Changes in ocean heat content (OHC), salinity, and stratification provide critical indicators for changes in Earth's energy and water cycles. These cycles have been profoundly altered due to the emission of greenhouse gasses and other anthropogenic substances by human activities, driving pervasive changes in Earth's climate system. In 2022, the world's oceans, as given by OHC, were again the hottest in the historical record and exceeded the previous 2021 record maximum. According to IAP/CAS data, the 0-2000 m OHC in 2022 exceeded that of 2021 by 10.9 ± 8.3 ZJ (1 Zetta Joules = 10 21 Joules); and according to NCEI/NOAA data, by 9.1 ± 8.7 ZJ. Among seven regions, four basins (the North Pacific, North Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, and southern oceans) recorded their highest OHC since the 1950s. The salinity-contrast index, a quantification of the "salty gets saltier-fresh gets fresher" pattern, also reached its highest level on record in 2022, implying continued amplification of the global hydrological cycle. Regional OHC and salinity changes in 2022 were dominated by a strong La Niña event. Global upper-ocean stratification continued its increasing trend and was among the top seven in 2022.
The present research was conducted to investigate the effect of sill geometry and sill width on the discharge coefficient and hydraulic jump characteristics. For this purpose, sills with semi-cylindrical, cylindrical, pyramidal, and rectangular cube geometries with widths of 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.2 m were installed under a sluice gate. Results showed that increasing the sill width increased the sluice gate discharge coefficient compared to the no-sill mode. The results of placing a sill with different geometric shapes under a sluice gate indicate that using a semi-cylindrical sill increases the discharge coefficient. The ranked order of other sills, from the largest to smallest discharge coefficient , is: cylindrical, pyramidal, and rectangular cubic sills, respectively. The results show that the use of a sill increases the energy dissipation. Examining sills of different widths indicates that with increasing width, the increase in velocity and consequent decrease in the depth of the hydraulic jump causes an increase in energy loss. When employing sills of maximum width (b = 0.20 m) for pyramidal, semi-cylindrical, cylindrical, and rectangular shapes, the energy loss increased by 125, 119, 116, and 125% in section A, respectively. The semi-cylindrical sill is most effective in increasing the discharge coefficient, while the pyramidal sill is most effective for increasing energy dissipation.
Human‐centered, active‐learning approaches can help students develop core competencies in biology and other STEM fields, including the ability to conduct research, use quantitative reasoning, communicate across disciplinary boundaries, and connect science education to pressing social and environmental challenges. Promising approaches for incorporating active learning into biology courses include the use of course‐based research, community engagement, and international experiences. Disruption to higher education due to the COVID‐19 pandemic made each of these approaches more challenging or impossible to execute. Here, we describe a scalable course‐based undergraduate research experience (CURE) for an animal behavior course that integrates research and community engagement in a remote international experience. Students in courses at two U.S. universities worked with community partners to analyze the behavior of African goats grazing near informal settlements in Western Cape, South Africa. Partners established a relationship with goat herders, and then created 2‐min videos of individual goats that differed in criteria (goat sex and time of day) specified by students. Students worked in small groups to choose dependent variables, and then compared goat behavior across criteria using a factorial design. In postcourse surveys, students from both universities indicated overall enthusiasm for the experience. In general, students indicated that the laboratory provided them with “somewhat more” of a research‐based experience compared with biology laboratories they had taken of similar length, and “somewhat more” to “much more” of a community‐engagement and international experience. Educational benefits were complemented by the fact that international educational partners facing economic hardship due to the pandemic received payment for services. Future iterations of the CURE can focus on goat behavior differences across ecological conditions to help herders increase production in the face of continued environmental and social challenges. More generally, applying the structure of this CURE could facilitate mutually beneficial collaborations with residents of under‐resourced areas around the world. Course‐based research, community engagement, and international experiences can enhance undergraduate biology education, but each were made more challenging due to the COVID‐19 pandemic. Here, we describe a scalable course‐based undergraduate research experience focusing on African goat behavior that integrates research and community engagement in a remote international experience. Educational benefits for students were complemented by the fact that international educational partners facing economic hardship due to the pandemic could receive payment for services.
