The Imagineerium is an arts and engineering based curriculum project designed to enhance student confidence in learning. This study reports on the development of the Trowsdale Index of Confidence in Experiential Learning, an instrument designed to conceptualise and operationalise a four-component model of confidence in experiential learning appropriate for upper primary school students, embracing confidence in creativity, confidence in competence, confidence in collaboration, and confidence in learning. Data provided by 140 9- to 10-year-old students both before and after participating in the 10-week programme, demonstrated a significant increase in scores on this measure at time two, although there was no increase in scores on a control variable hypothesised not to be influenced by the intervention.
This qualitative study examines the role of childhood experiences and memories in shaping individuals’ gender identities, expressions, and life trajectories. Whilst some research has examined the role of gender stereotypes in people's life trajectories, no research has focused on people's retrospective accounts of their gender socialisation about their current understanding of (their own) gender. We conducted eight semi-structured interviews with 20–30-year-olds living in the UK to do this. We employed interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyse our data, which enabled us to investigate participants’ memories of their gender socialisations, observations, and internalisations in childhood and their interpretation of these experiences. Using insights from social learning theory, this study provides further insights into the processes of observations, internalisations, and subsequent challenges to gender based on their retrospective accounts. We show the impact of hegemonic gender stereotypes in the participants' life trajectories and hobbies (mainly sports), showing the limitations created by the gender binary system. Notably, the present findings support social learning theory, as it shows how the internalisation of gender can be challenged by new forms of gender resocialisation, including the promotion of gender equity in sports, the possibilities of gender expressions and identities beyond the binary, and the free articulation and expression of these concerns in society. By showing how gender internalisations can be malleable, this research provides practical recommendations for tackling unnecessary gender divisions in childhood settings.
The Aarhus Convention contains a trinity of procedural rights to information access, public participation and access to justice in environmental decision-making. One might assume that these rights herald revolutionary cosmopolitan progress. The trinity evinces concern for state-human co-creation; helps implement the ancient all-affected principle; contributes to amplification of human “voice”; and “sharpens” the legal “teeth” of procedural rights’ justiciability. However, the chapter observes counterbalancing between (a) the trinity’s solidarist, human-oriented provisions and (b) pluralist persistence, indicated by sustained iterations of state consent and sovereignty. Aarhus’ solidarist endeavours (a) ethically agitate and mature sovereignty whilst (b) themselves being delimited by it. This indicates solidarisation, which posits that transformation in IR is necessarily contained by existing power arrangements.
This book assessed, through ethically attuned English School lenses, the Aarhus Convention’s propagation, germination and growth. It sought to unpack Aarhus’ ethical rationales and realities, and their implications for those assessing the chances for progress in residually international environmental multilateralism. This closing chapter distils the findings and addresses their theoretical consequences, which relate chiefly to solidarisation. The logic of solidarisation posits that human-oriented, solidarist ambition in IR (a) ethically agitates sovereignty whilst at the same time (b) being contained by, and confined within, it. This finding denotes not only sovereignty’s conduciveness to reform, but its durability in upholding a relatively stable international order.
An ethical reading of the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) indicates the feasibility and normative worth of solidarisation, a process that propagates solidarist values within pluralist, statist power frameworks. It demonstrates the benefit of retaining statist arrangements and infusing them with a cosmopolitan impulse of human empowerment, co-creation and “humankindness”. Under solidarisation, sovereignty is subjected to ethical agitation by incremental solidarist reform. But sovereignty is not usurped; in fact it serves to temper and regulate solidarist progress. Pluralism, solidarism and solidarisation are ideas related to the English School of IR. This chapter offers an English School framework, using its historical continuum of realist international system, revolutionist cosmopolis and rationalist international society. Realism and revolutionism occupy the continuum’s extremes; rationalism is roughly equidistant therebetween. Each part of the continuum offers an imaginary of IR against which to assess “real world” developments. International society, an English School signature, is a pragmatic, cautious middle way: mindful of anarchy, the absence of world government, but conscious of the feasibility of propagating lesser (pluralist) or greater (solidarist) degrees of ethical progress. The chapter finds value in the innovative concept of solidarisation, and gauges the latter’s indicators, in preparation for the substantive analyses to come.
