University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Background In patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD), increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis has been found. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-miR-US33-5p was significantly increased in the plasma of patients with AAD. However, the roles of miR-US33-5p in human aortic VSMC (HA-VSMC) apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Methods In the current study, cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay, and differentially expressed genes by RNA sequencing. Luciferase reporter assay was used for binding analysis between miR-US33-5p and endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), and EPAS1 and amino acid transporter heavy chain, member 2 (SLC3A2). The enrichment degree of SLC3A2 promoter DNA was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting were performed for measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, respectively. Results It was found that HCMV infection inhibited proliferation but promoted HA-VSMC apoptosis by upregulating HCMV-miR-US33-5p. Transfection of HCMV-miR-US33-5p mimics the significant effect on several signaling pathways including integrin signaling as shown in the RNA sequencing data. Western blotting analysis confirmed that HCMV-miR-US33-5p mimics suppression of the activity of key factors of the integrin signal pathway including FAK, AKT, CAS, and Rac. Mechanistic study showed that HCMV-miR-US33-5p bound to the 3′-untranslated region of EPAS1 to suppress its expression, leading to suppression of SLC3A2 expression, which ultimately promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. This was confirmed by the findings that silencing EPAS1 significantly reduced the SLC3A2 expression and inhibited proliferation and key factors of integrin signal pathway. Conclusions HCMV-miR-US33-5p suppressed proliferation, key factors of integrin signal pathway, and EPAS1/SLC3A2 expression, but promoted HA-VSMC apoptosis. These findings highlighted the importance of HCMV-miR-US33-5p/EPAS1/SCL3A2 signaling and may provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for AAD.
In recent years, the multi-dimensional, multi-faceted, and multi-level applications of augmented reality/mixed reality have attracted more and more attention from researchers in the field of smart manufacturing. However, the disadvantage is that AR interaction cues supporting user cognition have not been fully analyzed and summarized in manual assembly, training and repair. This article reviews the current research status, projects and technical characteristics of manual operation instructions in the past 30 years, and extensively discusses these latest works. It is worth mentioning that this article provides comprehensive academic information for the development of AR-based assembly instructions, thereby providing unique insights for researchers in related fields. In short, it will help researchers designing AR instructions.
Biological soft tissues manipulation, including conventional (mechanical) and nonconventional (laser, waterjet and ultrasonic) processes, is critically required in most surgical innervations. However, the soft tissues, with their nature of anisotropic and viscoelastic mechanical properties, and high biological and heat sensitivities, are difficult to manipulated. Moreover, the mechanical and thermal induced damage on the surface and surrounding tissue during the surgery can impair the proliferative phase of healing. Thus, understanding the manipulation mechanism and the resulted surface damage is of importance to the community. In recent years, more and more scholars carried out researches on soft biological tissue cutting in order to improve the cutting performance of surgical instruments and reduce the surgery induced tissue damage. However, there is a lack of compressive review that focused on the recent advances in soft biological tissue manipulating technologies. Hence, this review paper attempts to provide an informative literature survey of the state-of-the-art of soft tissue manipulation processes in surgery. This is achieved by exploring and recollecting the different soft tissue manipulation techniques currently used, including mechanical, laser, waterjet and ultrasonic cutting and advanced anastomosis and reconstruction processes, with highlighting their governing removal mechanisms as well as the surface and subsurface damages.
In order to solve the problem of the high risks and low efficiency caused by the inconsistency of the day-ahead and real-time prices in two-settlement electricity market, virtual bidding is used to arbitrage on the difference between such two market prices that are unknown to virtual bidders to promote the price convergence. The problem of optimal bidding for virtual bidders from the spatio-temporal dimensions is addressed in this paper. The model takes the budget constraints of virtual bidders into account, as well as considers decrement and increment bids of virtual bidding to maximize the cumulative payoff of virtual bidders, which is formulated as a Markov Decision Process problem. Meanwhile, the conditional value-at-risk is used to quantify and hedge the risks faced by virtual bidders. A deep reinforcement learning algorithm is used to achieve an effective solution to the optimal bidding strategy problem through continuous interaction with a simulated building environment to obtain feedback and update the parameters of the neural network without referring to any prior model knowledge. The PJM data from 2016 to 2018 is used to calculate the cumulative profits and Sharpe ratio of virtual bidders. Compared with greedy algorithm and dynamic programming, the deep reinforcement learning algorithm is verified the effectiveness and superiority in this paper.