This study conceptually replicated Huensch and Tracy-Ventura’s (2017) analysis of the relationship between L1 and L2 utterance fluency with adult L1-English learners of Spanish. Data from 88 participants were analyzed to explore the proportion of the variance in L2 fluency measures that can be attributed to the corresponding L1 measures, and the relative weights of L1 fluency and L2 proficiency as predictors of L2 fluency. This study applied the same fluency and proficiency constructs and operationalizations as the original study, but differed in task type and learners’ L2 proficiency. Results were most similar for speed and repair frequency, and for silent pause duration. Findings concerning silent and filled pause frequency differed. Combined, the studies show that some L1-L2 fluency relationships are relatively stable across proficiency levels, task type, and learning context.
Urban gardens and farms typically use compost as a source of nutrients, often at levels that exceed crop nutrient demands. Although land dedicated to agriculture is a small fraction of urban land use, high input rates coupled with low nutrient use efficiencies suggest that export of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from this land could be potentially important contributors to urban nutrient budgets. We used the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) Nutrient Delivery Ratio model to examine the potential impact of garden density, compost input rates, and nutrient retention efficiency on N and P export from stormwater runoff for a 737-ha urban residential area in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Although gardens and farms accounted for 0.1-0.5% of land area in our scenarios, compost inputs accounted for as much as 33% of N inputs and 85% of P inputs to the urban landscape. The contribution of gardens to urban nutrient export through stormwater runoff is highly dependent on modeled maximum retention efficiency values. If retention efficiency is high, gardens with low compost inputs are similar to other vegetated land uses in contributions to nutrient export, but gardens become significant contributors to watershed P export if compost inputs are high, or if retention efficiency drops to 75% or lower. These results underscore mass-balance constraints inherent in urban nutrient recycling and highlight the importance of understanding the long-term fate of excess nutrients applied to urban landscapes.
The fourth essential theme from the research study, serving greater good, is working ethically for the benefit of all concerned with a high level of awareness of oneself and the environment in which one lives. The theme describes the impact of leaders’ awakened sense of co-responsibility and ethic of universal stewardship in their journey towards wholeness. The ethic of co-responsibility is rooted in a culture of relational trust and mutuality. In their quest for wholeness, the leaders sought circles of relational trust to discover their identity and integrity, cultivating authentic dialogue and personal presence. Creating networks of responsibility and transformation, these leaders influenced the wider community and became catalysts for change. A broader view of life and a profound spiritual crisis experience helped these leaders empathize with others’ suffering and pain. Expanding the circle of compassion not only to human beings but also to animals and the whole nature, these leaders expressed concern and care for all sentient beings. Rooted deeply in the universal values of trust, respect, responsibility, compassion, and solidarity, the leaders nurtured and modeled an ethic of co-responsibility and universal stewardship, serving greater good in their quest for wholeness.
This book presented the key findings of the research on leadership wholeness as a model of spiritual intelligence. The focus was on the key aspects of wholeness: sensing crisis, embracing crisis, awakening hidden wholeness, and serving the greater good. These are the inner dimensions of the leadership journey's existential, learning, moral and spiritual aspects, along with the outer dimensions of personal, organizational, social, global, and environmental wholeness. This frame work provides insights and wisdom as to how to bring the whole self to the workplace seeking meaning and fulfillment. This work has several implications for scholars, leaders, and practitioners interested in better understating leadership wholeness from the perspective of spiritual intelligence.
The third essential theme, awakening hidden wholeness, describes these leaders’ profound inner transformation and self-discovery journey. The five dimensions of the awakening of the hidden wholeness are: cultivating spiritual practice, inner silence, inner transformation, moving towards the light, and discovering hidden harmony. The leaders experienced their journey towards wholeness as a gradual unfolding of spiritual consciousness as the ultimate dimension of their Being. The practice of solitude and silence through meditation and mindfulness practice helped them penetrate through the superficial ego presentations and illusions at the surface of personality and unfold deeper dimensions of Being. The capacity for reflective awareness allowed them to practice mind-full living. The power of inner silence and presence in a world of turbulence and turmoil enabled them to penetrate through the illusions of life. The hidden wholeness of each leader manifested through existential struggles and crises like a light coming through the broken surface. The spiritual leaders knew that wholeness is not perfection but a journey towards greater harmony in life while embracing their shadows. They experienced a profound and iterative process of inner transformation that helped them move closer to a unified field of enlightened consciousness and leadership.
