The daily podcast has become a relevant news product in the Spanish media ecosystem beyond radio stations. In this chapter, daily podcasts from legacy and digital native media without radio broadcasting are addressed. This format is analysed using three variables: subject, structure and language; to determine if this product represents a challenge for the creation of journalistic content. The results show that subjects vary greatly and that content tends to be self-published and informal. Daily podcasts approach to a ‘slow journalism’ style and open up opportunities to connect with new audiences and reinforce their brand. Regarding challenges for journalism, research anticipates implications for emotional perception.
Since the 2010s, the introduction of automation and robotization in newsrooms has led to a significant transformation in digital journalism. The so-called algorithmic journalism arises as a novel discipline that impacts different tasks and functions that previously required a journalist's intervention. Its use in the news outlets offers new opportunities for the collection, treatment, production or even distribution of content. Its reach is global and its impact acquires a transversal character. This chapter conducts a descriptive study of the implementation of artificial intelligence in journalism across three distinct media contexts: Spain, Portugal, and Brazil. Through a case study approach, the authors examine various successful initiatives that reflect the impact of these technologies on media and their role in redefining the boundaries of journalism.
We introduce the book's scope, based on the concept of the blurring boundaries of journalism. The chapters are presented following the structure of the book. The contributions offer an overview of the limits that define journalism—its actors, models and practices—in today's hybrid communication system. Their contributions are framed in the discussion of the principles of journalism, the strategies and models for sustainability in the digital environment, the relationship with old and new actors, the evolution of formats and narratives in digital journalism, the adaptation to mobile and social platforms for news use, and the challenge for journalism posed by artificial intelligence.
Innovations in digital storytelling techniques have spurred on the development of new journalistic and audience practices. The production processes of interactive and immersive journalistic narratives are highly technological and require specialist knowledge of both journalism and design, and require producers to consider how audience engagement and user activity both fit into their story. The resulting narratives redefine the boundaries of what is considered a journalistic production, often requiring users to act within the story, thereby challenging the existing author-user relationship. In this chapter we discuss how the boundaries of journalism are redefined or blurred during both the production and reception processes of interactive, immersive journalism.
The growth of so-called hyperlocal media has created new challenges for research, blurring some of the classic boundaries of local journalism and traditional media. In this chapter we try to understand the role hyperlocal media have in the local media ecosystem by focusing on two European countries: Spain and the Netherlands. We present the methodology applied for the study of hyperlocal media in both cases, adapted to their geographical, social and media context. We identify the main characteristics of hyperlocal media in both countries, observing their distribution in the territory, organizational and productive structures, news content and citizen participation. Finally, we propose some keys for the comparative study of hyperlocal media.
Smartphones play a significant role in the set of disruptive innovations that have emerged in recent years. The consumption of information from smartphones has become the common way of accessing news and the media is betting heavily on this sector. The popularization of social media has been key, which has caused a mutation in the type of journalistic content, increasingly accessible, ubiquitous, personalized, and identified with the user and/or with the environment. This chapter addresses the challenges of mobile journalism from the point of view of content production. The text has the aim of detecting the professionals technological skills and the state of implementation of mobile journalism in the current media context. It is analyzed how digital media integrate mobile technologies in their journalistic routines and it is offered a categorization of emerging formats and narratives in this context.
The public sphere has been going through information chaos, where traditional intermediaries such as the media have seen their primary function of ordering and organizing information transmission and acting as watchdogs of political activity disrupted. In this context, political journalism and its integral social function in democratic societies becomes crucial, operating as an interdependent yet unofficial political institution, undergoing constant development and transformation due to its close relationship with politics and social changes and intimately tied to the dynamics of how democratic regimes function. This chapter reviews the issues that determine the study of political journalism in the current context, also exploring the interrelation of political and journalistic actors in Portugal and Spain. Finally, the role of politicians and the media in risk communication is discussed based on the case of radon gas.
The third decade of the third millennium will probably go down in history, among many other things, for the consolidation of the hybrid media communication ecosystem. This concept refers to the combination of two or more media of different types. New media and new technologies are taking place in a context of profound transformations not only in the uses and consumption of information, but also in the very conception of media and journalism. This context of hybridization and metamorphosis has prompted old and new debates on the limits of journalism. At the same time, many peripheral actors have forcefully entered the field to occupy relevant positions in the shaping of the journalistic space. The dispute has gained momentum and will likely remain prominent for quite some time.
