observed in hepatocytes, which indicated the occurrence of inflammatory changes following ML exposure. These alterations were alleviated by NK supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The data revealed that the favorable effects of NK were attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, our results were supported by molecular docking studies that revealed a good fit and interactions between NK and antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the current study demonstrated that NK is a potential new food additive for the prevention or treatment of ML-induced toxicity.
This research evaluated four SPT-based design equations used to estimate the carrying capacity of shallow footing. Using different methods, two plate load tests performed on silty clay and clay soil in Nasiriyah have been used to obtain the ultimate load-carrying capacity. Further, this study aims to utilize the finite element method based on Plaxis 3D foundation software to simulate the behavior of load settlement of the foundation with actual dimensions. It was concluded that the numerical analysis methods showed a good convergence to the actual test results, where the numerical results were 67 and 65 ton/m ² for two projects, respectively. The field values were 70 ton/m ² for projects with a number of possibilities in determining the failure areas of the soil to give a sufficient picture of the load expectations. The boundary of the influence zone obtained by the finite element method has functioned as an influence zone proposed for a new proposed equation which gave a good convergence with the measured bearing capacity values.
Some clay soils classified as extended soils threaten the structures resting on them. Many additives are available to improve the properties of expanded soils. This study tries to investigate the consequences of wetting-drying cycles on the swelling behavior of modified expansive clayey soils under laboratory conditions by modifying expansive clayey soil samples using emulsified asphalt. Five different percentages of emulsified asphalt were used: (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) %. The natural and treatment soils were tested for classification, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, free swell and swell pressure, consolidation, and compressive strength. The liquid limit and plasticity index have been lowered by adding Emulsified Asphalt. After that, the effects of Emulsified Asphalt on undrained shear strength characteristics (cohesion and friction angle) have been studied. The results revealed that when the emulsified asphalt content was increased to 10%, the swelling pressure and swelling potential decreased by 58 and 78 %, respectively. The swell and shrink improvement factor for the 10% emulsified asphalt addition is always larger than 75%. As the duration of wetting-drying cycles increased, the swelling pressure and swelling potential values were also reduced. The plastic limit, on the other hand, increased as the Emulsified Asphalt content increased. Increasing the amount of Emulsified Asphalt increased the maximum dry unit weight values, whereas the optimum water contents increased. It was concluded that emulsified asphalt stabilization may be useful for expansive clay as it improves compressive shear strength.
High uncertainties arias through the characterization of soil parameters because of the lack of data obtained from geotechnical reports. Reducing these uncertainties may improve the characteristic values of soil parameters. This research aims to probabilistically characterize a soil's cohesion parameter in Nasiriyah. The Bayesian approach has been applied to soil data obtained through a project in Nasiriyah. The soil at the site is classified as lean clay, and the soil cohesion has been evaluated using two Bayesian methods: the ordinary, normal distribution method (OND) and the Marcove Chain Monte Carlo-based Bayesian approach (MCMC) method. The previous knowledge utilized in the Bayesian approach was based on 20 boreholes, and the subjective probability approach has functioned in the prior probability distribution. The OND method deduced a mean value of cohesion of (195.9 kPa) and a standard deviation of (14.68 kPa), (COV) 7.49%. It was noted that the probability distribution has a more significant effect than the previous distribution on the posterior distribution. The MCMC method summarized the probabilistic description of the soil characteristic, through which it reached the mean and the subsequent standard deviation (167.49) kPa (109.8) kPa, respectively, and the coefficient of Variation (COV) was 65.6%. It is considered the most appropriate and common method, especially in high-dimensional data when the results are not well known because it can provide a probabilistic value for the not well-known data.
Carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere, which originates from fossil fuels consumption, has led to a serious environmental and energy crisis. Electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) into valuable chemicals such as carbon monoxide, ethanol, ethylene, and methane not only help lower the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but is also beneficial for sustainable energy production. Therefore, numerous works are assigned to improving efficient electrocatalytic materials for the selective CO2RR. Metal–organic framework (MOF)‐derived catalytic materials mostly based on transition metals demonstrate permissible CO2RR owing to their specific composition, tunable surface nanostructure and texture, and affordable market prices. In this work, the best effort is put to describe the most basic concept of electrochemical CO2RR to provide a consensus. The effect of MOF structure and surface analysis are discussed. This is reason that MOFs as catalysts for electrochemical CO2RR offers several advantages over traditional catalysts, such as tunable surface structure, multifunctionality, selectivity control, and stability under CO2RR operation. And then, some of the most recent reported works on MOF‐based catalysts are summarized, to provide and inspire further investigations and ideas in this research field. However, despite these advantages, there are still research gaps that need to be addressed. Some of these gaps include being cost‐effective and economical process for preparing MOF‐based catalysts, long‐term stability for industrial usage, and scalability of the catalyst. Thereby, further studies are essential to fully exploit the potential of MOFs in advancing CO2RR technologies.