Background The aim of the study was to investigate whether MwoA and MwA are different manifestations of a single disease, distinct clinical entities, or located at two poles of a spectrum. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 5438 patients from 10 hospitals in China were included: 4651 were diagnosed with migraine without aura (MwoA) and 787 with migraine with aura (MwA). We used a validated standardized electronic survey to collect multidimensional data on headache characteristics and evaluated the similarities and differences between migraine subtypes. To distinguish migraine subtypes, we employed correlational analysis, factor analysis of mixed data (FAMD), and decision tree analysis. Results Compared to MwA, MwoA had more severe headaches, predominantly affected females, were more easily produced by external factors, and were more likely to have accompanying symptoms and premonitory neck stiffness. Patients with MwA are heterogeneous, according to correlation analysis; FAMD divided the subjects into three clear clusters. The majority of the differences between MwoA and MwA were likewise seen when typical aura with migraine headache (AWM) and typical aura with non-migraine headache (AWNM) were compared. Furthermore, decision trees analysis revealed that the chaotic MwA data reduced the decision tree’s accuracy in distinguishing MwoA from MwA, which was significantly increased by splitting MwA into AWM and AWNM. Conclusions The clinical phenomics of headache phenotype varies gradually from MwoA to AWM and AWNM, and AWM is a mid-state between MwoA and AWNM. We tend to regard migraine as a spectrum disorder, and speculate that different migraine subtypes have different “predominant regions” that generate attacks.
Experiments were conducted to investigate the NOx reduction performance by ammonia injection into a high-temperature reducing atmosphere and the integrated effects of temperature and oxygen concentration were discussed in detail. Ammonia oxidation was trivial at lower temperatures and the presence of oxygen facilitated the replenishment of OH radicals, enhancing the NOx reduction efficiency. The replenishment of OH radicals and ammonia oxidation were simultaneously promoted at higher temperatures. Therefore, trace amount of oxygen was preferred for higher temperatures to suppress the NOx formation from ammonia oxidation. A maximum NOx reduction efficiency of over 95 % was achieved at 1573 K and 0.0 vol% O2 with normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1.5 and residence time of 0.71 s. Furthermore, rate-of-production analysis was performed to provide insights into NH3/NO reaction pathways in the absence of oxygen. Results showed that the NOx reduction process was initiated by thermal decomposition of NH3 and CO2 acted the role of O2 when oxygen is absent, which could provide O atoms to react with H for the replenishment of OH radicals. The relatively high activation energy of NH3 decomposition accounted for the shift of the temperature window towards higher temperatures in the absence of oxygen.
Light scattering method is the most commonly used method for on-line measurement of ultralow particulate matter mass concentration. However, when the particle characteristics change, the effectiveness of the empirical relationship decreases, which would lead to a sizeable deviation. To accurately measure the mass concentration of particulate matter in real-time, a coupling measurement idea of light scattering and beta-ray attenuation is proposed. The beta-ray attenuation is little affected by particle properties and accurately reflects the average PM mass concentration in the measured period. The single calibration method (M1), periodic calibration method (M2), average calibration method (M3), and asymmetric factor calibration method (M4) are formed based on the coupling idea. The results of all methods are perfect when the particle size is unchanged. However, when the particle sizes fluctuate frequently, the results of M1, M2, and M3 deviate seriously from the actual value, and the applicable working conditions have limitations. The results of M4 are in good agreement with the actual value, and the effectiveness is not limited by the particle size. Finally, the prototype based on experimental exploration was developed and had been continuously operated for more than 528 h at a 1000 MW unit of a coal-fired power plant.
Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers are used in many applications such as military facilities, aerospace devices and superconductive systems. A major problem in improving its energy conversion efficiency is how to achieve a better impedance matching. In this study, a pulse tube cryocooler is investigated based on the impedance analyses. A group of impedance maps is proposed to analyze the energy conversion performance of the compressor. The velocity map, the efficiency map, the acoustic power map and the phase angle map are provided under the total equivalent impedance. These maps offer a visualized guidance of the maximum performance a compressor could reach and in which direction to optimize. Experiments on a high capacity pulse tube cryocooler are conducted to verify the theoretical analyses. The results show that it is of great help in using the proposed maps to analyze and improve the energy conversion performance of the cryocooler. A cooling capacity of [email protected] is finally achieved. The study clearly reveals the influence of the impedance on the energy conversion efficiency and it is quite useful in improving the performance of the pulse tube cryocooler.
