# University of Tabriz

• Tabriz, East Azerbayjan, Iran
Recent publications
Background Recently, biosensors have become popular analytical tools for small analytes due to their high sensitivity and wide analytical range. In the present work, development of a novel biosensing method based on tungsten disulfide quantum dots (WS2 QDs)-Au for rapidly and selectively detecting c-Met protein is introduced. As a proof of concept, M13 bacteriophage-based biosensors were used for the electrochemical detection of c-Met protein as a colon cancer biomarker. Method The M13 bacteriophage (virus), as the biorecognition element, was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes which were modified by WS2 QDs-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The stepwise presence of the WS2 QDs, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized phage on glassy carbon electrodes were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) technique. Results The designed biosensor was applied to measure the amount of c-Met protein in standard solutions, and consequently the desirable detection limit of 1 pg was obtained. Finally, as a proof of concept, the developed platform was used for the evaluation of c-Met protein in serum samples of colon cancer-suffering patients and the results were compared with the results of the common Elisa kit. Conclusions As an interesting part of this study, some concentrations of the c-Met protein in colon cancer serum samples which could not be determined by Elisa, were easily analyzed by the developed bioassay system. The developed bioassay system has great potential to application in biomedical laboratories. Graphical Abstract
In the present study, the performance of a creative poly-generation plant generating electricity and freshwater was energetically, exegetically, economically, and environmentally analyzed. The system consists of a gas turbine as the prime mover and Kalina and humidification-dehumidification desalination units for waste heat recovery purposes. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of design parameters variation on the proposed system performance. The construction feasibility of the proposed system was assessed by utilizing Net Present Value and the payback period. According to the obtained data from the base simulation conditions, the total gained output ratio, exergetic efficiency, the total cost of products, Levelized total emission, and freshwater production capacity were obtained 0.9574, 43.05%, 20.22$/GJ, 63679kg/kW, and 10.77kg/s. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction rate by 16382kW. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis revealed that an increase in the combustion temperature reduces pollutant emission and enhances the power generation rate and exergy efficiency. Regarding 2.5$/GJ and 0.085$/kWh as the fuel cost and electricity price, a total profit of 18.93$M at the end of economic book life can be obtained, with a payback time of 6.39years, demonstrating the feasibility of the plant for establishment.
Background Aegilops tauschii Coss . as a donor of wheat D genome has an important role in wheat breeding programs. Genetic and phylogeographic diversity of 79 Ae. tauschii accessions collected from north and northwest of Iran were analyzed based on retroelement insertional polymorphisms using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers. Results In total, 306 and 151 polymorphic bands were amplified in IRAP and REMAP analyses, respectively. As a result, a high level of polymorphism was observed among the studied accessions as revealed by an average of 25.5 bands per primer/primer combination and mean PIC value of 0.47 in IRAP and an average of 25.16 bands per primer combination and mean PIC value of 0.47 in REMAP. Genetic relationships of the accessions were analyzed using distance- and model-based cluster analyses. Conclusion The result showed that genetic distance did not seem to be related to geographic distribution, and the accessions could be divided into three groups, which was further supported by principal coordinate analysis. These results on genetic diversity and population structure of Ae. tauschii in Iran should provide important knowledge on genetic resources and their applications in wheat breeding programs.
In this paper, the gas microturbine cycle is optimized in dual power and heat generation mode. This optimization includes optimizing the energy efficiency and exergy of the cycle as well as optimizing the price of electricity generated based on exergy-economic analysis and taking into account the effects of environmental pollution. The fuel used in the microturbine system is natural gas. To perform this optimization, first a thermodynamic modeling was performed for the mentioned cycle and then using the bee algorithm, the optimal point for system performance was determined by the code written in MATLAB software. The results of this study showed that using the bee algorithm, the best value of the objective function obtained for the mentioned cycle was obtained in the air-to-fuel ratio of 1.32, at which point the energy efficiency is 40.53%, the efficiency of the second law is 81.80%, the amount of entropy production was 0.0578 kW/K and the final amount of electricity consumption was 0.0733 kWh. Also, if the thermal resistance of microturbine blades can be increased, the efficiency can be increased up to 15% compared to the case with temperature limitation.