This chapter presents a crucial part of leaders’ journey towards wholeness: their deep awareness of the various levels of crises happening in their life, in their social contexts, and in the life of the world. The word “crisis” does not connote here impending catastrophe; instead, it is accepted as a necessary turning point, a crucial moment when the development moves one way or another, marshaling the resources for growth, recovery, and more profound transformation. Thus, the crisis becomes a crucible for learning and change. The experience of existential spiritual crises can be categorized into two major types: internal crisis and external crisis. The various aspects of internal crisis can be described as identity crisis, value crisis, meaning crisis, and the various aspects of external crisis can be categorized into social crisis and ecological crisis. These crises provoked questions of meaning, trust, and purpose at the internal level and questions of justice, freedom, and responsibility at the external level. The internal crises manifested as identity crisis, value crisis, and meaning crisis are intrinsically connected. The leaders also identified the experience of spiritual crisis manifested externally as social crisis and ecological crisis. These external crises also reinforce the internal crisis as well.
The leaders in the study recognized that embracing crisis in their journey towards wholeness is of paramount importance. Leaders manifested deepest level of self-acceptance to learn from their failures and weaknesses and turn them into the alchemy of inner transformation. They understood that wholeness is not just success or strengths alone, but weakness and failures are part and parcel of the journey towards wholeness. They demonstrated the ability to hold the paradox of power and shadow in their journey towards greater wholeness. A profound shift in consciousness happened when they embraced their shadows, which broadened the base of their life and deepened the roots of understanding. Living a life of authenticity and integrity helped leaders embrace life fully and integrate who they are with what they do. These leaders showed the remarkable resilience of spirit in embracing the whole of their life with its light and shadow, which resulted in the experience of more incredible vibrancy, harmony, and integration.
The four essential themes that emerged from this research are: sensing crisis, embracing crisis, awakening hidden wholeness, and serving the greater good. Analysis of the four themes that emerged from the interviews form the basis for this model of spiritual intelligence. First, this model describes the inner dynamics of leaders’ journeys towards wholeness (see Fig. 2.1). The four quadrants of sensing, embracing, awakening, and serving indicate an intense path of progressive self-realization and awakening of higher consciousness leading to greater wholeness of life. The wholeness model of spiritual intelligence conceptualized focuses on both the inner and the outer dynamics of the quest for wholeness for leaders. The outer dynamics of the quest for wholeness is depicted in Fig. 2.2. From the awakening of the hidden wholeness, a spirit of service with a sense of co-responsibility manifested at five levels of being: personal trust, organizational responsibility, social justice, global compassion, and environmental stewardship as indicated in the model above. The trajectory of the journey is non-linear, after the pattern of an infinity loop and transformational process of learning and growth that results in adaptive intelligence enable leaders to become resilient to survive and thrive in times of uncertainty.