Background Barraquer-Simons syndrome (BSS) is a rare acquired form of lipodystrophy characterized by progressive loss of upper body subcutaneous fat, which affects face, upper limbs, and trunk. The pathogenesis of the disease is not entirely known and may involve autoimmune mechanisms. Aim This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the clinical, immunological, and metabolic features of a large cohort of BSS patients. Our primary objectives included the validation of existing diagnostic tools, the evaluation of novel diagnostic approaches, and the exploration of potential disease triggers or genetic predispositions. Subjects and Methods Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with BSS based on accepted criteria defined by international guidelines. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical tests, organ- and non-organ-specific autoantibodies, HLA status, and screening of the LMNB2 gene were performed. Results Patients were predominantly females (73%); fat loss occurred mostly during childhood (77%) at a median age of 8 years. Among various anthropometric measures, the ratio between the proportion of fat mass in upper limbs/lower limbs showed the best predictive value for diagnosis. 11.5% of patients had diabetes, 34.6% dyslipidemia, and 26.9% hepatic steatosis. 75% of children and 50% of adults had C3 hypocomplementemia; 76% of patients were positive for one or more autoantibodies. HLA-DRB1 11:03 had higher allelic frequencies compared to the general population. A single variant in the LMNB2 gene was found in one patient. Conclusions BSS has a childhood onset and is often associated with autoimmune diseases. Skinfold thickness measurements and fat assessment by DEXA are useful tools to identify the disease. C3 hypocomplementemia and the presence of autoantibodies may be used as additional diagnostic supportive criteria but prevalence of C3 hypocomplementemia may be lower than previously reported.
Introduction The interaction between smoking and asthma impairs lung function and increases airflow obstruction severity. The identification of smoking patterns in smokers with and without asthma is crucial to provide the best care strategies. The aims of this study are to estimate asthma frequency, describe asthma features, and characterize smoking in smokers attending smoking cessation units. Material and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study in five smoking cessation units with different geographical distribution to estimate asthma frequency in smokers, characterize asthma features in smokers, as well as smoking in asthmatic smokers. Results Asthma frequency among smokers was 18.6%. Asthmatic smokers presented high passive exposure, low smoking self-efficacy and will to quit smoking, as well as a high exacerbation frequency, severe symptoms, and frequent use of long-acting beta agonists, inhaled steroids, and short-acting beta agonists. Discussion Smokers with asthma constitute a high-risk group with worsened evolution of pulmonary involvement. All smokers should be regularly screened for asthma. Effective smoking cessation strategies should be proposed to smokers with asthma in order to reverse the harmful effects of smoking on the airway, together with a comprehensive and integral approach.
While considerable efforts have been made to develop new therapies, progress in the treatment of pancreatic cancer has so far fallen short of patients’ expectations. This is due in part to the lack of predictive in vitro models capable of accounting for the heterogeneity of this tumor and its low immunogenicity. To address this point, we have established and characterized a 3D spheroid model of pancreatic cancer composed of tumor cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and blood-derived monocytes. The fate of the latter has been followed from their recruitment into the tumor spheroid to their polarization into a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-like population, providing evidence for the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. This 3D model well reproduced the multiple roles of TAMs and their influence on drug sensitivity and cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that lipid-based nanosystems consisting of sphingomyelin and vitamin E could affect the phenotype of macrophages, causing a reduction of characteristic markers of TAMs. Overall, this optimized triple coculture model gives a valuable tool that could find useful application for a more comprehensive understanding of TAM plasticity as well as for more predictive drug screening. This could increase the relevance of preclinical studies and help identify effective treatments.
The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed marginal sea with a subtropical climate in southern Iran. One of the most productive coastal habitats in this region is the mangrove forests which support rich biodiversity and play an essential role in sustainable fisheries. Because of the fish's dependence on this ecosystem as a nursery habitat and its vulnerability to various natural and anthropogenic stresses and disturbances, it seems critical to identify and classify the fish species in this region and screen biodiversity. A segment (593 bp) of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used to identify the fish in the largest mangrove area of the Persian Gulf. In the present study, we created a comprehensive fish barcoding database for 53 species belonging to 39 genera, 32 families, and 17 orders. For six species, novel DNA barcodes to the global gene databases of GenBank and BOLD were introduced (Ilisha megaloptera, Pseudosynanceia melanostigma, Sillago sp., Hyporhamphus sindensis, Johnius sp., Strongylura sp.). Congeneric genetic distances were 46-fold higher than conspecific distances, and a DNA barcoding gap was observed. The tree constructed using maximum likelihood clearly displayed phylogenetic signals at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicated that DNA barcodes served as a valuable tool for studying fish diversity and also for the identification and discovery of fish species in the Persian Gulf. The database developed during this study will contribute to assessing fish biodiversity, conservation, and fisheries management.