Pig manure is a carbonaceous waste and has a distinct composition with biomass and the pyrolysis products properties could also be different. In this study, particular attention was paid on the evolution of functionalities and the changes of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of char with an increase in temperature, as these surface properties determine the applications of char as support of catalyst or adsorbent. Our results demonstrated that both oxygen and nitrogen-containing organic species in manure were thermally unstable, decomposition of which initiated from 200 °C and proceeded to near completion at 600 °C. The substantial deoxygenation at 300–500 °C did not result in the proportional increase of carbon content of char, as the carbonization did not take place effectively. Instead, the excessive cracking of these organic species made the inorganic SiO2 and CaCO3 as the dominant species in the char formed at high temperatures. The abundant oxygen-containing functionalities in the char produced via pyrolysis below 300 °C could not be sufficiently exposed, leading to the high hydrophobicity of char. In comparison, the exposure of the inorganic species in the char produced at high pyrolysis temperature made char more hydrophilic, which, however, was not favorable for the dispersion of metallic nickel species in the Ni/char catalyst.
A novel method based on the immobilization of N-acetylcysteine on chloro-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes ([email protected]) was used for the speciation of manganese ions [Mn (II) and Mn(VII)] in water samples. Also, the total manganese (TMn) in vegetables and food samples was determined by the AT-FAAS. By ultrasound-assisted-dispersive ionic liquid trap micro solid-phase extraction (UA-DILT-μ-SPE), the Mn (II)/Mn(VII) ions were extracted in the presence of [email protected] for 50 mL of water samples at a pH of 6.5 and 3.0, respectively. The adsorption capacity of [email protected] for Mn(II) and Mn(VII) ions was obtained at 146.7 mg g⁻¹ and 138.8 mg g⁻¹, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (LOD), linear range (LR), and enrichment factor (EF) for Mn(II) and Mn(VII) ions were obtained (0.12 μg L⁻¹; 0.14 μg L⁻¹), (0.48–36 μg L⁻¹; 0.55–38.1 μg L⁻¹) and (100.2; 94.5), respectively. The proposed methodology was successfully validated by the CRM samples.
Cooking and other thermal treatments like hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and pyrolysis might impact the evolution of varied products in the activation of noodles. In this study, raw noodles were pretreated via cooking at 100 °C, pyrolysis at 500 °C and HTC at 260 °C, and subsequently activated with K2C2O4 at 800 °C. Correlation of the varied pretreatments with nature of the resulting activated carbon (AC), bio-oil and gases was paid particular attention. The results showed that cooking treatment enhanced the formation of mesopores in AC, but decreased overall yields of bio-oil and gases from 82.0 to 80.3 wt% during the activation. HTC pretreatment decreased the production of both AC and gases, but remarkably enhanced bio-oil formation. Pyrolysis increased aromatization degree of biochar and suppressed cracking reactions in activation, producing the highest overall yields of AC. However, pyrolysis and HTC destroyed sugars in noodles and reduced the occurrence of reactions for transformation of the functionalities like -OH, -C-H, C=O and C-O-C, which hindered development of pores. The highest specific surface area of AC from direct activation of raw noodles thus showed superior capability for the adsorption of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. Life cycle analysis (LCA) indicated that HTC plus activation showed the least environmental impact, although the lowest yields and specific surface area of AC was obtained via this route. The results of this study will be interested to anyone working in the general field of bioenergy science and engineering.
The virtual energy hub (VEH), a combination of virtual power plant and energy hub concepts, faces many uncertainties due to its constituent distributed energy resources. This paper presents the deep learning-based scheduling of VEH for participation in electrical and thermal markets using bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) network, which offers excellent accuracy in forecasting uncertain parameters by concurrent using past and future dependencies. In addition to applying learning methods, energy storage systems can also influence the optimal management of uncertainties. To provide the required electrical storage equipment, the VEH employs plug-in hybrid CNG-electric vehicles (PHGEVs) that can use both electrical energy and compressed natural gas (CNG) to fulfill their energy needs. The alternative fuel can tackle the limitations of prolonged charging of electric vehicles and excess load caused by these vehicles at peak hours. To supply the secondary fuel of PHGEVs, the modeled VEH includes a CNG station, which compresses the natural gas imported from the natural gas grid before delivering it to the vehicles. Furthermore, phase change material-based thermal energy storage (PCMTES) is considered in the VEH configuration, which unlike other common thermal energy storage systems, operates at a constant temperature during the charging and discharging period. Lastly, the simulation of the developed system illustrates that PHGEVs can reduce the imposed cost in unforeseen situations by up to 26 percent and increase the system’s flexibility.
