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ABSTRACT: Abstract Understanding the influence of surface properties (roughness, grooves, discrete textures/dimples) on the performance of hydrodynamically lubricated contacts has been the aim of numerous studies. A variety of different numerical models have been employed by many researchers in order to find optimal texturing parameters (shape, size, distribution) for best performance enhancement in terms of load carrying capacity, film thickness, friction and wear. However, the large number of different modeling techniques and complexity in the patterns make finding the optimum texture a challenging task and have led to contrary conclusions. This article outlines the research effort on surface texturing worldwide, reviews the key findings and, in particular, provides a comparative summary of different modeling techniques for fluid flow, cavitation and micro-hydrodynamic effects.
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ABSTRACT: This paper applies a taxonomy based on the Perceptual Cycle Model (PCM) to analyse aeronautical critical decision making (ACDM) data. The PCM provides a process-oriented explanation of decision making, demonstrating how the combination of internally held mental schemata and externally available environmental information interact to produce decisions and actions. However, the PCM only provides a high level of description; previous research has developed a taxonomy based on the high level categories of schema, action and world, in order to increase the explanatory power of the PCM. The taxonomy was applied to analyse twenty ACDM interviews. Sociometric status (a metric of social network analysis) was computed for each concept to establish their relative importance when dealing with a critical incident. It is demonstrated that world-based concepts are more important than schema-based concepts for ACDM. However, limitations with the methodology may have influenced the results and these are discussed, along with potential methodological developments to enhance data collection of this nature.
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ABSTRACT: The command room system has developed across a century of submarine operations and so reflects a high state of evolution, but that does not mean that the system cannot be improved upon. Technological advances have resulted in the retrospective fitting of upgrades which may not have maximized the potential improvements offered. Future challenges for command teams in almost every domain include increasing amounts of data coupled with more automated systems and reduced manning. To optimise functionality new physical layouts, team structures, allocation of system functions, communication media, interfaces, and work design will be required. The aim of the ComTET (Command Team Experimental Test-Bed) project is to examine how a submarine command team currently functions, with specific regard to how information flows around the socio-technical system. This information shall be used to evaluate limitations in the current system, promote ideas concerning where reduced crewing might be possible and highlight how extra data might best be integrated into the system. Phase 1 of ComTET involved the creation of a submarine command room with high physical and task fidelity. The ComTET team has designed and built a submarine command room simulator that is a representation of the currently operational ASTUTE submarine. The simulator is comprised of 10 workstations each with two stacked monitors, various input devices and a headset linked to a multi-channel communications network. The simulation engine is a custom build of Dangerous Waters software, a naval warfare simulation game. The software features many operator-controllable units from on board a submarine, allowing the completion of individual submariner command team tasks simultaneously to fulfil global (team) mission objectives. The ComTET laboratory has a range of devices for recording the personal communications of each operator, in addition to video recordings of each operator and ambient voice/video recordings. This will facilitate the construction of social, task and information networks to examine the command room from a socio-technical perspective. The laboratory is also equipped with physiological recording devices so that the workload of operatives can be examined using psycho-physiological approaches alongside commonly used standardised measures of workload, situation awareness and cognitive function. The data collected shall be based around three scenarios which capture the primary operations routinely completed by submariners in high and low work load conditions.
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