This chapter explores the Aarhus Convention’s growth, in terms of the development of its organisational infrastructure. The latter is partitioned into strategic, operational and tactical tiers. The strategic tier concerns political agenda-setting, prioritisation and leadership of the Convention; the Meeting of the Parties (MOP) is analysed there. Little digression from statist multilateralism is gauged. The chapter identifies counterbalancing towards states, given somewhat lacklustre national implementation reporting (NIR) practices, the MOP having been driven to initiate a rapid response mechanism to protect environmental defenders, and Belarus’ withdrawal from the Convention. The operational tier comprises the organs sustaining Aarhus’ functional continuity: the Working Group of the Parties, secretariat, bureau and task forces. Operationally, Aarhus is very much a mainline international environmental agreement. It is in Aarhus’ tactical tier, the compliance mechanism, that significant solidarist potential surfaces. Three elements of the compliance mechanism are instructive: its composition, quasi-judicial working practices and entrenchment of human empowerment, given the ability of humans and NGOs to directly lodge communications of Parties’ alleged non-compliance, thereby initiating proceedings that can result in Parties’ domestic change. The compliance mechanism brings Aarhus closer towards environmental actio popularis. But such solidarist potential is tempered by a suite of balances that prevent usurpation of, and perpetuate the predominance of, state sovereignty.
This chapter explores the international conditions that enabled the Aarhus Convention’s emergence at the end of the twentieth century. It firstly examines the relevant legal and diplomatic context, with reference to the development of post-Second World War human and environmental rights. Secondly, it assesses the geopolitical context, paying particular attention to the democratisation that characterised the end of the Cold War. Thirdly, the chapter assesses Aarhus’ rise under Environment for Europe, a multilateral framework notable for its warm disposition towards civil society. The chapter finishes by assessing the role of democracies and post-socialist states during Aarhus’ launch, before distilling its findings.
Background Long COVID (LC) symptoms persist 12 weeks or more beyond the acute infection. To date, no standardised diagnostic/treatment pathways exist. However, a holistic approach has been recommended. This study explores participants’ experiences of a Long COVID Optimal Health Programme (LC-OHP); a psychoeducational self-efficacy programme. Aim To explore perceptions and experiences of people with LC regarding the LC-OHP and identify suggestions to further improve the programme. Design & setting Qualitative study with patients with LC recruited through community settings. Method This study is part of a wider randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were 18 years old and above, who have LC, and attended a minimum of five LC-OHP sessions plus a booster session. We interviewed those randomised to the intervention group. Interviews were conducted by an independent researcher and thematically analysed to identify common, emerging themes. This study received ethical approval from the University and HRA ethics committees. Results Eleven participants were interviewed, mostly women of White British ethnicity (n=10). Four main themes were identified reflecting programme benefits and suggestions for improvement. The programme demonstrated potential for assisting patients in managing their LC, including physical health and mental wellbeing. Participants found the programme to be flexible and provided suggestions to adapting it for future users. Conclusion Findings support the acceptability of the LC-OHP to people living with LC. The programme has shown several benefits in supporting physical health and mental wellbeing. Suggestions made to further adapt the programme and improve its delivery will be considered for future trials.
The primary aim was to compare the peak running speed (PRS) attained in the 40-m linear sprint test, in an analytical-based soccer drill, in the 5-0-5 test, and a training match scenario. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate the differences between the three assessment sessions and identify how the tests can vary from session to session. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the within-test variability to understand how consistent the performance is within each test format across the different sessions. Forty male under-19 players competing at the national level participated in this study. A training session was observed for each of the three study weeks in which the following tests/scenarios were monitored using a GPS. The 40-m linear sprint test and the analytical-based soccer drill presented the smallest within-subject coefficients of variation between the sessions. A large correlation (r = 0.742) was found between the PRS during the 40-m linear sprint test and the analytical-based soccer drill. The 40-m linear sprint test was the best method of those examined for measuring PRS. The analytical drill provides a reliable method for measuring PRS, although it differs from the 40-metre linear sprint test.
Online harms and the resultant safeguarding approaches are a key challenge for those working in the children’s workforce. However, safety narratives and a wish to prevent harm, rather than mitigate risk, have arguably caused a safeguarding environment that is neither mindful of children’s rights nor in their best interests. When supporting adopted and looked after children, there are some specific challenges that can result in further caution in supporting children in their use of digital technology. Empirical data presents observations on a professional environment where, with a dearth of training or policy direction, professionals are left to bring their own biases and beliefs into safeguarding judgements and, in the rush to protect, often forget the importance of working across stakeholders rather than trying to resolve issues independently.