A strategy to design an injection valve for a streamlined flow injection technique is described as speed and low-cost materials available in the environment for the determination of Pb(II) ion using the organic reagent 4-((4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3-diol at a wavelength of 498 nm. The scope of the study is to find the optimal conditions, including the flow rate of the carrier, the dispersion coefficient, the length of the reaction coil, and the calibration drawing. The results showed that the optimum length of the reaction coil is 20 cm, and the optimum flow rate is 9.1 mL/min, which is equivalent to the pumping rate of 70 F/min. The range of linearity of the study was revealed by a calibration curve of 0.5–27 mg/L, slope = 1.507, correlation coefficient = 0.9995, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) = 0.088 mg/L, and limit of detection (LOD) = 0.026 mg/L. The system under study has a characteristic efficiency. The dispersion coefficient was calculated for concentrations of 10–15 mg/L Pb(II) ion. Furthermore, the accuracy of the flow injection technique in the estimation process was studied and compared with the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) technique.
This study aimed to examine the antioxidants and antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza root, stem and leaf extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antibacterial activity was determined using the paper disc method against two bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results showed part of the plant effect of the antioxidants and antibacterial activity. The results showed that the root sample had significantly (P <0.05) higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity than leaves and stem samples. The TPC value of leaves extract 211.64mg GAE/g dry extract and DPPH 86.36 % was estimated. The antibacterial activity of MeOH extract against the Staphylococcus aureus zone of inhibition was 21.37 mm for root extracts and 8.30 mm against E. coli. The result showed that Glycyrrhiza root, stem and leaf extract were effective against both the bacteria tested with high concentrations. The Glycyrrhiza root, stem and leaf extract can be used to control infectious diseases and prevent oxidative damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, DPPH, TPC, Antibacterial activity
The current investigation included estimating the efficiency of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Dorema ammoniacum plant in inhibiting the growth of fungi, where the ethanolic extract recorded a higher rate of inhibition than the aqueous extract. It is more effective when the concentration is increased in inhibiting the growth of two types of Candida, C. albicans and C. krusei. The aqueous extracts of Dorema ammoniacum had no toxic effect on human red blood cells at concentrations (100, 200, 300) mg/ml at an incubation period of 3 hours. As a result of the widespread use of medicinal plants as antimicrobial drugs, the absence of toxicity on the host cells is considered essential because it is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, quick-results method and is safe when used as a drug. Keywords: Dorema ammoniacum, D. Don, cytotoxicity activity, Antimicrobial activity.
In the year 2021, in one of the communities in the Abu Ghraib area of Baghdad, a factorial experiment was carried out to study the effect of adding organic manure(poultry, cattle and sheep)and dry bread yeast suspension on certain yield characteristics of cucumber plants (Hadeel hybrid) grown in a greenhouse. Results showed that poultry waste had the best effects in the fruit set (67.21%), the diameter of the fruit)of 2.58 cm(, the number of fruit (36.81 fruit plant-1 ), the weight of fruit (66.00 g), and the yield (2.42 kg plant-1 ). The poultry manure caused a reduction in the peel thickness to a minimum value of (0.145mm). Compared to the control treatment, adding dry yeast suspension to plants improved all yield parameters tested. Keywords: Cucumber, sheep manure, cattle manure, dry yeast, poultry manure, yield.
A factorial experiment was carried out during the year 2021 in one of the villages in the Abu Ghraib district-Baghdad, to evaluate the effect of adding animal waste and dry bread yeast suspension on some vegetative growth characteristics of cucumber plants (Hadeel hybrid) grown under a protected environment. Three types of animal wastes (cattle, sheep and poultry) and dry bread yeast suspension were selected and the control treatment without adding any organic waste. The results indicated that poultry manure showed the best effects in the studied traits, which included leaf area) of 31.69 cm 2 (, dry weight of shoot)40.0 g(, number of leaves)32.73 leaf plant-1), stem diameter (11.48 mm), plant length (224.3 cm) and number of nodes 33.73 node plant-1).On the other hand, adding dry yeast suspension to plants improved in all studies of vegetative growth characteristics compared to the control treatment.