The difficulty in balancing energy supply and demand is increasing due to the growth of diversified and flexible building energy resources, particularly the rapid development of intermittent renewable energy being added into the power grid. The accuracy of building energy consumption prediction is of top priority for the electricity market management to ensure grid safety and reduce financial risks. The accuracy and speed of load prediction are fundamental prerequisites for different objectives such as long-term planning and short-term optimization of energy systems in buildings and the power grid. The past few decades have seen the impressive development of time series load forecasting models focusing on different domains and objectives. This paper presents an in-depth review and discussion of building energy prediction models. Three widely used prediction approaches, namely, building physical energy models (i.e., white box), data-driven models (i.e., black box), and hybrid models (i.e., grey box), were classified and introduced. The principles, advantages, limitations, and practical applications of each model were investigated. Based on this review, the research priorities and future directions in the domain of building energy prediction are highlighted. The conclusions drawn in this review could guide the future development of building energy prediction, and therefore facilitate the energy management and efficiency of buildings.
Let G be a graph on n vertices with adjacency matrix A(G) and let e be the all-one vector. Then the walk-matrix of G is defined as W(G)=[e,A(G)e,A2(G)e,…,An−1(G)e]. We call G controllable if W(G) is non-singular and almost controllable if the rank of W(G) is n−1. In Wang (2017) [11], the author gave a simple arithmetic criterion for a family of controllable graphs to be determined by their generalized spectra. However, the method fails for non-controllable graphs. In this paper, we give a new simple criterion for an almost controllable graph to be determined by its generalized spectrum, which improves upon the existing results.
Stability of molten pool temperature directly affects the dimensional accuracy, metallurgical defects, solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of formed parts manufactured by laser metal deposition technology. Therefore, the optimization of the macroscopic morphology and microstructure of the formed parts through the stable control of the molten pool temperature has been intensively studied. In this study, three models, based on the back propagation neural network (BPNN), random forest (RF) algorithms and response surface methodology (RSM) approach, respectively, were used to establish prediction relationships between the deposition input parameters and processing status parameters, geometric morphology and mechanical property parameters. Then, the processing temperature and molten pool characteristics of thirty groups of 316L stainless steel single-track cladding layers were analyzed. The prediction results show that the average prediction error (APE) of the prediction of molten pool temperature, track width, track height and micro-hardness of the deposited layer based on BPNN model are 0.5%, 1.3%, 2.9% and 0.1%, respectively, which are better than the prediction results of RF and RSM models. Then, BPNN model was further used to predict the molten pool temperature and processing quality of the deposited layer under the combination of five new process parameters groups. Objective of this study was to lay the foundation for the subsequent design of the molten pool temperature control system to improve the morphology accuracy and mechanical properties of formed parts.
Life cycle engineering of new products and technologies must consider not just the single product and product life cycle, but also the foreseeable growth in market volume that results from increases in population and affluence, in order to allow the associated total environmental impact to be taken into account during the product development. The emphasis should not only be on eco-efficiency but also in eco-effectiveness. In the context, eco-effectiveness provides the target (e.g., 2050 targets), while ecoefficiency provides a progressive pathway to get there. The main aim of this special issue is to create a platform for researchers around the world in the area of Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainable Manufacturing for achieving net-zero targets and environmental sustainability.
Given two graphs G,H and a positive integer k, the Gallai-Ramsey number grk(G:H) is the minimum integer N such that for all n≥N, every exact k-edge-coloring of Kn contains either a rainbow copy of G or a monochromatic copy of H. A fan Fq is obtained from a matching of size q by adding a vertex adjacent to all vertices in the matching; while a wheel graph Ws is obtained from a cycle of size s−1 by adding a vertex adjacent to all vertices on the cycle. In this paper, we determine either the exact values or some bounds for the Gallai-Ramsey numbers grk(P5:H)(k≥3) where H is either a fan or a wheel graph.