Purpose : This preregistered trial investigated how 6 weeks of unilateral flywheel leg-curl and hip-extension training impact isokinetic, isometric, and flywheel strength and power outcomes. Methods : The study involved 11 male university athletes (age 22  y; body mass 77.2 [11.3] kg; height 1.74 [0.09] m) with one leg randomly allocated to flywheel training and one leg to control. Unilateral eccentric and isometric knee-flexion torque and flywheel unilateral leg-curl and hip-extension peak power were tested. Training intensity and volume (3–4 sets of 6 + 2 repetitions) were progressively increased. Results : The intervention enhanced hip-extension concentric ( P < .01, d = 1.76, large) and eccentric ( P < .01, d = 1.33, large) peak power more than the control (significant interaction effect). Similarly, eccentric ( P = .023, d = 1.05, moderate) peak power was enhanced for the leg curl. No statistically significant differences between conditions were found for isokinetic eccentric ( P = .086, d = 0.77, moderate) and isometric ( P = .431, d = 0.36, small) knee-flexor strength or leg-curl concentric peak power ( P = .339, d = 0.52, small). Statistical parametric mapping analysis of torque–angle curves also revealed no significant ( P > .05) time–limb interaction effect at any joint angle. Conclusion : Unilateral flywheel hamstring training improved knee-flexor eccentric peak power during unilateral flywheel exercise but not flywheel concentric, isokinetic eccentric, or isometric (long-lever) knee-flexor strength.
Introduction: Improved health behaviours and help-seeking behaviour reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Compliance with the recommendations of lifestyle changes for the management of NCDs has been challenging, as patients find it difficult to change and sustain lifestyle behaviours for a long period of time. Studies have reported that cocreated interventions are promising in addressing negative health behaviours and improving health outcomes in people with NCDs; however, no conclusive evidence exists. Therefore, this review aims to evaluate cocreators’ experiences and the effectiveness of cocreated interventions in improving the health behaviours of individuals with NCDs. Methods and analysis: This review will follow the recommendations described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guideline and the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research statement for the synthesis of qualitative data. The following databases: Co-creation Database (https://zenodo.org/record/6773028%23.Y9h2sezP1pg), MEDLINE (via OVID), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (via EBSCO Host), EMBASE (via OVID), PsycINFO (via OVID), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and grey literature will be searched. The identified studies will be independently screened by two reviewers to determine their eligibility. The review will target to include studies that investigated the experiences of cocreators and/or the effectiveness of cocreated interventions on the health behaviour and/or health outcomes of adults with NCDs. Two independent reviewers will also appraise the quality of the included studies, as well as data extraction. A narrative synthesis will be used to summarise the findings. Thematic synthesis and meta-analysis will be conducted for the qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative findings will be integrated using the parallel result convergent synthesis. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval is not applicable because the review will only use data from the published studies. The findings will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. PROSPERO registration number CRD42023391746.
Santos da Silva, V, Nakamura, FY, Gantois, P, Nogueira Gouveia, JN, Peñ a, J, Beato, M, and Abade, E. Effects of upper-body and lower-body conditioning activities on postactivation performance enhancement during sprinting and jumping tasks in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2023-This study aimed to investigate the postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects of "specific" (half-back squat) and "nonspecific" (bench press) conditioning activities on sprinting and jumping performances in female soccer players. Fourteen players (mean 6 SD: age 5 22.3 6 4.0 years; body mass 5 60.2 6 7.8 kg; height 5 164.1 6 4.2 cm) competing at national level (first League) participated in this within-subject crossover study. The players performed a warm-up protocol including 3 sets of 3 repetitions of half-back-squat or bench press exercises at 90% 1RM or a warm-up protocol without lifting weights (i.e., control condition). Forty-meter shuttle sprints (20 + 20 m with change of direction [COD-180˚]), countermovement jump (CMJ), and horizontal jump (HJ) performances were recorded 6 minutes after the conditioning activities protocols or the control condition. Nonsignificant large positive effects were found for the HJ after the half-back-squat (ES 5 1.68; p. 0.05) and bench press (ES 5 1.68; p. 0.05) protocols. Although nonsignificant, HJ changes (D 5 0.07 m) were greater than the smallest worthwhile change (0.02 m) and standard error of measurement (0.03 m) after both conditioning activities. Moreover, no significant changes were found for sprint and CMJ performance after neither half-back-squat nor bench press protocols (p. 0.05). In conclusion, both specific and nonspecific conditioning activities using heavy loads (i.e., 90% 1RM) may be suitable to enhance individual HJ. Finally, both conditioning activities are potentially ineffective for increasing sprint and CMJ performance in the context of this study.