This study was conducted at the Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Mazaya University College, from December to June 2022. This study included 150 samples (100 asthmatic patients and 50 healthy controls). The results showed that the highest incidence of asthma was in patients whose duration of illness ranged between (less than 14) years and reached (69%). The lowest incidence was in patients whose duration of illness ranged from (≥30) and more, reaching (6%), with a very high significant difference, which reached (0.00). The results of the current study showed the frequency of genotypes and alleles of the IL-17 gene for the two groups of patients and the comparison, as the percentage of genotype frequency (GG) in the comparison group was (46%) and in the group of patients (44%), without a significant difference, where the value of (OR = 1.00) The percentage of genotype frequency (AA) was in the comparison group (16%) and in the group of patients (32%), with a significant difference of (OR=2.09). As for the frequency of the genotype (GA), it was in the comparison group (38%) and the group of patients (24%) and without significant difference, where the value of (OR = 0.66). The current study showed vitamin D levels in both males and females (24.63 ± 15.54 / 23.01 ± 17.21), respectively, and without significant differences at the level of probability (0.05) (P.Value=0.794). Keyword: IL-17, asthmatic, Thi-Qar population
The current study was designed to prospect the protective effect of alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii in some physiological parameters and histopathological changes caused by amoebic infection experimentally of female rats; thirtytwo adult female rats were used. It was divided into four groups: the first group received physiological saline as the control group, the second group was infected experimentally with amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica), which was administrated (1 mL/Amoebic suspension /Animal /day) for 10 days, and the third and fourth groups treated with alcoholic extract of plant at (1 mL /animal/day) for one and two months respectively after amoebic infection was ten days. The results indicated a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in body weight and liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) of the amoebic group compared with the control group. In contrast, a significant increase (P≤0.05) in these parameters occurred by using alcohol extract of the plant compared with the infected group by amoeba. Also, the phagocytosis factor and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) were increased significantly (P≤0.05) when amoebic infection compared with the control group. That alcoholic extract caused a significant decline (P≤0.05) for natural levels in these parameters compared with the amoebic group. On the other hand, the present results reported that administering an alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii caused improvement in the histopathological damage of the kidney and liver, which resulted from amoebic infection experimentally by Entamoeba histolytica. These histological changes in the kidney comprised fibrosis, inflammation, structural changes in glomeruli as absence, shrinkage and death of glomeruli, enlargement of Bowman's space, congestion and hemorrhage. While in livers, that included infiltration of inflammatory cells, enlargement of the sinusoid, congestion, and severe hemorrhage. Keywords: Boswellia carterii, Liver Enzymes, Kidney
In the current study, birds (Columba livia ) were used as a new model to study the effect of streptozotocin on the pancreas gland and the blood glucose level. Three concentrations of 75,65,55 mg/kg were adopted for five consecutive days with one IP dose daily. The experimental animals showed a gradual rise in blood glucose the average glucose in the first week of the experiment was usual for the three groups compared with the control group, while there was a significant change in the blood glucose level in the three groups at the end of the experiment (4th week), where the average glucose in the streptozotocin groups was 55 mg/kg (213.80 ± 12.43) mg/dl and the group 65 mg/kg(282.60 ± 16.78) mg/dl and a group of 75 mg/kg( 371.0 ± 38.39) mg/dl. Keywords: Streptozocin, Langerhans islands, pancreas.