In view of the fact that most invisibility devices focus on linear polarization cloaking and that the characteristics of mid-infrared cloaking are rarely studied, we propose a cross-circularly polarized invisibility carpet cloaking device in the mid-infrared band. Based on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase principle, the unit cells with the cross-circular polarization gradient phase were carefully designed and constructed into a metasurface. In order to achieve tunable cross-circular polarization carpet cloaks, a phase change material is introduced into the design of the unit structure. When the phase change material is in amorphous and crystalline states, the proposed metasurface unit cells can achieve high-efficiency cross-polarization conversion, and reflection intensity can be tuned. According to the phase compensation principle of carpet cloaking, we construct a metasurface cloaking device with a phase gradient using the designed unit structure. From the near- and far-field distributions, the cross-circular polarization cloaking property is confirmed in the broadband wavelength range of 9.3–11.4 µm. The proposed cloaking device can effectively resist detection of cross-circular polarization.
For graphs G and H, denote by rk+1(G;H) the minimum N such that any edge-coloring of KN by k+1 colors contains either a monochromatic G in the first k colors or a monochromatic H in the last color. As usual, we write r2(G;H) as r(G,H). We show that if integers s≥t≥m≥1, then rk+1(Kt,s;Km,n)≤n+(1+o(1))(s−t+1)1/tkmn1−1/t as n→∞. The upper bound is shown to be sharp up to the asymptotical sub-linear term for rk+1(K2,s;K1,n), rk+1(K3,3;K1,n), r(K2,s,K2,n) and r(K3,3,Km,n) for m≤3.
We demonstrate a simple and compact spectral broadening system, which is based on a single-stage gas-filled hollow core fiber (HCF). In our experiment, the pulse duration of pulses from an ytterbium doped amplifier is compressed from 170 fs down to 7.7 fs by using a 3-m-long gas-filled HCF with a core diameter of 500 μm. The pulse energy before and after HCF is 2 mJ and 0.92 mJ respectively, corresponding to a transmission efficiency of 46%, resulting in peak power of near 0.1 TW. In addition, the energy fluctuation of the output pulse is about 0.5%(RMS) measured in one hour. Such ultrafast light source can provide high stable few-cycle near-infrared driving pulses for strong field physics experiments.
An AC Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (AC SCUC) for multi-area interconnected power systems is an extension of the unit commitment and AC dynamic optimal power flow, which is nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear programming. In this paper, the alternating directions method of multipliers combined with the regularized prime-dual interior point method, which is denoted by ADMM-R-PDIPM, is proposed to solve this problem in a distributed way to achieve joint dispatching privacy protection in multi-area interconnected power systems. The alternating directions method of multipliers decomposes the AC SCUC problem into unit commitment and AC dynamic optimal power flow subproblems, it can be solved distributed. In addition, an improved approach reduces the iterative numbers and the running time to overcome the defects of inner and outer algorithms. Then case studies on the IEEE 38 and 118 systems are presented. The results show that the ADMM-R-PDIPM approach can effectively realize the distributed optimal scheduling of AC SCUC.
In order to better understand the nitrogen transformation in Maillard reaction during the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and glucose, analysis of Maillard reaction-related nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs) and the protein model of SS is proposed. The composition, content, and structure of NCCs, especially protein in SS, are critical for the investigation of nitrogen transformation in Maillard reaction. The distribution and relative content of Maillard reaction-related functional groups, NCCs, and amino acids in SS were studied. Genomes by DNA sequencing are further applied in building a database search for metaproteomic studies, which provide valuable information and insight into the origin of SS protein, such as the taxonomic composition of the underlying microbial community, inferred protein functions, and their relationship with the transformation of NCCs. SS protein model was constructed by Alphafold2, and key factors determining the selection of SS protein model were revealed.
A cheap and eco-friendly precursor, guanidine carbonate, is adopted for synthesizing g-C3N4. GC600 obtained by annealing treatment of guanidine carbonate at 600 °C shows a worse Hg0 adsorption performance along with mercury capture efficiencies below 45% at temperatures of 60-160 °C. Physical mixing of WS2 and GC600 seems to be a facile and effective modifying route. The mercury adsorption capability and acidic gas resistance of GC600 are notably promoted by doping with 10 wt% WS2. Near full mercury capture is observed for 10WS2/GC600 at 100 °C, which is almost impervious to the acidic gas constitutes (NO and SO2).
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1,349 members
Jun Chen
  • Department of Thermal Energy and Power Engineering (Energy and Environmental Engineering)
Xiang Wang
  • Institute of Food Quality and Safety
Fuxing Gu
  • Department of Optical Information Engineering
Zuanming Jin
  • School of Optical-Electrial and Computer Engineering
Suyun Xu
  • School of Environment and Architecture
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