The presence of anhydrite in various forms and textures is a common diagenetic feature in many carbonate reservoirs. In this study, focusing on carbonate reservoirs of the upper Dalan and Kangan formations in the Persian Gulf, a syngenetic classification of anhydrite based on petrographic evidence and core description is proposed. As a result, early diagenetic evaporite textures (layered, nodular, and sparse crystals) related to the depositional environment conditions and and burial textures (pervasive, patchy and fracture-filling) in the form of cements are identified. Among these textures, pervasive and patchy cements have the main effect on the destruction of reservoir quality, mostly in grain-dominated facies. Study of facies categories based on dominant diagenetic features and pore types in mud-dominated carbonates (MF-1 and MF-2) and grain-dominated ones (GF-1 to GF-5), and investigation of the introduced reservoir rock types (RT-1 to RT-3) indicate that the distribution of anhydrite in the reservoir and its impact on reservoir quality is predominantly dependent on diagenetic history of the studied formations, before and after anhydrite mineralization. As, the extensive flow of sulfate-rich brines and thus pervasive occurrence of anhydrite in the pore system of reservoir rocks have occurred during shallow burial and before significant compaction and widespread calcite cementation. On the other hand, the essential effect of dissolution on anhydrite cement during the burial has created reservoir facies with large dissolution vugs and high reservoir quality.
According to statistics, building energy consumption is responsible for 40% of the world’s energy usage and 40% of the emission. To minimize the enormous damage caused by energy usage in the building sector, many energy storage applications as phase change materials (PCMs) are proposed. Moreover, retaining proficient energy systems to arrange for building energy loads is another essential tactic to diminish energy consumption in the building division. In this research, a new hybrid solar-based energy system is proposed to supply the demands of the building. The system is grid-connected and has two-way interactions with the grid that can sell the electricity to compensate for some of the building bills. The usage of a heat storage tank and not employing expensive batteries in a solar system is another advantage. A two-story building is dynamically simulated in actual weather conditions of Tabriz city with embedded PCM materials in the building façade. Also, the building energy demand and the proposed system recital are systematically compared with and without PCM integration. The results indicated that with the incorporation of PCM energy storage, the building's yearly heating and cooling loads are decreased by 27.4%. Such a reduction of heating and cooling loads, in turn, improves the plant performance by 18.42%, 13.0%, and 28.54%, respectively, in terms of fuel consumption, exergy efficiency, and unit product cost. Moreover, the reliability of heating and power generation is 0.9688, while the reliability of power and cooling generation is 0.9783 on the supply side.
To produce biodiesel from edible waste oil, a new heterogeneous catalyst based on Luffa cylindrica biomass was used. For this purpose, first, Luffa cylindrica carbon was modified using zeolite imidazole metal-organic framework (ZIF-67) and KOH and used in the biodiesel production. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman, and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques were used to investigate the properties of the synthesized catalyst. BET values for activated carbon of Luffa cylindrica (ACL), ZIF-67, ACL/ZIF-67, and ACL/ZIF-67/KOH samples were determined to be 99.714, 1695.7, 956.99, and 2.322 m²/g, respectively, indicating that modification of biomass using ZIF-67 improved its specific active surface, which can retain more KOH in the pores of catalyst. To evaluate the ability of the synthesized catalyst, the effect of various parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of oil to methanol, and mixing speed were investigated. The results showed good catalytic activity in converting edible waste oil to biodiesel and maximum efficiency of biodiesel production (98.31%) in laboratory conditions such as a temperature of 65 °C, a catalyst concentration of 3 wt%, a reaction time 3 h, a methanol: oil ratio of 15:1 and a mixing speed of 600 rpm. After determining the optimal laboratory conditions, the study of regeneration and reuse of the catalyst showed that the catalyst had a suitable catalytic activity and can use more than 4 steps in the biodiesel production process. The properties of biodiesel obtained under optimal conditions were evaluated according to the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN-14214). The results showed that the produced biodiesel possess suitable properties and can replace fuels derived from fossil fuels.