Resumen La restricción hídrica es un aspecto limitante del cultivo del viñedo en muchas regiones, por lo que el riego constituye uno de los principales factores determinantes de su desarrollo en muchas zonas, que ha sido estudiado en diferentes ámbitos, pero la frecuencia de aplicación del riego, que afecta a su distribución en el suelo y puede influir en el comportamiento del viñedo, no ha sido suficientemente evaluada, por lo que su estudio resulta de gran interés en diversas condiciones de cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos de cuatro frecuencias de riego deficitario del 30% ET0: 7 riegos por semana (T01), 2 riegos por semana (T03), 1 riego por semana (T07) y 1 riego cada dos semanas (T15), en la producción de uva y la composición de la baya. El experimento se desarrolló durante los años 2021 y 2022, en viñedos de Garnacha Tinta (en Badajoz: T03, T07, T15), Tempranillo (en Valladolid: T03, T07, T15), Syrah (en Albacete: T03 y T07) y Mencía (en Lugo: T01, T03, T07). Tanto la producción como la composición de la uva fueron determinadas en vendimia. Las diferentes frecuencias de riego han repercutido en el rendimiento y la calidad de la uva de forma variable según la variedad, la localización y el año. La producción de uva y la madera de poda se vieron ligeramente favorecidos por la frecuencia T07 con respecto a T03 en Garnacha y, sólo en la producción, en Tempranillo, mientras que ocurrió lo contrario en Syrah y Mencía. La concentración de azúcares se vio ligeramente favorecida por la frecuencia T07 en Syrah y, parcialmente, en Tempranillo. El pH del mosto no ofreció una respuesta apreciable derivada de la frecuencia de riego. La acidez total mostró valores ligeramente superiores de T07 en Garnacha y Tempranillo, pero algo más altos de T03 en Syrah y Mencía. El ácido tartárico apenas presentó una ligera tendencia favorable a T07 en Garnacha, mientras que el ácido málico mostró una tendencia ligeramente favorable a T07 en Garnacha y Mencía, pero beneficiosa para T03 en Syrah. El contenido de potasio y de polifenoles totales ofreció una clara variabilidad entre frecuencias de riego en general, aunque el primero mostró un ligero aumento del T03 con respecto al T07 en Mencía y el segundo un ligero aumento del T07 frente al T03 en Syrah. En definitiva, los efectos productivos y cualitativos derivados de la frecuencia de riego aplicada han tenido un alcance reducido, que, sin embargo, puede variar moderadamente en función de la variedad y del año.
Introduction Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin fragility and blister formation. The phenotypic presentation is broad with four major types, being Recessive Dystrophic EB (RDEB) the most severe, including oral anomalies such as severe microstomia, ankyloglossia, vestibule obliteration and occlusal anomalies, turning orthodontic treatment into a challenge. Aim This case report aims to present the comprehensive treatment of a patient with severe RDEB, including periodontal surgery, orthodontic fixed braces with mini‐screws and oral rehabilitation with anterior veneers. Case Report A 27‐year‐old female patient with severe RDEB received orthodontic treatment in the upper jaw to improve malalignment and anterior crossbite. After 13 months of treatment with fixed appliances, miniscrews were placed in the anterior segment to intrude and procline the upper incisors. Oral surgery was performed to increase the vestibule depth of the upper lip. Once edge‐to‐edge occlusion was obtained, anterior veneers were placed to improve aesthetic and stabilize occlusion, especially with the lack of posterior support. Discussion The multidisciplinary treatment approach, involving orthodontic treatment, periodontal surgery and oral rehabilitation, played a crucial role in achieving favorable results. This case highlights the successful use of miniscrews as a viable orthodontic approach for patients with severe RDEB.
The following paper presents an analysis of the term ‘ oppidum ’, discussing its value for understanding social complexity in Iron Age Europe. Throughout this paper, the most relevant debates regarding the oppida and their value are synthesized from a semiotic point of view. Key features such as urban planning, social hierarchies and political centralization are analysed to frame research in terms of Iron Age mentalities and cultural diversity. Accordingly, the ‘ oppidum ’ is assessed as a conceptual tool, weighing its appropriateness as a wide‐ranging concept in the European Iron Age. Several criteria, such as urban planning, the role of memory or religion, and the creation of large public and assembly places, among others, are explored as proxies of social legitimation. These key aspects aim to define some traits to set the oppidum as a useful and organic archaeological term without undermining cultural specificities.
Electroactive organic materials have received much attention as alternative electrodes for metal-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity, resource availability, and environmental friendliness. In particular, redox-active covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have recently emerged as promising electrodes due to their tunable electrochemical properties, insolubility in electrolytes, and structural versatility. In this Highlight, we review some recent strategies to improve the energy density and power density of COF electrodes for lithium batteries from the perspective of molecular design and electrode optimisation. Some other aspects such as stability and scalability are also discussed. Finally, the main challenges to improve their performance and future prospects for COF-based organic batteries are highlighted.
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