Sex is an important biological variable which can influence the prevalence, clinical presentation, and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known regarding possible sex differences in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We analyzed data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set (NACC database is funded by NIH U01‐AG016976). Annual visits occurred across 39 past/present Alzheimer’s Disease Research Centers (ADRC) between September 2005 and September 2021. We included non‐demented participants at baseline who were clinically diagnosed with DLB by ADRC staff at a subsequent visit. The presence of motor symptoms, visual hallucinations, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), cognitive fluctuations, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed through clinical exam and informant responses 1–2 years prior to DLB diagnosis. We identified 160 participants with DLB (82.5% male). Male and female groups differed in age and ethnicity (Table 1).There were no differences in education, cognition, functional status, severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms, or number of visits prior to phenoconversion to DLB. RBD was more prevalent in men (58‐62% vs. 25–36% women). Cognitive fluctuations were also more common among men (33‐40% vs. 6–18% women). Men reported a higher prevalence of visual hallucinations 2‐years prior to dementia diagnosis (23% vs. 6% women), but visual hallucinations were more prevalent in women than men at the first visit with dementia diagnosis (54% women vs. 43% men). Motor slowing and parkinsonian gait were prevalent among both groups; however, tremor and rigidity were more common in men, while postural instability and falls were more frequent in women. Apathy was common in both groups; however, anxiety was more frequent in men, and women had a higher prevalence of depression. (Table 2). The groups did not differ in rates of 1 vs. 2+ core clinical features 1‐year prior to diagnosis (Table 3). This descriptive analysis appears to indicate there are sex differences in the prodromal presentation of DLB. Men may present with established core features earlier than women. Limitations include lack of pathological confirmation and the number of female and ethno‐racially diverse participants. Understanding differences in clinical presentations may inform diagnostic criteria and therefore improve clinical sensitivity.
Institutional investors control almost 60% of all assets under management worldwide and encompass a wide variety of organizations. Despite this reach, however, institutional investors have not received the normative scrutiny they merit beyond general discussions around their legally grounded fiduciary obligations to their beneficiaries. This paper offers a discussion of institutional investor ethical obligations in light of their specific attributes. We propose that the different characteristics of institutional investors and the diverse roles they play in the marketplace inform the scope of their activities, and, in turn, the different ways in which their basic ethical obligations can be fulfilled.
This accessible and authoritative introduction tells the American story of religious freedom from its colonial beginnings to the latest Supreme Court cases. The authors analyze closely the formation of the First Amendment religion clauses and describe the unique and enduring principles of the American experiment in religious freedom – liberty of conscience, free exercise of religion, religious equality, religious pluralism, separation of church and state, and no establishment of religion. Successive chapters map all of the 240+ Supreme Court cases on religious freedom - concerning the free exercise of religion; the roles of government and religion in education; the place of religion in public life; and the interaction of religious organizations and the state. The concluding reflections argue that protecting religious freedom is critical for democratic order and constitutional rule of law. Clear, comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and balanced, this classic volume is an ideal classroom text and armchair paperback. It includes a table summarizing every Supreme Court case on religious freedom from 1815 to 2021. This new 5 th edition addresses fully the new hot button issues and cases on religious freedom and sexual liberty; religious worship in the time of COVID; freedom of conscience and exemption claims with or without third party harms; state aid to religion; religious monuments and ceremonies in public life; and the rights of religious groups. The addition of distinguished Catholic religious freedom scholar Richard W. Garnett to this new edition adds further nuance and insider knowledge to the story.
Piles are walls that are installed underneath hydraulic structures to control seepage flow, uplift pressure, and exit hydraulic gradient. In this study, the effect of the ratio of width of the apron to the foundation depth (B/D), the ratio of the width of the apron to the downstream pile depth (B/d2), and the ratio of the upstream and downstream pile depths (d1/d2) on seepage flow characteristics is numerically investigated using of the finite element method, FEM. From the numerical simulations, design charts and explicit formulas for estimating seepage flow characteristics, such as the percentage residual uplift pressure at key points, the discharge flow factor, and the exit hydraulic gradient factor underneath aprons with end double-piles for both states of equal and un-equal depths are developed. The simulations are validated with existing analytical solutions for simple cases. To assess the accuracy of the presented formulas: statistical metrics, i.e. determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and present relative error (RE%) are used. The statistical metrics are satisfactory and their values quantify the reliability of the proposed formulas. The proposed explicit formulas with RE% less than about 5% by design engineers that have ease of use, can be used instead of implicit analytical equations that have involving elliptic integrals. Key words: Pile; Discharge flow; Uplift pressure; Exit hydraulic gradient; Finite element. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0002597//The paper can may be cited before publication as: [Authors]. "[Article title]." [Journal Name]. [DOI].
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