This study provides a tri-layer optimization framework in which the microgrid strategy for day-ahead market participation is determined by considering the uncertainties of load, RESs and EVs. Scenario-based method is utilized to deal with uncertainties. Besides, distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) and an incentive-based demand response (DR) program are used to enhance scheduling flexibility. In the first layer of the proposed model, the buy/sell bids of the microgrids are determined and sent to the pool market. In the second layer, the market clearing price (MCP) is determined according to the buy/sell bids of microgrids, and in the third layer, the microgrids are scheduled by a cooperative game theory approach. The proposed model is implemented on a 118-bus distribution system consisting of 4 microgrids and the results show that the dynamic topology improves the scheduling flexibility and thus reduces the total operating cost by 9.2%. The simulation results also show that EVs participation in scheduling leads to a reduction in the MCP during peak hours. Finally, the results illustrate that considering energy storage systems (EESs) and DR program leads to a reduction in the MCP and thus a 9.33% reduction in the total operating cost.
One of the important challenges in city gate gas pressure reduction stations is the heating of the natural gas prior to pressure reduction. Regarding the low efficiency of the common water bath heaters in these stations another type of double tube-pass shell and tube heat exchanger, equipped with flower baffles, has been proposed for heating the natural gas. Additionally, Al2O3 nanofluid has been suggested to be used in the shell side as the heating medium. Investigating the incompressible three-dimensional steady-state conjugate turbulent forced convection, the heat transfer performance, and also the distribution of the nanoparticles have been studied numerically at various shell and tube sides Peclet numbers for different nanoparticle volume fractions (ϕ = 1, 2, 3 and 4%). The open-source CFD package, OpenFOAM, has been utilized for numerical simulations. A new solver and turbulence model have been developed to implement the four-equation Buongiorno’s model to investigate the nanoparticles’ distribution as well. The results indicated that increasing the shell side nanofluid Peclet number and nanoparticle volume fraction increased the heat transfer coefficient compared to pure water. Additionally, this enhancement increased as the shell side Peclet number and nanoparticle volume fraction increased and the tube side natural gas Peclet number decreased. Thus, a maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement of 18.1% was obtained at shell side Peclet number of 180,000, tube side Peclet number of 10,000, and a 4% nanoparticle volume fraction. Additionally, the increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient compared to pure water increased as the nanoparticle volume fraction increased. Furthermore, the enhancement in natural gas mean outlet temperature in the case of adding nanoparticles in comparison with pure water was seen to be more at lower shell side Peclet numbers. Eventually, the pressure drop demonstrated an increase with the increase in shell side Peclet number and nanoparticle volume fraction. Also, the rise in the effectiveness compared to pure water enhanced with the increase in tube side Peclet number and nanoparticle volume fraction and decrease in shell side Peclet number.
EEG-based biometric systems have received much attention during the last decades. Despite the positive results, EEG based biometric systems still have been not used in practice. Since, most of the existing studies use resting state signals or signals from the average of repeated trials, which limit their use in practice. Moreover, often univariate features which have limited discriminatory power are used in EEG based biometric systems. So, there has been a growing interest to extract distinct bivariate features from human brain areas. In this paper, due to the non-stationarity of EEG signals, we exploited time–frequency metrics for brain connectivity matrix to extract more discriminative features. In addition, to investigate the permanence and stability issues, we proposed a more realistic experimental paradigm in which signals of training and testing are recorded in two separate sessions and different states. Epochs have no overlap with each other in training and testing stages and accuracies were obtained from single trials whilst a multitude of published reports relied on average of repeated trials which are time-consuming. Two databases (self-recorded and public PhysioNet BCI) were used in this work. We compare our method with state-of-the-art methods and experimental results demonstrate the recognition rate above 99.50% which confirm the effectiveness of our approach. In this paper, we also exploited the genetic algorithm to select the minimum number of electrodes and despite of the reduction of EEG channels, identification performance of our proposed biometric system is degraded just 1%–2%.