The current study examined the concentrations of three heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc) in the tissues of common carp fish. (gills-musclesintestines) collected from one of the private farms that raised fish in floating cages in the Euphrates River from 18/10/2021 to 18/3/2022. Every month, water samples were analyzed, as were fish tissue samples. Using an atomic absorption spectroscopy device, standard procedures were followed to assess the concentration of heavy metals in water and tissues. The results showed that the highest concentration of zinc, cadmium, and copper was detected in the water during the winter season, reaching (125.5-31.95-1.37) MKgm/L. The highest concentrations of cadmium in tissues were found in the autumn season for gills and muscles (1.58-0.81) mkgm/L dry weight, and the highest concentration in tissues (0.80) mkgm/L dry weight in the winter. The highest concentrations of copper were found in the gills and muscles, followed by the intestines. Where concentrations are at their highest in the autumn season (11-9.89, 12.31) mkgm/gm dry weight. As for zinc was found in high concentrations in the gills, intestines, and muscles, with the highest concentrations recorded in the autumn season (81.6-85-93 – 112) mkgm/gm dry weight. The results revealed that heavy metal accumulation occurred in the following pattern: Concentrations in water: cadmium <copper<zinc, while in tissues, the arrangement was as follows: Cadmium – gills – muscles – intestines – copper. Gills – muscles – intestines Zinc – gills – intestines – muscles. Keywords: Heavy metals, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent and malignant cancers in women. Most breast cancer patients show overexpression of the HER2 protein. The current study focused on identifying potent inhibitors of HER2 using a structure-based drug design approach. Prefiltered compounds from the Drugbank and the ZINC database were docked on HER2 protein using the FlexX docking tool of LeadIT. The docking study identified the 12 best molecules that interacted strongly with the active site of HER2 and also fulfilled the ADMET parameters. The complexes of these compounds with HER2 were further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation using GROMACS 2021.4, followed by the end-state MMGBSA binding energy calculations. The RMSD analysis was conducted to study the conformational changes, which revealed stability throughout the 100 ns simulation period. The local flexibility and dynamics of the simulated ligand-protein complexes were studied using RMSF analysis. The values of the radius of gyration were computed to analyze the compactness of HER2. The MMGBSA analysis provided insights into the energetic aspects of the system. The compound DB15187 emerged as the most potent candidate, showing MMGBSA-computed binding energy of -63.60 ± 3.39 kcal/mol. The study could help develop targeted therapies for HER2-positive breast cancer.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Contact tracing plays a crucial role in identifying exposed individuals at high risk of infection during disease outbreaks. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic-based contact tracing model for predicting high-risk exposed individuals in disease outbreaks. The model utilizes various input parameters, including distance, overlap time, visiting time lag, incubation time, and facility size, to assess the risk of infection. Through the application of fuzzy logic, the model enables the modeling of complex relationships and uncertainties associated with these input parameters. We evaluated the model using simulated data, demonstrating its effectiveness in identifying individuals at different levels of risk. The evaluation includes partial input evaluation, and comprehensive inputs assessment to assess the impact of each parameter on the risk of infection. The results highlight the importance of considering multiple factors in contact tracing and provide insights into the key parameters that significantly influence the risk assessment. The proposed model has the potential to assist public health authorities in making informed decisions and implementing targeted interventions to mitigate the spread of diseases in outbreak situations. Moreover, it helps to alleviate unnecessary fear among individuals who are less likely to have been infected.
Electrophoretic deposition was used to deposit carbon nanotube/polyether ether ketone (CNTs/PEEK) composite coatings onto porous titanium‐tantalum (Ti‐30Ta) substrates at different PEEK concentrations (4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 mg/mL). Coatings were analyzed for thickness, porosity, surface roughness, microhardness and bonding strength, with higher PEEK concentrations producing thicker and more uniform coatings. However, optimal coating thickness showed highest bonding strength; lower and higher thickness led to decreased bonding strength. The tribological properties of the CNTs/PEEK coated Ti‐30Ta samples of different thicknesses (50, 70, and 100 μm) were evaluated using ball‐on‐flat linear reciprocating sliding tests under dry and wet conditions using simulated body fluid (SBF) as a lubricant. The CNTs/PEEK coatings provided excellent tribological protection under dry friction, with thicker coatings having lower friction and negligible wear. However, under wet sliding, the coating's wear rate increased significantly due to softening of the rubbing surface caused by SBF lubrication that increase transfer film onto the counter body surface. Coating with optimal thickness of 74 μm demonstrated the lowest friction and wear under SBF lubrication due to its highest hardness and bonding strength. This study highlights the importance of controlling coating thickness in determining the performance of the CNTs/PEEK coatings for orthopedic implants.
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1,352 members
Amin H. Al-khursan
  • Faculty of Science
Ressol Shakir
  • Faculty of Engineering
Samir M Abdulalmohsin
  • Faculty of Science
Hussein Togun
  • Biomedical Engineering Department
Hussien Al-Hmood
  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE) Department
Thi Qar, Iraq