Aim This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods After translating the Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised into Japanese, we conducted an Internet‐based cross‐sectional study with 445 Japanese‐speaking women within 2 months of childbirth. Of these, 98 participated in the retest 1 month later. Data were analyzed using the COSMIN study design checklist for patient‐reported outcome measurement instruments. Content validity was evaluated through cognitive debriefing during the translation process into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to verify structural and cross‐cultural validities. For hypothesis testing, we tested correlations with existing measures for convergent and divergent validities, and for known‐group discriminant validity, we made comparisons between types of childbirth. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's α, and test–retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results For the Japanese‐Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised, the established three‐factor model fit poorly, whereas the four‐factor model fit better. Full metric invariance was observed in both the nulliparous and multiparous groups. Good convergent, divergent, and known‐group discriminant validities and test–retest reliability were established. Internal consistency observations were suboptimal; however for vaginal childbirth, the Cronbach's α of the total score was .71. Conclusions The Japanese‐Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised is a valid and reliable scale, with the exception of internal consistency that requires further investigation. If limited to vaginal childbirth, research, clinical applications, and international comparisons can be drawn.
In this perspective paper, we argue for incorporating personal narratives in positive psychology interventions for chronic pain. Narratives refer to the telling and retelling of events. Narratives detail accounts of events and provide rich, in-depth information on human interactions, relationships, and perspectives. As such, narratives have been used to understand people’s experiences with pain and pain coping mechanisms—as well as to facilitate therapeutic outcomes. Furthermore, narrative research has shown that narration can help restore and promote relief, calm, hope, self-awareness, and self-understanding in chronic pain sufferers. Positive psychology interventions have been successful in improving the lives of people living with chronic pain, but these psychology interventions do not typically incorporate personal narratives. Still, narrative, and positive psychology scholarship foci overlap, as both aim to enhance people’s quality of life, happiness, and well-being, and to promote the understanding of psychosocial strengths and resources. In this article, we provide a rationale for incorporating personal narratives as an agentic form of positive psychology intervention. To that aim, we outline areas of convergence between positive psychology and narrative research and show how combining positive psychology exercises and narration can have additive benefits for pain sufferers. We also show how integrating narration in positive psychology intervention research can have advantages for healthcare research and policy.
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is common in children with obesity and is associated with long-term morbidity. Understanding risk factors that predispose to OSAHS in children with obesity may help improve targeted screening with sleep studies and is likely to lead to early detection and intervention. The aim of this multicentre retrospective case-cohort study was to assess how age, sex, BMI, and adenotonsillar hypertrophy presence correlate with OSAHS diagnosis in children with obesity.1–3 Methods This was a retrospective review of medical notes of children with obesity, as defined by WHO (BMI-z-score >3 for children 0–5 yo, BMI-z-score >2 for children >5 yo) referred to three regional hospitals for sleep study between January 2020 and June 2023. Children with significant co-morbidities such as trisomy 21 or neuro-disability were excluded. Results 46 children (16 female: 30 male) with median age (range) of 9 years (2–16) and median BMI-z-score of 3.34 (2.12–7.67) were included in the analysis. 18 had adenotonsillar enlargement. 12 had history of adenotonsillectomy. Mean (standard deviation) Obstructive Apnoea Hypopnoea Index (OAHI) was 3.198 events/hr (3.918). 19 children had normal OAHI, 16 had mild OSAHS and 11 had moderate to severe OSAHS. Diagnosis of OSAHS was independent of age. Boys had significantly higher mean OAHI than girls (4.073 Vs 1.556 respectively, p=0.009). BMI-z-score moderately correlated with OAHI, (rho=0.362, p=0.040). There was no difference in mean BMI-z-score between normal, mild, and moderate-severe OSAHS groups (p=0.116). OSAHS was more common in children with adenotonsillar enlargement (Odds Ratio=10.5, 95% CI of 2.15–51.281, p=0.002) Discussion Male sex, adenotonsillar enlargement, and higher BMI-z-score are associated with OSA diagnosis in children with obesity. References • Bachrach K, et al. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2022; 131 :520–6. • Kohler M, et al. J Clin Sleep Med 2008; 04 :129–36. • Supriyatno B, et al. Paediatr Respir Rev 2010; 11 :S107
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.