Energy hub systems are known as the most important local energy systems and simultaneously meet the needs of their customers for different energies. Optimal design of energy hub systems has become a very important issue, as these systems have many customers. So, this paper presents a sustainable framework for the energy hub long-term planning in the presence of renewable energy sources (RESs). The hub is capable of supplying electrical, cooling and heating loads and is also equipped with three storage systems, electrical, thermal and cooling storage units. The uncertainties of different loads as well as photovoltaic (PV) panel output power are considered and the planning problem is dynamically modeled for a 15-year horizon. In addition, a Price-Based Demand Response (PBDR) program is included in the proposed model so that hub consumers can participate in it, leading to a modification of the demand curve and a reduction in operating cost. The planning and operation problem is modeled as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem and solved by the CPLEX solver in GAMS software. The effects of PBDR program, PV panels, uncertainties and energy storage systems on the sizing of equipment and operating costs have been studied in detail. The results show that the use of PBDR program reduces the installed capacity of the electrical storage system (EES) and thus leads to a reduction of about 5% of investment costs. In addition, the results show that the absence of PV panels in the model increases the operation costs by about 9%.
Let (X,Σ,μ)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$(X, \Sigma , \mu )$$\end{document} be a σ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sigma$$\end{document}-finite measure space and W=uCφ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$W=uC_{\varphi }$$\end{document} be a weighted composition operator on Lp(Σ)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^p(\Sigma )$$\end{document} (1≤p<∞\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$1\le p<\infty$$\end{document}), defined by W:f↦u.(f∘φ)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$W:f\mapsto u.(f\circ \varphi )$$\end{document}, where φ:X→X\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\varphi : X\rightarrow X$$\end{document} is a measurable transformation and u is a weight function on X. In this paper, we study the hypercyclicity of W in terms of u, using the Radon–Nikodym derivatives and the conditional expectations. First, it is shown that if φ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\varphi$$\end{document} is a periodic nonsingular transformation, then W cannot be hypercyclic. The necessary conditions for the hypercyclicity of W are then given in terms of the Radon–Nikodym derivatives provided that φ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\varphi$$\end{document} is non-singular and finitely non-mixing. For the sufficient conditions, we also require that φ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\varphi$$\end{document} is normal. The weakly mixing and topologically mixing concepts are also studied for W. Moreover, under some specific conditions, we establish the subspace hypercyclicity of the adjoint operator W∗\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$W^*$$\end{document} with respect to the Hilbert subspace L2(A)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^2(\mathcal {A})$$\end{document}. Finally, to illustrate the results, some examples are given.
Carbohydrates are safe materials with the potential of application in various areas, hence, in recent years, a growing interest has been attracted to the synthesis of the new systems containing carbohydrates. By considering this and based on the carbohydrate's merits, in this work, the new two different random glyco-copolymers were prepared through the polymerization of the α-D-glucofuranose- and α-D-mannofuranose-based monomers. A facile free-radical polymerization technique was utilized for glyco-copolymers synthesis in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique was used for investigating the achievements in the synthesis of copolymers. In the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) spectroscopy analysis, the absence of any peaks in the rigon related to vinylic protons confirmed the successful synthesizing of glyco-copolymers. As well as, enhancing the intensity of the peaks in the 0.60–2.39 ppm which is related to the formed aliphatic protons as a result of vinylic glycomonomers copolymerization is the strong witness for success in copolymerization. In this way and by considering the special structure of the prepared glyco-copolymers and based on the review of the published literature, it is expected that the prepared new glyco-copolymers be a good candidate for biomedicinal applications. Graphic abstract
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• Division of Mycology, Depatrment of Pathobiology
• Division of Biochemistry
• Department of Animal Science
• Faculty of Chemistry
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